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DYSLEXIA Northwest ISD Characteristics Testing Diagnosing Effective Strategies Accommodations.

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Presentation on theme: "DYSLEXIA Northwest ISD Characteristics Testing Diagnosing Effective Strategies Accommodations."— Presentation transcript:

1 DYSLEXIA Northwest ISD Characteristics Testing Diagnosing Effective Strategies Accommodations

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3 Definition Texas law defines Dyslexia under the T exas Education Code as: Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio- cultural opportunity. (TEC Section )

4 Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. (Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).

5 “Specific Learning Disability” Not synonymous with the broad term of learning disabilities One specific type of learning disability

6 “Dyslexia is… neurological in origin.” Predisposition for dyslexia Often inherited Persists across the life-span

7 “…characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.” Accurate, rapid word recognition  fluency Accuracy & fluency  comprehension Varying degrees of difficulty with other language skills: such as –Reading –Writing –Spelling

8 “These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.” Unexplained difficulties Despite effective classroom instruction Not predicted by –Age –Cognitive ability –Other academic strengths

9 “These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.” Not a lack of intelligence or ability to learn Not a visual or hearing deficit

10 “a deficit in the phonological component of language” Language based disorder Weak phonological skills impede acquisition of reading abilities and other language skills

11 Phonological processing abilities include: Phonological awareness Rapid naming

12 Phonological awareness is: A sensitivity to or an explicit understanding of the sound structure of spoken words The ability to notice, think about, and manipulate the individual sounds

13 Phonologic Awareness Skills Rhyme and alliteration Blending Segmentation Manipulation

14 Rapid Naming is: Efficient retrieval from long term memory of phonological information; such as, –Individual sounds in words –Pronunciations of common word parts –Pronunciations of whole words An influence on reading fluency and rate

15 Facts About Phonological Processing Phonological processing skills are a better predictor of good reading than intelligence. Variation in phonological processing skills exists independent of intelligence. Deficiencies in phonological processing skills are related to linguistic experiences and genetic endowment.

16 Facts About Phonological Processing 40% of kindergartners begin school without adequate phonological processing skills. Growth of phonological processing depends on: –Type of reading instruction –Response to reading instruction

17 “ Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.” (Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 23, 2002)

18 In summary, dyslexia is… Difficulty in processing and producing print language Deficits in phonological awareness and rapid naming Poor application of phonics for decoding and encoding Struggle in using basic skills in a fluent and accurate manner

19 Common Signs of Dyslexia K-4 Learns the alphabet later and confuses associated sounds Learns letter-sound relationships only with explicit instruction Difficulty with holding sounds/words in memory (phonological memory) Confuses common sight words and difficulty with rapid naming Difficulty reading words in isolation or decoding unfamiliar words

20 Common Signs of Dyslexia K-4 Makes frequent reading and spelling errors Difficulty with segmenting, blending, manipulating sounds Has poor or slow handwriting & difficulty copying Struggles with reading comprehension and written expression Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension

21 What about reversals? Reversals are more frequent and persistent. Reversals are not the cause of dyslexia

22 Common Signs of Dyslexia Grades Use of less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell Still reads below grade level Requires specific instruction to learn decoding/spelling strategies Avoids reading aloud / Avoids reading Avoids high volumes of reading or writing compositions Comprehends below listening comprehension level Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension

23 Common Signs of Dyslexia High School and Adult Difficulty with word retrieval and spoken vocabulary Avoids reading books independently / difficulty with reading demands of multiple course requirements Difficulty with note-taking Continues to spell incorrectly Difficulty with written production / Avoids writing whenever possible Finds unique ways to cope with reading and writing tasks

24 Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz, M. D.

