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Neuroscience and Consciousness

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Presentation on theme: "Neuroscience and Consciousness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Neuroscience and Consciousness

2 Neurons Neurons vary in size and shape
All are specialized to receive and transmit information


4 Synapse


6 The Neural Impulse

7 Take it to the Web Synapses The Neural Process Online Quiz

8 Types of Messages Excitatory messages Inhibitory messages

9 Types of Neurons

10 The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division



13 The Nervous System and Beyond…
Endocrine System Hormones Pituitary gland Adrenal glands Gender effects

14 Medulla Thalamus Reticular formation Cerebellum Amygdala Hypothalamus
Get into small groups and determine how each of the following parts of the brain may be active while driving a car. Keep in mind that some structures might be more active under certain driving conditions, whereas others may be active regardless of conditions. Medulla Thalamus Reticular formation Cerebellum Amygdala Hypothalamus Hippocampus Frontal lobes Parietal lobes Occipital lobes Temporal lobes Motor cortex Sensory cortex

15 The Brain

16 Web Information Brain model tutorial

17 Brainstem Thalamus Medulla

18 Cerebellum

19 Substantia Nigra Plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement

20 The Limbic System The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Preview Question 6: What are the functions of limbic system structures?

21 Amygdala The Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger.

22 Hypothalamus The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

23 Hippocampus

24 Neuroplasticity Neurogenesis


26 The Cerebral Cortex The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.

27 Lobes

28 The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
Preview Question 8: What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?


30 Lobes

31 The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.
Preview Question 8: What are the functions of the cerebral cortex?

32 Lobes


34 Lobes

35 Quiz Lobes of the Brain


37 Group Activity List the five most essential structures of the brain and the five least essential

38 The Setting: You are a famous neurosurgeon who specializes in brain damage involving the language system. In each of the following cases, make a “diagnosis” concerning where you believe brain damage has occurred. Case 1: A 56-year-old female has suffered a recent stroke. She speaks in a curious manner resembling fluent English but the phrases make no sense. You find that she comprehends your verbal or written instructions perfectly and can even write them down, but cannot repeat them verbally. You quickly diagnose the problem as a lesion in the _____________.

39 Case 2: A mother brings her 7-year-old son to you because he is having serious problems in learning to read. At age 5 his corpus callosum was sectioned to prevent epileptic seizures. She points out that he is a very intelligent child and she cannot understand why reading is so difficult for him. You explain that his reading difficulties are probably related to the fact that _________. Case 3: An intelligent businessman comes to you and explains rather agitatedly that he awakened yesterday morning to find, much to his dismay, that he could no longer read. Your tests determine the following: a) He is totally blind in the right visual field. b) He speaks fluently and comprehends speech. c) He can write with his right hand but cannot read what he has written. d) He can copy written words but only with his left hand. You turn to your puzzled assistant and remark that this is indeed a tough one, but you are willing to bet that you will find brain damage in at least two areas, which are _______________ and __________________.

40 Methods of Studying the Brain
p. 35

41 Consciousness An organism’s awareness of itself and surroundings
Not all-or-none; rather, more on a continuum

42 Attention Selective Attention

43 Dichotic Listening Technique

44 Attention Selective Attention Cocktail-Party Effect


46 Attention Selective Attention Cocktail-Party Effect Automaticity
Divided attention task

47 Sleep Brain processes external information
Brain processes internal information Body remains active In general, can be easily awakened

48 Stages of Sleep Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stages of sleep

49 Sleep Deprivation REM deprivation Delta deprivation

50 Why do we sleep? Restorative/recuperative therapy
(sleep protects) Evolutionary/Circadian theory (sleep helps us recover) Sleep helps us remember Sleep may play a role in the growth process

51 Sleep Disturbances Parasomnias Nightmares Night Terrors Sleepwalking
Sleeptalking Insomnia Sleep Apnea Narcolepsy

52 Nature and Function of Dreams
Psychodynamic view Freud Wish fulfillment Unconscious Manifest content Latent content

53 Nature and Function of Dreams
Information Processing Dreams of absent-minded transgression DAMIT Physiological/Biological View Activation-synthesis hypothesis Cognitive View

54 The Brain and Sleep REM  pons/acetylcholine
Initiation/duration  serotonin Wakefulness/arousal  norepinephrine, dopamine

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