13The Nervous System and Beyond… Endocrine SystemHormonesPituitary glandAdrenal glandsGender effects
14Medulla Thalamus Reticular formation Cerebellum Amygdala Hypothalamus Get into small groups and determine how each of the following parts of the brain may be active while driving a car. Keep in mind that some structures might be more active under certain driving conditions, whereas others may be active regardless of conditions.MedullaThalamusReticular formationCerebellumAmygdalaHypothalamusHippocampusFrontal lobesParietal lobesOccipital lobesTemporal lobesMotor cortexSensory cortex
19Substantia NigraPlays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement
20The Limbic SystemThe Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.Preview Question 6: What are the functions of limbic system structures?
21AmygdalaThe Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger.
22HypothalamusThe Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
37Group ActivityList the five most essential structures of the brain and the five least essential
38The Setting: You are a famous neurosurgeon who specializes in brain damage involving the language system. In each of the following cases, make a “diagnosis” concerning where you believe brain damage has occurred.Case 1: A 56-year-old female has suffered a recent stroke. She speaks in a curious manner resembling fluent English but the phrases make no sense. You find that she comprehends your verbal or written instructions perfectly and can even write them down, but cannot repeat them verbally. You quickly diagnose the problem as a lesion in the _____________.
39Case 2: A mother brings her 7-year-old son to you because he is having serious problems in learning to read. At age 5 his corpus callosum was sectioned to prevent epileptic seizures. She points out that he is a very intelligent child and she cannot understand why reading is so difficult for him. You explain that his reading difficulties are probably related to the fact that _________.Case 3: An intelligent businessman comes to you and explains rather agitatedly that he awakened yesterday morning to find, much to his dismay, that he could no longer read. Your tests determine the following: a) He is totally blind in the right visual field. b) He speaks fluently and comprehends speech. c) He can write with his right hand but cannot read what he has written. d) He can copy written words but only with his left hand. You turn to your puzzled assistant and remark that this is indeed a tough one, but you are willing to bet that you will find brain damage in at least two areas, which are _______________ and __________________.