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Part IIIb: Review of Guidelines for Strategic Networks Student without fluency in textbook use.

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Presentation on theme: "Part IIIb: Review of Guidelines for Strategic Networks Student without fluency in textbook use."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part IIIb: Review of Guidelines for Strategic Networks Student without fluency in textbook use

2 Principle II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Guideline 4: Provide options for physical action 4.1 Options in the mode of physical response 4.2 Options in the means of navigation 4.3 Options for accessing tools and assistive technologies Guideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluency 5.1 Options in the media for communication 5.2 Options in the tools for composition and problem solving 5.3 Options in the scaffolds for practice and performance Guideline 6: Provide options for executive functions 6.1 Options that guide effective goal-setting 6.2 Options that support planning and strategy development 6.3 Options that facilitate managing information and resources 6.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress

3 Strategic Networks Guideline 4: Provide options for physical action 4.1 Options in the mode of physical response 4.2 Options in the means of navigation 4.3 Options for accessing tools and assistive technologies

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5 Strategic Networks Guideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluency 5.1 Options in the media for communication 5.2 Options in the tools for composition and problem solving 5.3 Options in the scaffolds for practice and performance

6 The Problem of Ruth: Individual Differences 2

7 Strategic Networks Guideline 6: Provide options for executive functions 6.1 Options that guide effective goal-setting 6.2 Options that support planning and strategy development 6.3 Options that facilitate managing information and resources 6.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress

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9 Strategic Networks Guideline 6: Provide options for executive functions At the highest level of the human capacity to act skillfully are the so-called "executive functions." Associated with prefrontal cortex in the brain, these capabilities allow humans to overcome impulsive, short-term reactions to their environment and instead to set long-term goals, plan effective strategies for reaching those goals, monitor their progress, and modify strategies as needed. Of critical importance to educators is the fact that executive functions have very limited capacity and are especially vulnerable to disability. This is true because executive capacity is sharply reduced when: 1) executive functioning capacity must be devoted to managing "lower level" skills and responses which are not automatic or fluent (due to either disability or inexperience) and thus the capacity for "higher level" functions is taken; and 2) executive capacity itself is reduced due to some sort of higher level disability or to lack of fluency with executive strategies.

10 Strategic Networks The UDL approach typically involves efforts to expand executive capacity in two ways: 1) by scaffolding lower level skills so that they require less executive processing; and 2) by scaffolding higher level executive skills and strategies so that they are more effective and developed. Previous guidelines have addressed lower level scaffolding, this guideline addresses ways to provide scaffolding for executive functions themselves.

11 How do you decide what to scaffold?

12 Executive Functions Skills and Fluency Motor Abilities

13 How do you decide what to scaffold? Executive Functions Skills and Fluency Motor Abilities It depends on WHAT the Goal is!

14 Goals Materials Methods Assessment Executive Functions x Skills and Fluency Motor Abilities The Goal affects all of the other choices in the curriculum.

15 Lets Think about Assessment

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17 Goals Materials Methods Assessment Executive Functions x Skills and Fluency Motor Abilities It depends on WHO is learning.

18 Goals Materials Methods Assessment Executive Functions x Skills and Fluency Motor Abilities

19 Goals Materials Methods Assessment Executive Functions Skills and Fluency x Motor Abilities

20 Principle II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Guideline 4: Provide options for physical action 4.1 Options in the mode of physical response 4.2 Options in the means of navigation 4.3 Options for accessing tools and assistive technologies Guideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluency 5.1 Options in the media for communication 5.2 Options in the tools for composition and problem solving 5.3 Options in the scaffolds for practice and performance Guideline 6: Provide options for executive functions 6.1 Options that guide effective goal-setting 6.2 Options that support planning and strategy development 6.3 Options that facilitate managing information and resources 6.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress

21 Strategic Networks 6.1 Options that guide effective goal-setting When left on their own, most students – especially those who are immature or who have disabilities that affect executive function – set learning and performance goals for themselves that are inappropriate or unreachable. The most common remedy is to have adults set goals and objectives for them. That short-term remedy, however, does little to develop new skills or strategies in any student, and does even less to support students with executive function weaknesses. A UDL approach embeds graduated scaffolds for learning to set personal goals that are both challenging and realistic right in the curriculum

