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Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and Reflections on Module 4 Close and Critical Reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and Reflections on Module 4 Close and Critical Reading."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literacy in Action Module 5 Reading Fluency and Reflections on Module 4 Close and Critical Reading

2 CCR Reflection Share with your table partners the result of your work with close and critical reading. What did you notice about the students while employing close and critical reading? engagement thinking sharing

3 Revisiting Fluency in Adolescent Literacy Literacy in Action Module 5

4 Goals for Module 5 Participants will Be made aware of the importance of fluency development for adolescents. Learn strategies for developing fluency. Practice fluency assessments. National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11

5 Reading Fluency ~ A Bridge Between Decoding and Text Comprehension Readers must decode and comprehend to gather information from text. If the speed and accuracy of decoding words are hindered, comprehension is compromised. National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11

6 As fluent oral readers, we -chunk words into meaningful groups -vary the pitch and the intonation patterns of our voice -place stress on some words but not on others -punctuate our speech with pauses and rising inflections to indicate thought breaks or questions Effective oral readers can also transfer these skills to silent reading. Literacy Strategies for Grades 4 – 12, Karen Tankersley, ASCD (2005)

7 Fluency the ability to read text accurately and smoothly with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading. Fluent readers read text with appropriate automaticity rate/speed accuracy prosody proper intonation and expression variation in rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech (pitch, loudness, speed, rhythm, and pause), which provide the spoken equivalent of written text National Institute for Literacy, What Content Area Teachers Should Know about Literacy, p. 11

8 Your Turn… Read the following excerpt silently for one minute and count the number of words you were able to read. Record the number. Summarize what you have read. Share summary with a table partner. Excerpt from Pale Blue Dot by Carl Sagan First, Fluent readers read text with appropriate automaticity rate/speed accuracy

9 Reading Rates End of Grade Oral Reading Silent Reading Rates (WPM) Rates (WPM) Figure 6-8, Oral Reading Rates, Ch. 6 “Understanding the Fluent Reader” Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006) Determine where your rate falls on this grade level chart.

10 Fluency Challenges for Adolescent Readers Struggling readers -lack fluency, read slowly, and often stop to sound out words. -may reread sections of texts to gain comprehension. -may spend so much time and cognitive energy decoding individual words that their focus is drawn away from comprehension. “Important Transitions” Handout

11 Factors Influencing Fluency -the level of text difficulty -the degree of familiarity the reader has with the words, content, and genre of the text -the amount of practice with the text -the reader’s metacognitive abilities -the reader’s motivation and engagement

12 Your Turn Again… Read the article for one minute. “4-Strand DNA Structure Found in Cells” Count the words read. Compare this rate to the previous rate. What made this article more difficult to read? Discuss the differences with your table partners..

13 Fluent readers read with appropriate prosody proper intonation and expression variation in rhythmic and tonal aspects of speech (pitch, loudness, speed, rhythm, and pause), which provide the spoken equivalent of written text

14 “Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for HS Readers?” David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa Magpuri-Pavell, 2012 Dispelling misconceptions about fluency Multidimensional Fluency Scale Prosody and Silent Reading Comprehension scores Choosing materials for prosodic reading Wide and Deep Reading Assisted Reading Take Action – Choral Reading “Oral reading prosody is related to silent reading comprehension for secondary students”

15 Using the Multi-Dimensional Scale students read orally one of the passages to a reading partner. The partner uses the rubric to score the reader. This will be done twice. Assign a score (1 to 4 points) on each of 4 dimensions of fluency Expression and Volume Phrasing Smoothness Pace A score of ≥ 10 ~ making good progress in fluency A score of ≤ 8 ~ may need additional instruction in fluency

16 1234 Expression and Volume Reads in a quiet voice as if to get words out. The reading does not sound natural like talking to a friend. Reads in a quiet voice. The reading sounds natural in part of the text, but the reader does not always sound like they are talking to a friend. Reads with volume and expression. However, sometimes the reader slips into expressionless reading and does not sound like they are talking to a friend. Reads with varied volume and expression. The reader sounds like they are talking to a friend with their voice matching the interpretation of the passage. Phrasing Reads word-by-word in a monotone voice. Reads in two or three word phrases, not adhering to punctuation, stress and intonation. Reads with a mixture of run-ons, mid sentence pauses for breath, and some choppiness. There is reasonable stress and intonation. Reads with good phrasing; adhering to punctuation, stress and intonation. Smoothness Frequently hesitates while reading, sounds out words, and repeats words or phrases. The reader makes multiple attempts to read the same passage. Reads with extended pauses or hesitations. The reader has many “rough spots.” Reads with occasional breaks in rhythm. The reader has difficulty with specific words and/or sentence structures. Reads smoothly with some breaks, but self-corrects with difficult words and/ or sentence structures. Pace Reads slowly and laboriously. Reads moderately slowly.Reads fast and slow throughout reading. Reads at a conversational pace throughout the reading. FLUENCY RUBRIC Scores of 10 or more indicate that the student is making good progress in fluency. Score _________________ Scores at or below 8 may indicate that the student may need additional instruction in fluency.

