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Teaching Tips: Small things with Large effects (Extracts from a Noyce add-on class) Paul Heideman College of William & Mary 7 July 2011 NSF Noyce Conference,

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Tips: Small things with Large effects (Extracts from a Noyce add-on class) Paul Heideman College of William & Mary 7 July 2011 NSF Noyce Conference,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Tips: Small things with Large effects (Extracts from a Noyce add-on class) Paul Heideman College of William & Mary 7 July 2011 NSF Noyce Conference, Washington DC THE “NOTES” section of this PowerPoint has explanatory text.

2 From: a one-credit Noyce Add-on class “How Students Learn” (Biology 455) Format: - Readings, - Discussion - In-class exercises

3 Why Metacognition (understanding one’s own learning) may help students be better self-teachers and learners

4 Metacognition (understanding one’s own learning) may help students be better as self-teachers and learners Potentially true for: - Noyce Scholars & - their students Why

5 1.Can a child learn addition if they do not have fluent recall with understanding of the concepts of numbers 1 to 5, +, and = ? (in other words, if they memorize that 1 + 1 = 2, and 2 + 2 = 4, but do not understand the concept of 1, 2, +, =, or 4?) Yes/no because… 2. Can a student learn genetics if they do not have fluent recall with understanding of the concepts of allele, gene, genotype, and phenotype? Why Yes/no because… Workshop Exercise 1

6 1.Can a child learn addition if they do not have fluent recall with understanding of the concepts of numbers 1 through 5? (in other words, if they memorize that 1 + 1 = 2, and 2 + 2 = 4, but do not understand the concept of 1, 2, +, =, or 4?) 2. Can a student learn genetics if they do not have fluent recall with understanding of the concepts of allele, gene, genotype, and phenotype? Why Most of my college freshmen respond: ‘yes, if the student can answer questions correctly’ Ex. 1

7 Why Learn the following: Tribnagtion occurs in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. Exercise 2

8 Why Learn the following: Tribnagtion occurs in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. Catch my eyes when you have this memorized Exercise 2

9 Why Learn the following: Tribnagtion occurs in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. Exam question (choose the correct answer) 13. Tribnagtion occurs: (a) in grultons whenever the snignup is skortenated. (b) in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. (c) in skortens whenever the snignup is grultoned. (d) NONE of the above is a correct situation for tribnagtion. Exercise 2

10 Why This is an in-class exercise to get us (my class) thinking about learning. Ex. 1 Learn the following: Tribnagtion occurs in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. Exam question (choose the correct answer) 13. Tribnagtion occurs: (a) in grultons whenever the snignup is skortenated. (b) in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated. (c) in skortens whenever the snignup is grultoned. (d) NONE of the above is a correct situation for tribnagtion.

11 Learning is fluent recall with understanding Redrawn from “Fish is Fish” by Lionni, 1970 (a “Fish-understanding” of learning)

12 Figure 1.2 Learning is fluent recall with understanding (a “Fish-understanding” of learning)

13 Metacognition Thinking about how you think Concept for students

14 Metacognition Thinking about how you think Thinking about your own learning & Understanding your own learning Concept for students

15 Metacognition Thinking about how you think Thinking about your own learning Understanding your own learning …and because division is non-commutative, you know that X … afdkjaskdfjalskfd ! ? Concept for students

16 How do you know that you have learned … (fluent recall with understanding) Learning Workshop Exercise 2

17 How do you know that you have learned … (fluent recall with understanding) Addition, but not Tribnagtion (which as you know, will occur in snignups whenever the grulton is skortenated.) an in-class exercise to get us (my class) thinking about learning. Learning Workshop Exercise 2

18 Stages of memory (or types of memory/kinds of memory) Recognition memory (know it if you see it) Learning Workshop Exercise 3

19 Stages of memory (or types of memory/kinds of memory) Recognition memory (know it if you see it) Effortful recall (slowly, with concentration, from a trigger word) Learning Workshop Exercise 3

20 Stages of memory (or types of memory/kinds of memory) Recognition memory (know it if you see it) Effortful recall (slowly, with concentration, from a trigger word) Fluent recall (easily from a trigger word) Automatic recall (without trying) Learning Workshop Exercise 3

21 Stages of memory (or types of memory/kinds of memory) Recognition memory (know it if you see it) Effortful recall (slowly, with concentration, from a trigger word) Fluent recall (easily from a trigger word) Automatic recall (without trying) Learning Workshop Exercise 3

22 Stages of memory Recognition memory Effortful recall Fluent recall Automatic recall Learning Workshop Exercise 3 (A)Write down at least four things you have learned, at least one from each kind of memory. (When you have the four things, explain to your neighbor how you know which category of memory you have for each.)

