Presentation on theme: "Building Fluency and Comprehension with Word Sorts, Reader’s Theatre, and Text-Based Discussion Information based on Beck, I., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R.,"— Presentation transcript:
Building Fluency and Comprehension with Word Sorts, Reader’s Theatre, and Text-Based Discussion Information based on Beck, I., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Beck, I., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the Author. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Beck, I. & McKeown, M. (2001). Text Talk. The Reading Teacher, 55, 10-20. Beck, I. & McKeown, M. (2001). Text Talk. The Reading Teacher, 55, 10-20.
Today’s Objectives Describe aspects of fluency and how to build fluency in the primary grades Link fluency to comprehension Explore principles of text-based discussions Practice developing text-talk queries and follow-up support
Developing Fluent Readers with Word Study And Reader’s Theatre Developing Fluent Readers with Word Study And Reader’s Theatre
Phonics Fluency Word Recognition (Automaticity) –Sight words –High frequency words Word Identification Strategies –Decodable words Fluency (ASP) – Accuracy – Speed – Expression
How do you TEACH Word Identification Strategies (actively decoding words) Using (integrated) knowledge of – Phonics (sound-symbol correspondence) – Word families (onset & rime, then substitute onset) – Syllables (CVC, CV, open vs. closed patterns) – Root words and affixes (morphemes = meaning; prefixes and suffixes; greek and latin roots)
Assessing Word Identification –Running Records (word lists and words in context) –Names Test (phonics) –Speed Sorts - Fluent word identification = assessing automaticity!
Offset Weekly Plan for Differentiating Word Sort Instruction
Fluency Activities Eye-Voice Span (keep your eyes ahead of your voice) Phrasing & Pacing with Phrase Strips (first in isolation, then in context) Express Yourself (emotion card & sentence) Pacing with Maracas Flow with Beam Reading (flashlights to mark the smooth flow)
Fluent Word Recognition (automatically recognizing words with speed, accuracy, and phrasing ) How do you teach (not test) automatic and fluent word recognition? Itunes – Flat Stanley
Benefits of Reader’s Theatre FLUENCY > COMPREHENSION! Communication (Oral language, body language) Collaboration Experiential Learning with Multiple Intelligences Character Development (patience, perseverance) Creativity Sense of Community and Shared Experience Self-Awareness and Empathy for Others
Building Comprehension and Vocabulary with Text- Based Discussions
Goals of Traditional Comprehension Instruction Teach comprehension skills (e.g. finding the main idea) Assess whether students can apply a given skill Assess whether students have gained a specific meaning of a text Focused on mentioning vs. teaching Focused on remembering information vs. creating meaning
Traditional Patterns of Classroom Talk IRE (Initiate, Respond, Evaluate): (Dillon, 1998; Mehan, 1979) Teacher: What was Toad looking for? Student: His button. Teacher: That’s right. “Classroom quiz show”: Teachers act as quiz show hosts, asking questions that have one correct answer, which can usually be found right in the text (Roby, 1988). “Bull sessions”: Students offer opinions, but comments are not connected or responsive to what others are saying (Roby, 1988).
Choosing a Text to Read Aloud in Grades K-1 Texts should: –be I___________ C___________ to the students (harder than they could read on their own, but not so hard that they couldn’t understand them with scaffolding) –tell the story primarily through W______, rather than pictures –follow S_______ G_________ (setting, characters, plot: beg, mid, end)
Guided Reading/Word Study Instructional Reading Level Shared Reading/Text Talk Too difficult to read by self
Let’s watch a quick snippet – Beware of the Bears
Asking Questions According to Beck & McKeown (2001), what kinds of questions should we be asking to foster deeper understanding and discussion? Why?
Problem: Constrained/Closed Questions Harry the Dirty Dog
Solution: Ask Open Ended Questions to generate more discussion What’s going on? Why? What does that mean? What do you think? Multiple answers; students build off each other rather than always looking to the teacher (NOT I-R-E)
What’s going on with these questions? OPEN or CLOSED? What can you tell me about some of the characters? Who’s one of the main characters? What color is the train? What’s the train like? Would you want to be on that train? So what do you think about her as a person? So, is she more successful now? Does she feel better about herself?
How Discussion During Reading Helps Support Comprehension Discussion can link oral and written language –Students can think and talk about sophisticated texts even if they can’t read those texts themselves (read-aloud texts) –Discussion of texts provides students the opportunity to experience and use decontextualized language (ideas about something beyond the ‘here and now’; not just look at the pictures) –Models the process of “making meaning”
How Discussion During Reading Helps Support Comprehension Students can expand their vocabulary knowledge through discussion about texts The social context of the group can support student effort to comprehend text ideas. –An audience of peers can motivate students to talk –When students respond, they are modeling for other students, demonstrating how they are thinking and making sense of ideas
Preparing to Discuss a Text (Read-Aloud or Guided Reading) Read the book several times Identify the most important concepts students need to understand Take note of what might be confusing Based on ideas you have identified as important or confusing, decide what to talk about before reading
Designing A Text Talk Comprehension: Select points in the story where you will stop reading and ask a question Choose the questions you will ask (write each question on a Post-it note and insert it into the text) –Initial and Follow-Up Questions Vocabulary: Choose three or four vocabulary words that are interesting and useful (Beck’s “Tier 2” words) –Link to student friendly definitions and extended examples
Introducing the text Before reading, ask questions that focus on specific ideas that are relevant to understanding the story Help students connect what they know to what they will be reading Pre-reading discussions should be brief and specific. –Prolonged discussion can overemphasize the importance of what students already know (or think they know) about the content of the story (over-reliance on background knowledge) –Prolonged discussions can divert students’ attention away from what they might discover from the text (under-reliance on text)
Guidelines for Questions The questions teachers ask send messages to students about what’s important “What did Papa Bear do next? (Students need to remember the information) “What does this tell us?” (Students need to think about what they have understood) Develop open questions that require students to describe and explain text ideas –Avoid solely asking questions that require students to give one word answers or playback words from text
Responding to Student Comments (Following-up) The ways teachers respond to student comments send messages about what’s important and scaffold students constructing meaning from text –Repeating/rephrasing –Reinforcing (on the right track) –Marking (focus on certain ideas) –Turning back to student (why?)
