Presentation Outline Experts and Novices Learning and Transfer Children and Learning Common Themes
Experts and Novices: Six Key Points 1.Pattern Recognition 2.Knowledge and Organization of Subject Matter 3.Conditionalized Knowledge 4.Effortless Retrieval / Fluency 5.Pedagogical Knowledge versus Subject Knowledge 6.Adaptive Expertise and Metacognition
1. Pattern Recognition Expert 2:... I haven't heard a bell, but the students are already at their desks and seem to be doing purposeful activity, and this is about the time that I decide they must be an accelerated group... Experts quickly recognize patterns in data. Novice 1:... I can't tell what they are doing. They're getting ready for class, but I can't tell what they're doing.
1. Pattern Recognition Experts quickly recognize patterns in data.
2. Knowledge and Organization of Subject Matter Experts have deep knowledge organized around “big ideas”. Expert Novice
3. Conditionalized Knowledge Experts know “when, where and why” to use relevant knowledge. Exhaustive searches for relevant knowledge overwhelm working memory. So “conditionalize” knowledge on the contexts where it is useful.
4. Effortless Retrieval / Fluency Fluent knowledge retrieval allows experts to focus on the important parts of a problem. Just like language…
5. Pedagogical Knowledge versus Subject Knowledge Being an expert in an area is not the same as being a good teacher. Experts can forget what is difficult in learning their subject Pedagogical knowledge is more than just the facts Pedagogical knowledge varies across subjects
6. Adaptive Expertise and Metacognition Experts reflect on their own knowledge. “Artisans”, “Virtuosos” and “Accomplished Novices”
Learning and Transfer: Main Points 1.Memorization versus Transfer 2.Initial Learning 3.Feedback and Metacognition 4.Learning in Multiple Contexts 5.Previous Learning and Culture
1. Memorization versus Transfer Throwing darts underwater b h Area = h x b Learning geometry
Building a significant body of knowledge is important It takes time to integrate knowledge and to explore concepts 100,000 hours to become a chess master! 2. Initial Learning
3. Feedback and Metacognition Sometimes students need prompting to facilitate transfer: “Can you think of something you did earlier?” Make students aware of the problem-solving process
4. Learning in Multiple Contexts Over-contextualized knowledge makes transfer difficult Shared cognitive elements (versus shared surface structure) facilitate transfer Learning multiple word- processors
5. Previous Learning and Culture Avoiding Misinterpretation Building on Prior Knowledge Acknowledging Cultural Background
Children and Learning: Key Points 1.Privileged Domains 2.Learning Strategies and Metacognition 3.Guided Learning
1. Privileged Domains Physics Biology Numbers Language
2. Learning Strategies and Metacognition Information Processing –“Chunking” facts to deal with larger sets of information –Gradual development of metacognition –Children develop and use multiple strategies “Entity Theories” versus “Incremental Theories”
3. Guided Learning Scaffolding: Facilitating children’s interest and helping to manage forward progress Reading stories “Zone of Proximal Development”
Expert skills are things to be learned –Fluency requires background knowledge and time –Metacognition and Adaptive Expertise are as important as “the facts” –Conditionalized knowledge comes from applying knowledge to diverse situations
A Conversational Framework Diana Laurillard. Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology, 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 2002.