23 Chunking Workshop Exercise 4

24 Try to sketch both

25 Chunking Workshop Exercise 4

26 Working Memory: 7 spaces (30 seconds) Working Memory & Chunks Concept for students

27 Working Memory: 7 spaces (30 seconds) Working Memory & Chunks One chunk (one space) Concept for students

28 Working Memory: 7 spaces (30 seconds) Working Memory & Chunks One chunk (one space) Three chunks (three spaces) Concept for students

29 Working memory capacity Workshop Exercise 5

30 Working memory capacity Workshop Exercise 6

31

32

33 Working memory capacity Workshop Exercise 6

34 Working memory capacity Workshop Exercise 5

35

36

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38 Working Memory

39 Excess Cognitive Load

40 Excess cognitive load Workshop Exercise 7 Know this figure for the exam

41 Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 8 AXYITGMOVWTUSXF Learn:

42 Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 8 AXYITGMOVWTUSXF AX

43 Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 8 AXYITGMOVWTUSXF AX – YITGMO

44 Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 8 AXYITGMOVWTUSXF AX – YITGMO – VW - TUSXF AX YITGMO VW TUSXF

45 ......... GnRH E E E M E Neg Feedback, result less GnRH (Less LH & FSH, but more LH & FSH receptors on oocyte & on support cells) Pos Feedback, Surge of LH! (& FSH)  high E stim Sex Behav High LH Surge - Cells separate - Mature oocyte oozes free E E E CG P Terms (for a folded list) GnRH (master H) Neg Feedback Inhibition Pituitary ‘Portal’ Blood vessels Pos Feedback Anterior Pituitary Gametogenesis Follicle Stimulating Horm. (FSH) Luteinizing Horm. (LH) Sex Steroid Secretion Follicle Oocyte Support cells M - Mature oocyte Ovulation Corpus Luteum (CL) Progesterone Estrogen Chorionic Gonadotropin Receptors (for GnRH, LH, FSH, E, P, & CG) Oviduct (Fallopian Tube) Uterus (& Uterine lining) P Embryo! Get ready! LH FSH ovum Too big to be a good minute sketch; needs to be separated into about 4 (or more) sketches: 1. GnRH to LH & FSH to gametogen. & E secr. & stim Ut lining 2. E negative & positive feedback on GnRH; & neg. feedback prevents new follicle growth 3. Pos feedback to GnRH & LH surge to cause ovulation & sex behavior 4. Emb. secr. CG to Corpus luteum & P secr. & maintenance of Ut. Lining & P neg feedback suppresses follicle growth (and when no P, then reabsorb/lose cells of Ut. Lining) If Neg Feedback from E or P, then lower GnRH so lower FSH, So no new follicles develop! CL You might be able to use this sketch along with ‘ retrieval practice ’ to get it all into fluent recall with understanding

46 E Developing egg cell (oocyte cell) Support cells for egg Estrogen from support cells E Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 9

47 Information Reduction Workshop Exercise 9 (In-class exercises: have students bring something they need to master from another class, and practice information reduction) Your confusing text or figure here

48 Applying Information Reduction Confused by content? Close my eyes—can I hold it in my head? No? Yes ? I need smaller chunks Information reduction (to chunks I know) A different problem (consider: failure of fluent recall with understanding?)

49 Minute Sketching Workshop Exercise 10 Objective: develop a sketch to represent any new chunk From any text or diagram, 1. List the important terms or events for the new chunk (each item on the list must be a chunk you already know) 2. Make a trial sketch or diagram that includes every term or thing on your list. Redraw to improve your sketch, keeping it as simple as possible 3. Check your sketch: can you (a) hold it easily in your mind with your eyes closed, and (b) can you sketch it (with practice) in less than a minute? (if not, then separate it into two or more sketches) 4. Test your understanding with “What if…” questions.

50 Minute Sketching Workshop Exercise 8 Nitrogen Cycle. Convert into one or more minute sketches

51 Important Information for Students Developing improved learning skills is like learning a sport, or dance, a new computer game, or a musical instrument. At first, we do things wrong. We feel dumb. We don’t think it’s working. If we practice well, with good coaching, we become an expert. The more complicated the task, the longer it takes. If we practice basketball or dance regularly over months or years, we become skilled. The same is true for learning.

52 Some Major Concepts from the class: 1.Chunking 2.Constructing more complex chunks out of simpler chunks 3.Working memory 4.Capacity of working memory 5.Cognitive overload 6.Information reduction and procedural rules 7.Practice 8.Transfer 9.Expertise (takes 10 years, 4 h/day, of interested, focused study & practice with good coaching) 10.Neurons and synapses 11.Memory pathways 12.Biology of short-term versus lasting memory 13.Memories built in different brain areas (loosely equivalent to cognitive domains) 14.Sleep and memory 15.Hippocampus-dependent (declarative) memory 16.Sequence and location memory (related to time-place memory) to expand working memory 17.Neostriatal cortex (skill/kinesthetic/muscle) memory 18.Amygdala-dependent (emotion/fear) memory 19.Combining working memory with sequence memory This was a fast tour through parts 1-6

53 More in: 1.How People Learn (Chapters 1-5; Bransford et al., 2000) 2.& a follow-up book, How Students Learn – both free on the web 3.Why Don’t Students Like School (Willingham 2009) -Readable and logical with useful insights, but not intended to provide specific in-class exercises for use with students 4.Illustrations and summary explanations written for this class, - Eventually a free textbook & instructor guide with in-class exercises; (working title: Memory and Learning: a practical guide for students - Available on the web in summer 2012 (if we stay on schedule)

54 Empty Memorizing …never ASK students for empty memorizing. Framed on my wall, to remind me…

55 Thanks! Funding: NSF Noyce program Jessie Ball duPont Fund, U.S. Dept of Education Howard Hughes Medical Institute Undergraduate Education Program Grant to the College of William & Mary

56 To compare importance of two concepts: Choose any two terms –Write (or sketch) each on a piece of scrap paper –Think of all related words FROM THAT CLASS, –And draw a line to the term The term with more connections –is very likely to be the most important –Master more important things first.


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