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Theories of Stuttering Progression

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1 Theories of Stuttering Progression
Three Theories 1. Bluemel 2. Bloodstein’s 4 Stages 3. Van Riper’s Tracks

2 .simple disturbance in speech
Bluemel’s Theory Proposed in 1940’s Theory Primary Stuttering Secondary Stuttering AWARENESS Characteristics .simple disturbance in speech .effortless core behaviors Secondary behaviors avoidance struggle

3 Bloodstien’s 4 Stages Late 60’s 4 phases Phase I Preschool
Characteristics conic (repetitions) symptoms of phase tonic (hard contacts and prolongation's- not common fluent periods- usually episodic difficult situations-intensified by variable sources of communicative pressure awareness: does not react emotionally to self as a stuttered

4 Early Elementary School Characteristics
Bloodstein, Phase II Early Elementary School Characteristics clonic-repetitions tonic-hard contacts or associated mannerisms fluent periods-essentially chronic, may disappear briefly difficult situations: stuteresre primarily when he talks fast and gets excited stutters equally at home and school DISTINGUISHING characteristic awareness:thinks of himself as a stuttered types of words: major parts of speech concern: little or no concern except in severe cases

5 Junior High and High School Characteristics
Bloodsrtein, Phase III Junior High and High School Characteristics Clonic: fully developed stuttering with avoidance Tonic: see above Fluent Periods: chronic Difficult Situations: distinctly more difficult in some situations than others and is aware of the situations Awareness: aware and acknowledges as a person short coming Types of Words: feared words and sounds Emotional:: exasperation, avoidance and distrust little outward appearance of being troubled

6 Bloodstein, Phase IV Older Characteristics
Clonic/Tonic: same as Phase III Chronic Difficult Situations: vivid and continual anticipation Awareness: serious personal problem Fully developed symptomatology with avoidance, postponement, starters and release devices Definite emotional reactions: avoidance, embarrassment, fear

7 Van Riper’s 4 Tracks Developmental
reaction to Bloodstein’s unidimensional view desegregate grouping refer to handout

8 Track I, Typical Development of Stuttering
Previously fluent Gradual onset cyclic long remissions good articulation normal rte syllabic repetitions no tensions loci: first words, function words no awareness no frustration

9 Track II, Cluttering no awareness no frustration
Often late, at time of first sentences never very fluent gradual onset no remissions poor articulation fast spurts gaps, revisions, syllable and word repetitions no tensions no tremors loci: first words, long words scattered throughout sentence variable pattern no awareness no frustration

10 Track III, “Shocks and Frights”
Any age previously fluent sudden onset, often after trauma steady few short remissions normal articulation slow careful rate much tension tremors beginning of utterance, after pauses highly aware much frustration

11 Track IV, Purposeful Stuttering
Later, usually after 4 years previously fluent sudden onset erratic no remission normal articulation normal rate unusual behaviors variable tension normal speech is very fluent no frustration willing to talk, no evidence of fear

12 End of Lecture Notes

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