Repeating or rephrasing Rephrasing what students are struggling to express or repeating a student comment –Acknowledges the importance of student comments –Encourages elaboration –Invites other students to connect to ideas Teacher: Why would she care whether or not he’s nice? Student: Because he might try to eat her. Teacher: He might try to do something bad to her.
Reinforcing Lets students know they are on the right track Teacher: Why are they worried? Student: They're probably looking for her. She hasn't been back. Teacher: We got it. That's right.
Marking Responding to student comments in a way that focuses on certain ideas. Lets students know that a particular idea is important to the discussion. Teacher: How has your opinion changed about Mr. Tumnus? Has anyone's opinion changed? Student: I think he's mean because the witch is making him. Teacher: You think he's mean because the witch is making him? That's an interesting point you just made. Maybe he's not so mean?
**Turning back Turning responsibility to students for thinking through idea, probing for elaboration, turning attention back to the text to make connections Student: He's trying to, like, make her do something that she won't do. Teacher: Why? Why do you think that? Student: Because he's, like, blowing that flute all the time. Teacher: You think there's something up with that flute? Student: I think that flute is magic. Teacher: You think the flute is magic. Does anyone remember what she said whenever they were about to go back to his place? Find it in your text.
A Tip About Using Background Knowledge During Read-Aloud When children use background knowledge rather than story information to answer questions… –Confirm knowledge, and then lead back to text “Yes, _____, you are right, but let’s think about what the story tells us about”
Let’s Look at Some Examples Jot down some notes: –What kinds of questions is the teacher asking? (rephrase, reinforce, mark, turn back) –How are students responding? One word? Long sentences? –How does the teacher help students construct meaning individually? build on previous students?
Make Way for Ducklings #1 Mr. and Mr. Mallard were looking for a place to live. But every time Mr. Mallard saw what looked like a nice place, Mrs. Mallard said it was no good. There were sure to be foxes in the woods or turtles in the water, and she was not going to raise a family where there might be foxes or turtles. So they flew on and on. (pg. 1-2)
Text Talk Example #1 Initial: (0pen) So, what’s the problem here? Response: The ducks can’t find a good place to live. Follow-up: (Turn back) But Mr. Mallard found two nice places – in woods and in the water - why weren’t they good places to live? Response: There were foxes and turtles there. Follow-up: (Reinforce) Yes, you are right – Mrs. Mallard said that those were no good. (Repeat and Turn back) So, why are foxes and turtles a problem?
Make Way for Ducklings #2 As soon as Mrs. Mallard and the ducklings were safe on the other side and on their way down Mount Vernon Street, Michael rushed back to his police booth. He called Clancy at headquarters and said: “There’s a family of ducks walkin’ down the street!” Clancy said: “Family of what” “Ducks!” yelled Michael. “Send a police car, quick!” (p. 34-36)
Text Talk Example #2 Initial: (0pen) So, what’s going on here? Response: Michael rushed back to ask the police station to send a police car. Follow-up: (Reinforce) Good. (Turn back) What do they need another police car for? Response: Maybe the ducks need help? Follow-up: (Reinforce) Yes, (Turn back) what do you think they might need help with? (Scaffold) Where do you think they might be headed next? Response: Oh, maybe they’re going to cross the road again in another place! Follow-up: (Reinforce) Good prediction Alex! (Set purpose) Let’s keep reading to find out if your prediction is right.
Make Way for Ducklings #3 Just as they were getting ready to start on their way, a strange enormous bird came by. It was pushing a boat full of people, and there was a man sitting on its back. “Good morning,” quacked Mr. Mallard, being polite. The big bird was too proud to answer. (pages 7-8)
Make Way for Ducklings #4 “I like this place,” said Mrs. Mallard as they climbed out on the bank and waddled along… “There are no foxes and no turtles, and the people feed us peanuts. What could be better?” But… ”Look out!” squawked Mrs. Mallard, all of a dither. “You’ll get run over!” And when she got her breath, she added, “This is no place for babies, with all those horrid things rushing about. We’ll have to look somewhere else. ”
Applying Text Talk Queries to your Assignment You will apply a similar sequence of queries to another text for your TextTalk Activity (a smaller version of the lesson plan) Keep in mind: Try your best to extend thinking, deepen comprehension, highlight tricky vocabulary and look across the text as a whole rather than ask questions like “What color was the red car?” or “finish the sentence…”
Text Talk Example #3 Initial: (0pen) Response: Follow-up: Response: Follow-up: Response:
Text Talk Example #4 Initial: (0pen) Response: Follow-up: Response: Follow-up: Response:
Homework Study for Quiz #2 (phonics patterns, word study practices, text-talk principles) Read WTW Ch 2 (Spelling Assessment) and Tompkins Ch. 3 (Literacy Assessment) Administer Elementary Spelling Inventory (p. 270) and bring 3 copies to class