22 Strategic Networks 6.1 Options that guide effective goal-setting Examples: Prompts and scaffolds to estimate effort, resources, and difficulty Models or examples of the process and product of goal-setting Guides and checklists for scaffolding goal-setting

23 Strategic Networks 6.2 Options that support planning and strategy development Once a goal is set, effective learners and problem-solvers plan a strategy for reaching that goal. For young children in any domain, older students in a new domain, or any student with one of the disabilities that compromise executive functions (e.g. ADHD, ADD, Autism Spectrum Disorders), the strategic planning step is often omitted and impulsive trial and error trials take its place. To help students become more plan-full and strategic a variety of options – cognitive "speed bumps" that prompt them to "stop and think;" graduated scaffolds that help them actually implement strategies; engagement in decision-making with competent mentors – are needed.

24 Strategic Networks 6.2 Options that support planning and strategy development Examples: Embedded prompts to "stop and think" before acting Checklists and project planning templates for setting up prioritization, sequences and schedules of steps Embedded coaches or mentors that model think-alouds of the process Guides for breaking long-term goals into reachable short-term objectives

25 Strategic Networks 6.3 Options that facilitate managing information and resources One of the limits of executive function is that imposed by the limitations of so-called working memory. This "scratch pad" for maintaining chunks of information in immediate memory where they can be accessed as part of comprehension and problem-solving is very limited for any student and even more severely limited for many students with learning and cognitive disabilities. As a result, many such students seem disorganized, forgetful, unprepared. Wherever short-term memory capacity is not construct-relevant in a lesson, it is important to provide a variety of internal scaffolds and external organizational aids – exactly those kinds that executives use – to keep information organized and "in mind."

26 Strategic Networks 6.3 Options that facilitate managing information and resources Examples: Graphic organizers and templates for data collection and organizing information Embedded prompts for categorizing and systematizing Checklists and guides for note-taking

27 Strategic Networks 6.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress Many students seem relatively unresponsive to corrective feedback or knowledge of results. As a result they seem "perseverative," careless or unmotivated. For these students all of the time, and for most students some of the time, it is important to ensure that options can be customized to provide feedback that is more explicit, timely, informative, and accessible (see representational guidelines above and guidelines for affective feedback.). Especially important is providing "formative" feedback that allows students to monitor their own progress effectively and to use that information to guide their own effort and practice.

28 Strategic Networks 6.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress.4 Options that enhance capacity for monitoring progress Examples: Guided questions for self-monitoring Representations of progress (e.g. before and after photos, graphs and charts showing progress over time) Templates that guide self-reflection on quality and completeness Differentiated models of self-assessment strategies

29 Picasso The Early Years Picasso — the early years, M. McCully (Ed.) Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art

30 Study of a Torso, after a Plaster Cast years old

31 Old Fisherman years old

32 Lola years old

33 Portrait of Joseph Cardona years old

34 Spanish Couple Before an Inn years old

35 Bullfight years old

36 Moulin de la Galette years old

37 Montmartre Street Scene years old

38 Stuffed Shirts years old

39 Blue Roofs years old

40 On the Upper Deck years old

41 Still Life years old

42 Woman with Cape years old

43 Boulevard de Clichy years old

44 Fourteenth of July years old

45 Casagemas in Coffin years old

46 Head of the Dead Casagemas years old

47 Self Portrait years old

48 Sainte-Lazare Woman by Moonlight years old

49 Mother and Child by a Fountain years old

50 Affective Systems

51 Affective Networks

52 Limbic system movie Amygdala moviehttp://dev.cast.org/castweb/i media/upload/amygtrans%2Emov -http://dev.cast.org/castweb/i media/upload/amygtrans%2Emov -

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55 Bottom up influences on emotion a la LedouxBottom up influences on emotion a la Ledouxwww.cns.nyu.edu/ho me/ledoux/

56 When the cortex has received and processed a sensory stimulus indicating a reward, it sends a signal announcing this reward to a particular part of the midbrain– the ventral tegmental area (VTA)–whose activity then increases. The VTA then releases dopamine not only into the nucleus accumbens, but also into the septum, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminethe amygdala

57 When the cortex has received and processed a sensory stimulus indicating a reward, it sends a signal announcing this reward to a particular part of the midbrain– the ventral tegmental area (VTA)–whose activity then increases. The VTA then releases dopamine not only into the nucleus accumbens, but also into the septum, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminethe amygdala