17 Model Fluent Oral Reading Shared Reading (Handout) Pale Blue Dot (Excerpt) by Carl Sagan Read by Carl Sagan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nl5dlbCh8lY -Just listen to first reading -Note inflections, pauses, phrasing, emphasis -For second reading, follow along with transcript and take notes on the Multidimensional Fluency Rubric

18 Features of Fluency Prosodic Features Pitch, loudness, speed, pause Paralinguistic Features Whisper, breathiness, huskies, nasality, over articulation Examples of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features Clipped, elongated, louder, softer pause, even pitch, high pitch, low pitch, whisper, nasality, breathiness, lip rounding The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists, Fry and Kress (2006), List122

19 Your turn… In groups of four, take turns reading a sentence or two from one of the paragraphs from Pale Blue Dot. First, read with one of the prosodic features: Pitch (high or low tone) Loudness (soft or loud voice) Speed (fast or slow) Pause (short or long) Next, read with one of the paralinguistic features: Clipped, elongated, louder, softer pause, even pitch, high pitch, low pitch, whisper, nasality, breathiness, lip rounding

20 Strategies and Activities to Develop Fluent Readers Model Fluent Reading Kelly Gallagher’s Reading Minute Play with Prosody Sentence Tunes Change Perspective Engage in Repeated Readings Partner Reading Readers’ Theatre Modeling and Repeated Reading Choral Reading Echo Reading

21 Modeling and Repeated Reading Students need to hear explicit models of fluent reading. Kelly Gallagher’s Reading Minute Collect readings appropriate to your content area Read orally to students one to five minutes every day Share an interesting reading selection (poetry, newspaper, magazine, excerpt from current novel) Model fluent reading Students listen, then write a one-sentence summary or thesis statement for the “Reading Minute” selection as described in Reading Reasons: Motivational Mini-Lessons for Middle and High School by Kelly Gallagher

22 Change Prosody – Change Perspective Put a sentence or two on the smart board or Elmo. Have students read the two sentences from different perspectives: breaking news sermon kindly grandmother gossip rap Your turn… At your table try different perspectives with one of the passages.

23 Playing with Prosody Sentence Tunes (Handout) The changes in meaning are due to what are called supersegmental phonemes (speech sounds or inflection stresses that affect meaning). Directions: Read the sentences below, emphasizing or stressing the bold word to change the meaning of the sentence. I did not say you stole my red hat. The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists, Fry and Kress (2006), List125

24 Partner Reading Students read and reread text with partners. Assign partners. Assign text on the instructional level of the lower-level reader. Teach partner reading routine. Partner 1 reads first paragraph. Partner follows along. Partner 2 reads the same paragraph. Students briefly discuss what they just read by retelling what happened or by identifying the main idea of the paragraph. Repeat steps 1-3 until passage is complete. Model Provide guided practice Provide independent practice Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency)

25 Readers’ Theatre Readers speak clearly, use appropriate volume, read the text accurately and with expression. Members of the group cooperate; use rehearsal time wisely. Procedure Select materials to read. Develop the script. Assign roles. Practice, practice, practice Perform Discuss Readers’ Theater Resources Notes from Reading Teachers Sourcebook (Chapter 8 Fluency)

26 Modeling and Repeated Reading Students need to hear explicit models of fluent reading. Adapted Reading Minute Activity for Module 5 Share oral reading selection (students listen) Provide copies for students to follow along as you re- read the selection orally to the class In pairs, students read the selection aloud (paired repeated reading) Students time paired reading Note number of words read in one minute Record WPM on Fluency chart Each student writes a one-sentence summary

27 Choral Reading Choose a short text ( words) Provide a copy Teacher reads with expression Students join in choral reading Listen for rough spots (Audio record first and last reading) Your turn… Practice a choral reading with the following. “Compassion and the World” (Handout) “Is Fluent Expressive Reading Important for High School Readers?” David Paige, Timothy Rasinski, Theresa Magpuri-Pavell

28 “Compassion and the World” by H.H., the Fourteenth Dalai Lama Individual happiness can contribute in a profound and effective way to the overall improvement of our entire human community. Because we all share an identical need for love, it is possible to feel that anybody we meet, in whatever circumstances, is a brother or sister. No matter how new the face or how different the dress and behavior, there is no significant division between us and other people. It is foolish to dwell on external differences, because our basic natures are the same. Ultimately, humanity is one and this small planet is our only home. If we are to protect this home of ours, each of us needs to experience a vivid sense of universal altruism. It is only this feeling that can remove the self-centered motives that cause people to deceive and misuse one another. If you have a sincere and open heart, you naturally feel self-worth and confidence, and there is no need to be fearful of others. I believe that at every level of society—familial, tribal, national and international—the key to a happier and more successful world is the growth of compassion. We do not need to become religious, nor do we need to believe in an ideology. All that is necessary is for each of us to develop our good human qualities. I try to treat whoever I meet as an old friend. This gives me a genuine feeling of happiness. It is the time to help create a happier world.

