2 What is language?This is a question we asked the TC’s to contemplate on the first day of 270H Language, Culture and Learning.In a small group of 2-3, brainstorm what you think “language” is.
3 Underlying assumptions about language… Group repsonse…TC’s responses…Webster’s definition: words, their pronunciation and the methods used to combine them and be understood by a community
4 We asked TC’s to consider these questions in terms of "language” Why?How?When/Where/Who?
5 These are the things we talked about this summer…. Why?PurposesHow?GrammarPronunciationWhen/Where/Who?CommunicativeCompetence
6 This is what we are talking about now… Why?PurposesFunctionsHow?GrammarPronunciationFormsWhen/Where/Who?CommunicativeCompetenceFluency
7 So… What is Academic Language???? Given what you now know about what the TC’s know about language,In your same small group of 2-3, brainstorm what you think “ academic language” is and how it might differ from “social language.”
8 Functions, Forms & Fluency Dutro & Moran (2003) introduce the notions of functions (tasks), forms (tools) and fluency (derived from opportunities to practice).
9 Developing Academic Language: Functions, Forms & Fluency Functions (Dutro & Moran, pp )The tasks or purposes AND uses of language.We use language to accomplish something in formal or informal settings, for social or academic purposes.Social purposes include: exchanging greetings, expressing needs, making jokes, exchanging greetings, indicating agreement or disagreement, participating in personal conversations, etc.
10 Academic Language Functions Dutro & Moran Navigating written textAsking/answering informational questionsAsking/answering clarifying questionsRelating informationComparing and contrastingExplaining cause and effectJustifying and persuadingDrawing conclusionsSummarizingEvaluatingConducting research
11 Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Chamot & O’Malley (1994) suggest that academic language instruction and opportunities for practice should be integrated with academic content instruction.They also introduce the notion of academic language functions, “the tasks language users must be able to perform in the different content areas” (p. 40).
12 Academic Language Functions Chamot and O’Malley Seek Information - use who, what, when, where, howInform - recount information or retellCompare - explain graphic organizer showing contrastOrder - describe timeline, continuum or cycleClassify - describe organizing principlesAnalyze - describe features or main ideaInfer - generate hypotheses to suggest cause/outcomesJustify & Persuade - give evidence why “A” is importantSolve Problems - describe problem-solving proceduresSynthesize - summarize information cohesivelyEvaluate - identify criteria, explain priorities, etc.
13 Function: Comparing/Contrasting Dutro & Moran, p. 237 (Figure 10.6) Beg: big oceansmall lakeEI: An ocean is big.A lake is small.Int: An ocean is larger than a lake.EA: An ocean is enormous compared with a lake.Adv: An ocean is vast. Even the largest lake is small by comparison.
14 Forms Grammatical features and word usage. The tools necessary for discourse, for reading and writing, for using complex language and for engaging in cognitive processes.
16 Language Universals-Structures the sound system, called phonologythe rules of word formation, called morphologythe system of meanings, called semanticsand the rules of sentence formation, called syntax.”
17 Forms include: Dutro & Moran, p. 237 Parts of speechVerb tensesSubject/verb agreementUse of pronounsConjunctionsSentence structure & syntaxBrick and mortar words/phrases
18 Brick and Mortar Dutro & Moran, p. 239 “Brick” words are the vocabulary specific to the content and the concepts being taught.They include such words as: government, democracy, line, tone, mitosis, anaphase, metaphor, theme. subjunctive, variable, algorithm, etc.
19 Brick and Mortar Dutro & Moran, p. 239 “Mortar” words and phrases are the basic and general utility vocabulary required for constructing sentences. They are words that determine relationships between and among words. They are words that hold our language together and are essential to comprehension. (Dutro & Moran, p. 239)
20 Mortar Words & Phrases - Dutro & Moran, pages 239-240 Connecting words: because, then, but, sometimes, before, therefore, however and whereasPrepositions and prepositional phrases: on, in, under, behind, next to, in front of, between, among and in the backgroundBasic regular and irregular verbs: leave, live, eat, use, saw, and wentPronouns: she, he, his, their, it, each other, and themselvesAcademic vocabulary: notice, think, analyze, plan, compare, proof, and characteristics
21 Brick and Mortar Compare/Contrast Marine mammalsOcean fishExcellentSwimmersVertebratesLive ingroupsBorn aliveLungsWarm bloodedProduce milkBorn from eggsGillsCold bloodedDo not produce milk
22 Mortar Words Compare/Contrast Sentence Frame:________ have __________, whereas________ have _____________.Marine mammals have lungs, whereas ocean fish have gills.Providing the mortar words will enable students to use language to compare and contrast.
23 Fluency (Dutro & Moran, p. 242) The facility with which a speaker, reader and writer uses language.Developed through focused and deliberate engagement with a range of uses of language (both oral and written), and many opportunities to practice the newly learned forms in different contexts.
25 Application ActivityYou are going to further explore functions and forms.With a partner, determine whether each item on the list is a language function or a grammatical form. Note this in the second column.Match each function to the grammatical form needed to express it and record this in the third column.Finally, with another pair, generate ideas for how you might address each of the function/form pairs. In other words, how might you teach this?
26 General Principles Dutro & Moran, pages 242-243 Build on students’ prior knowledgeLanguage and content knowledgeCreate meaningful contextsProvide comprehensible input and model formsProvide opportunities for application & practiceEstablish positive environment with clear goals and constructive feedbackReflect on the forms of language and the process of learning