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62 The Affective McGurk Effect

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66 Copyright ©2007 Society for Neuroscience Johnstone, T. et al. J. Neurosci. 2007;27: Figure 1. Activation in IFG when downregulating emotional responses to negative pictures versus attending to negative pictures

67 Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction F. Xavier Castellanosa,, Edmund J.S. Sonuga- Barkea, b, Michael P. Milhama and Rosemary Tannockca abac Trends in Cognitive Sciences Volume 10, Issue 3Trends in Cognitive Sciences Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages

68 One of the most important conclusions from research is that for children with learning problems, learning is hard work. A corollary to this finding is that for their teachers, instruction is very hard work and requires an enormous amount of training and support. Children who have difficulty learning to read or completing mathematics problems will likely not benefit from “more of the same” but require an alternative method of teaching to assist their learning. Neuropsychological Aspects for Evaluating Learning Disabilities Margaret Semrud-Clikeman JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES VOLUME 38, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2005, PAGES 563–568

69 Given the findings from the neuroimaging and neuropsychological fields of deficient performance on measures of working memory, processing speed, auditory processing ability, and executive functions, evaluation of these skills is necessary to determine the most appropriate program to fit the individual child’s need. The danger with not paying attention to individual differences is that we will repeat the current practice of simple assessments in curricular materials to evaluate a complex learning process and to plan for interventions with children and adolescents with markedly different needs and learning profiles. Neuropsychological Aspects for Evaluating Learning Disabilities Margaret Semrud-Clikeman JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES VOLUME 38, NUMBER 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2005, PAGES 563–568

70 Working memory The relationship between working memory skills and performance on national curriculum assessments in English, mathematics and science was explored in groups of children aged 7 and 14 years. At 7 years, children's levels of attainment in both English and mathematics were significantly associated with working memory scores, and in particular with performance on complex span tasks. At 14 years, strong links persisted between the complex working memory test scores and attainments levels in both mathematics and science, although ability in the English assessments showed no strong association with working memory skill. The results suggest that the intellectual operations required in the curriculum areas of mathematics and science are constrained by the general capacity of working memory across the childhood years. However, whereas success in the acquisition in literacy (tapped by the English assessments at the youngest age) was also linked with working memory capacity, achievements in the higher- level skills of comprehension and analysis of English literature assessed at 14 years were independent of working memory capacity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Working memory skills and educational attainment: evidence from national curriculum assessments at 7 and 14 years of ageSusan E. Gathercole 1 *, Susan J. Pickering 2, Camilla Knight 2, Zoe Stegmann 2

71 What to consider in any assessment…1) Representation Perceptual Vision Hearing Language and Symbols Decoding Vocabulary English Language Cognitive Background knowledge Critical Features Information Processing Memory and Transfer Construct Construct Relevant Irrelevant

72 What to consider in any assessment…2) Expression Physical Action Response mode Navigation Expressive skills and fluency Use of specific medium Use of specific tools Use of scaffolds Executive Goal setting Planning and strategizing Managing resources Monitoring progress Construct Construct Relevant Irrelevant

73 What to consider in any assessment…3) Affect Recruiting interest choice relevance threats and distractions Sustaining effort maintaining salience of goal level of challenge collaboration mastery-oriented feedback Self-Regulation setting own goals coping skills self assessment/reflection Construct Construct Relevant Irrelevant

74 Zoom In: Additional KSAs Additional KSAsDescriptionConstruct Relevant? Perceptual ProcessingVisual ability, Visual Discrimination, Visual Acuity, Color perception Yes No Motoric ProcessingObject manipulation, Strength and mobility, Navigation abilities, Automaticity, Production dexterity Yes No Linguistic ProcessingEnglish proficiency, Decoding and fluency, Vocabulary knowledge, Syntactic skills Knowledge of text structures Yes No Cognitive ProcessingBackground knowledge, Comprehension strategies, Categorical/conceptual skills, Interaction strategies, Planning and organizing, Concentration, Medium familiarity, Writing fluency Yes No Executive ProcessingGoal setting, Goal maintenance and adjustment, Progress monitoring, Working memory Yes No Affective ProcessingSelf-regulation, Intrinsic task specific motivation, Extrinsic incentives, Test conditions Yes No


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