29 Echo Reading Echo reading will help struggling readers with fluency, reading orally, new vocabulary, and comprehension. All you need is a book on your student's level and a reader for students to echo. It is a simple reading strategy to help your students gain skills. The Process All readers have a copy of the text. The teacher or the lead reader reads a line of text. It will depend on the age and ability level of your students when deciding how much to read at one time. While the leader reads out loud with expression and at a good pace, the rest of the group follows along in the text. After the reader reads a line or sentence, then the students read it out loud. They try to imitate the way the leader reads the text during echo reading activities.

30 Assessing Reading Fluency Monitoring Fluency Development Automaticity - decoding words with minimal use of attentional resources Rate/Speed - number of words read Accuracy - accurate decoding of words in text Prosody - the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning.

31 Reading Rates End of Grade Oral Reading Silent Reading Rates (WPM) Rates (WPM) Figure 6-8, Oral Reading Rates, Ch. 6 “Understanding the Fluent Reader” Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency, Fountas and Pinnell (2006) Determine where your rate falls on this grade level chart.

32 NAEP Fluency Scale  Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation.  Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present.  Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three-or four- word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage.  Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three- word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax.

33 Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Handout) Students read grade-level passage (~250 words) Record reading; teacher later scores reading Assign a score (1 to 4 points) on each of 4 dimensions of fluency Expression and Volume Phrasing Smoothness Pace A score of ≥ 10 ~ making good progress in fluency A score of ≤ 8 ~ may need additional instruction in fluency “Oral reading prosody is related to silent reading comprehension for secondary students” – Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Pavell, 2012

34 1234 Expression and Volume Reads in a quiet voice as if to get words out. The reading does not sound natural like talking to a friend. Reads in a quiet voice. The reading sounds natural in part of the text, but the reader does not always sound like they are talking to a friend. Reads with volume and expression. However, sometimes the reader slips into expressionless reading and does not sound like they are talking to a friend. Reads with varied volume and expression. The reader sounds like they are talking to a friend with their voice matching the interpretation of the passage. Phrasing Reads word-by-word in a monotone voice. Reads in two or three word phrases, not adhering to punctuation, stress and intonation. Reads with a mixture of run-ons, mid sentence pauses for breath, and some choppiness. There is reasonable stress and intonation. Reads with good phrasing; adhering to punctuation, stress and intonation. Smoothness Frequently hesitates while reading, sounds out words, and repeats words or phrases. The reader makes multiple attempts to read the same passage. Reads with extended pauses or hesitations. The reader has many “rough spots.” Reads with occasional breaks in rhythm. The reader has difficulty with specific words and/or sentence structures. Reads smoothly with some breaks, but self-corrects with difficult words and/ or sentence structures. Pace Reads slowly and laboriously. Reads moderately slowly.Reads fast and slow throughout reading. Reads at a conversational pace throughout the reading. FLUENCY RUBRIC Scores of 10 or more indicate that the student is making good progress in fluency. Score _________________ Scores at or below 8 may indicate that the student may need additional instruction in fluency.

35 Florida Oral Reading Fluency and MAZE Assessments (Grade-Level Resources) Grades 6, 7, 8, HS MAZE Risk Levels 12_1011.pdf ORF Risk Levels 12_1011.pdf

36 Fluency as Addressed in MI Comprehensive Literacy Profile/Plan Assessments - NAEP Oral Reading Fluency Scale - Multi-Dimensional Fluency Rubric - Oral/Silent Reading Fluency CBM Strategies - Guided Highlighted Reading - Choral Reading - Readers’ Theatre (Theater) - Repeated Readings - “Is Fluent, Expressive Reading Important for High School Readers?” Paige, Rasinski, Magpuri-Lavell Interventions – role of automaticity of basic component skills, and how students can instinctively associate what words look like with what they mean - Repeated Readings for Juncture and Phrasing

37 Your Assignment Provide reading fluency development with one of your classes. This will consist of reading fluency progress monitoring, instructional activities, and data collection on individual students’ fluency development. During the next month, you will adjust the selected passages to challenge your students’ fluency development. Bring your student data, a list of the activities you used to the last module presentation.

38 Selection of the Passage You have been provided with grade-level passages from grade 6 to HS levels. If you need lower level passages, go to the North Carolina passages on Begin with a passage you think all students will be able to read fluently. Have students read silently for one minute. (You time.) Students mark where they finish. They record the name of the passage and grade and how many words. Students go back and highlight the words they didn’t know. Teacher explains the words that students didn’t know. If a student reads the entire passage fluently, provide the student with next level passage for the next read.

39 Record sheet Name _________________________ Grade______________ Passage titleGradeWPMDateWords not knownDimensions of Fluency


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