Items Strategies Many children (80%) will form a network of strategies no matter what program/method/ philosophy is used Struggling readers (20%) will have trouble constructing a network of strategies unless you teach FOR strategies.
What does the child do when he is stuck? Predict Search Self-Monitor Active or Passive Flexible Use multiple attempts Fluent in his problem-solving
How many? How often? Create a class; specify time of year Example: 23 students; Jan. of grade 1 5 above grade level – once a quarter 5 on grade level – one every 4 weeks 6 at Level 7/8 – one every 3 weeks 4 at Level 4/5 – one every 2 weeks 3 at Level 2/3 – one a week
Work with a partner on the separate sheet: What would you expect to see on a running record if a child is starting to gain control of: Predicting Searching & Gathering Using visual information Self-monitoring Using balance/cross-checking Linking Making multiple attempts
“The habit of linking needs to start early.” Lee Skandalaris We want kids to say, “this is like that.” “I have that word in my other book” ‘brother’ – that’s like Brian’s name This story is like that other book Hey, ‘shoe/too’ – they rhyme That word has ‘and’ in it ---standing
When reviewing running records, think about: What is the child able to do? What is his processing like? (think strategies) What does he do at the point of difficulty? What does he need to learn? How will you teach that? What prompt might you use? How will you determine if the child “took on” what you are teaching for? Was there a fluency issue? Was there a comprehension issue?
Fluency is not always coded on a running record, however… Put dashes under the check marks in a place where the student read in a very choppy manner. Loop several check marks together in a place where a student read in groups of words/fluently.
Comprehension is not marked/coded explicitly on a running record. However… Discussions with the student Self-monitoring behaviors Self-corrections Word substitutions The child’s phrasing The child’s reactions All of the above will give you indications of comprehension.
Teaching Points Immediately after the running record Looking for patterns across several running records
Think about: Did the child do well on the running record because you supported the process building well on the first read? OR because you gave lots of ‘tolds’ and she remembered them? Mary Fried RR conference presentation
No control partial control full control control with automaticity
With a partner, choose one of the following scenarios. Think about how you will teach this child. Consider modeling, shared demonstrations, guided practice, prompts for 1:1 work, etc. Not self-monitoring; not checking on self Not using a balance of cues Not using proper pacing and phrasing Not using punctuation to help Not predicting at the word level Not using visual information effectively Not linking
Use the 3 questions – does it make sense, look right, sound right? Teach running your finger under the word. Teach rereading. Use the scaffolding symbol card. Ask “are you being the checker?” Discourage looking at you for confirmation. Repeat what the child said that made no sense. See chapters 5 & 6 in One Child at a Time Scenario: The child is not self-monitoring, not checking on himself.
Speed Accuracy Reading the punctuation Flow of the language Pacing Phrasing Intonation Expression Supports comprehension What does fluency mean?
Show the difference with her own writing. Help the child know when she is sounding smooth and fluent. Use prompts. Push behind the words with your thumb. Use sing-songy books; use a tape recorder. Watch the finger pointing. Read every other page of a familiar text. Teach how to use the punctuation. Mark running records for fluency and use it for teaching points. See chapter 4 in One Child at a Time. Scenario: Child is not fluent; reads in a choppy manner.
Shared Demonstrations for Fluency : Notice punctuation and other conventions when doing Shared Reading in Big Books or on charts. Put lifted text on the overhead projector from your read aloud text. Group words in a pocket chart.
Fluency prompts when doing any shared reading together: Did you sound smooth or choppy? Go back and put it all together. Make it sound like real talking.
Teach how words work; as opposed to word families Always have a white board handy You break the word; write it larger; give analogies Help them look for chunks, not letter by letter Repeat what they just said if they have a habit of putting in nonsense words; then ask “does that make sense?” Keep the use of visual information together with making meaning; if he can come close, he may get it with meaning. Say, “show me a part you’re sure of.” Scenario: Not using visual information effectively; no linking
Use the three questions to prompt with Prompt with the source of information he is not using Use a familiar big book and change a word Leave a blank in the Morning Message Teach/prompt with the strategic behavior card Find places in your running record to praise (where the child used M and S and SC with V or vice versa.) Scenario: Child is not integrating MSV; not using a balance of cues
Use a familiar Big Book and change a word Leave a blank in a Morning Message Teach what the symbols on the strategy card mean Balancing the sources of information:
Think about: Am I spending enough time with Shared Demonstrations? Am I looking for which kids need more “do it together with me” time? What is it that these struggling readers need? When planning my instruction, how can I think more about teaching for reading process?
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