25 Identification of Dyslexia

26 Cognitive Academic Ability Measure or document other cognitive and/or academic abilities (intelligence, problem solving, reasoning, listening comprehension, and/or mathematics. Look for characteristics of dyslexia to be unexpectedly low for the student’s age and in contrast to intelligence and other cognitive and academic abilities. Other considerations of coexisting factors/complications: –Oral Language / Speech Concerns –Attention –Handwriting –Vision / Hearing –Attendance –Family History –Behavioral/Emotional Concerns –Motivation

27 Underlying Causes Measuring the underlying causes of dyslexia through Phonological Processing Skills: –Phonemic Awareness -Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness) / Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds –Phonological Memory – Holding information about sounds and words in memory –Rapid Naming - Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet

28 Characteristics Measure the primary reading and spelling characteristics of dyslexia including: Single word decoding / words in isolation Word recognition / decoding unfamiliar words Oral reading accuracy and rate (fluency-slow, inaccurate, or labored) Spelling

29 Outcomes Determine the outcomes of the reading and spelling problems by measuring: Reading Comprehension –Word Comprehension –Passage Comprehension –Oral Reading Comprehension Written Expression Recognize that the degree of difficulty will be variable for individual students.

30 Co-Existing Complications or Assets Measure or observe development in areas that may complicate dyslexia or represent an asset for the student. Common co-existing deficits are: other language-based delays & attention problems Common co-existing assets are: good reasoning & mathematics skills

31 School-based Identification of Dyslexia Parent/Teacher Conference Student Support Team 504 Referral Process Data Gathering & Parent Permission Standardized Testing Test Interpretation Campus committee determination

32 Data Gathering Grades Achievement Data and Trends Retention Information Language Proficiency Early Interventions & Special programs Vision/Hearing/Health Attendance Teacher Information Parent Information & Family History

33 Standardized Testing Phonological Processing Decoding Word Recognition Oral Reading Fluency Spelling Listening Comprehension Reading Comprehension Cognitive/Academic Ability

34 Dyslexia Instruction Components of Instruction include: –Phonemic Awareness – internal sound structure of words/units of sound/segments of spoken language –Sound-symbol association – speech sounds corresponding with letter/letter combinations –Syllabication – units of oral or written language –Orthography – written spelling patterns and rules –Morphology – units of meaning through base words, prefixes, & suffixes –Syntax – sequence and order of words in a sentence to convey meaning –Reading Comprehension – extracting and constructing meaning –Reading Fluency – reading with speed and accuracy Reference: The Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2014The Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2014

35 Dyslexia Instruction Instructional Approaches include: –Explicit, direct instruction that is simultaneously systematic, sequential, multisensory, and cumulative through demonstration of the task and immediate corrective feedback –Diagnostic teaching to automaticity – prescriptive instruction that meet individual student needs of language and print concepts –Synthetic and Analytic – presenting parts of alphabetic language to form a whole and breaking down the whole word into its component parts Reference: The Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2014The Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2014

36 NISD Dyslexia Programs SIPPS Beginning, Extension, Challenge, or Plus Corrective Reading (Supplemental) Meadows Word Recognition and Fluency Meadows Vocabulary and Comprehension Leveled Literacy Intervention (Elementary only) Comprehension Toolkit (Secondary only) Literacy Navigator (Secondary only)

37 Classroom Accommodations Extended Time Oral Tests Use of a Computer Reduced Assignments Avoid Counting Off For Spelling Errors Use a Tape Recorder Dictate Responses Textbooks on Tape Organizers Opportunity to ask again for clarification of directions Allow 2 or more step directions to be written Check Often for Understanding Study Guides Read Material Aloud Hard Copy of Notes Outlines Alternate Assignments Assigning Work in Smaller Units Provide Lots of Encouragement

38 State Assessment Accommodations Accommodations for Reading –Orally reading portions of the test (as allowable by TEA) and reading questions and answer choices to students –Extending the testing time –Reference the Accommodations Triangle for more information Identified as having a disability that affects the examinee’s reading and who regularly receives this accommodation in the classroom. ARD Committee or Section 504 Committee as outlined in The 2014 Dyslexia Handbook. *All accommodations are Pending TEA Guidance and Approval

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