2 Objective The objective of this class is to introduce students to applied computational fluid dynamics and to teach them how to solve a fluid flow problem using commercially available CFD software. The class will be taught using a textbook, lecture notes, Fluent and Gambit software. Grading is based on completion of assignments and the final examination. The final examination consists of a project presentation by each group of students to the full class and the instructor. Each CFD project will be performed by a group of two students. The CFD problem to be analyzed will be chosen by the students based upon their own interests and with advice from the instructor.
3 Instructor – Contact Information Instructor: André Bakker Contact information: –E-mail at: email@example.com –When e-mailing files, please ZIP them first. –Fax number: 603-643-3967. –Or call at 603-727-5643 during regular office hours. –Website for this class: http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150. This is where the syllabus and lecture notes in PowerPoint format can be downloaded from. http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150 Questions should preferably be sent in by e- mail. Large files can be transferred by FTP to the ftp.fluent.com fileserver for the instructor to retrieve. FTP instructions can be found at the end of this syllabus and on the webpage.
4 Grading Grading (points listed are maximum that can be obtained): –Attendance: one point for each lecture. Total: 16 points. –Description of research interests, week one: 1 point. –Gambit tutorials: three points for each tutorial. Total: 18 points. –Fluent tutorials: three points for each tutorial: Total: 21 points. –Project, week 3. List with three possible topics, 1 point. –Project, week 4. Final choice, 1 point. –Project, week 5. Electronic files and progress description: 3 points. –Project, week 6. Electronic files and progress description: 3 points. –Project, week 7. Electronic files and progress description: 3 points. –Project, week 8. Electronic files and progress description: 3 points. –Project, week 9. Electronic files, progress description, and ppt report: 5 points. –Final examination, week 10. Project presentation to class: 25 points. The project presentation is mandatory. Students who do not complete the project or do not give the presentation will have failed the class. –TOTAL POINTS: 100. Final grade: A: 100-96; A-: 95-91; B+: 90-87; B: 86-83; B-: 82-79; C+: 78-75; C: 74-71; C-: 70-67; D: 66-60; F: < 60. Grading schedule is tentative and the instructor reserves the right to revise the grading schedule and grades as he deems necessary.
5 Book used Book: "An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method (2nd Edition)" by H.K. Versteeg and W. Malalasekera, Longman Scientific & Technical. Optional reading: selected chapters in “Computational Fluid Mixing” by Marshall and Bakker. Can be downloaded from class website.
6 Software used: Fluent Fluent is a general purpose computational fluid dynamics program, developed and sold by ANSYS Inc. It can be used to calculate flow fields and heat transfer in arbitrary domains and also contains additional physics models. The software can be run from any Linux workstation and specific Windows computers at Thayer School, assuming you have an account. To start Fluent on a Linux workstation: –Open a terminal window to enter text commands. –“cd” to your working directory. –To start Fluent: fluent –driver x11 & –To start the 2-D version of Fluent: fluent 2d –driver x11 & –To start the 3-D version of Fluent: fluent 3d –driver x11 & –Use of the ampersand & at the end of the command makes this a background command and you can still use the terminal window. –The “ –driver x11 “ option is required on Linux workstations in order for the graphics to function properly. –Use the File | Hardcopy command to save TIF files.
7 Software used: Gambit Gambit is used to create 2-D and 3-D geometries and to generate computational grids. It can be started from any Linux workstation at Dartmouth. Open a terminal window to enter text commands and “cd” to your working directory. The command to start Gambit by reading in an old Gambit ( *.dbs ) file is: –gambit –old –id oldfilename & To create a new file: –gambit –new –id newfilename & To export graphics images from Gambit use the following commands: File | Print Graphics | Destination: File | File Format: Tif If you ever have a crash, remove all *.lok files: “rm *.lok” before restarting Gambit.
8 Fluent and Gambit tutorials Fluent and Gambit tutorials used in this class can be downloaded from – http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150 Binders (red) with printed tutorials used in this class are available in the computer room.
9 CFD Project Part of the grade for this class is earned by performing and completing a full CFD analysis. Projects are to be performed in teams of two, although with permission of the instructor projects may be performed individually or with larger groups if there is a good reason to do so. The topic of the CFD analysis can be picked by the students based upon their own personal interest, based upon research they are currently doing, or it can be a problem suggested by the instructor. To avoid excessive calculation times, it is suggested to not pick unsteady flow problems that require full three-dimensional geometries. Suitable problems are those that can be modeled as steady state problems in 2-D or 3-D with less than 200k grid cells, or unsteady flow in 2-D with less than 10k grid cells. The final examination consists of a project presentation and report. The presentation should include a description of the flow problem; why it is of interest; the computational grid; the boundary conditions; physical models and numerics used; the flow pattern results accompanied by an interpretation; and any applicable quantitative data extracted (e.g. drag coefficients for external flows, or torque for rotating machinery). If experimental flow visualizations are available they should be included. The PowerPoint file used for the presentation will serve as the report. Files can be stored at ThayerFS, courses, engs150
10 Times and locations The course starts on Monday January 7, and ends on Friday March 7. Classes are taught in Room 105 Cummings at the Thayer School of Engineering. Classes are taught twice a week: –Mondays 3-4:50PM. –Thursdays 4-5:50PM. The examination consists of team project presentations. The date (tentative) is Monday, March 10, 2pm at ANSYS Inc.
11 Week 1 (January 7-13) Attend lectures: –Lecture 1 (Jan. 7): Introduction to CFD. –Lecture 2 (Jan. 10): Flow fields. Reading (Versteeg & Malalasekera): –Chapter 1 “ Introduction.” Reading: “ Mathematics Review.” See file 20-math.ppt. Gambit tutorials. Complete each tutorial and for each prepare at least one plot showing the final geometry and one showing the final mesh. –Tut. 1: Creating and meshing a basic geometry. –Tut. 2: Modeling a mixing elbow (2-D). –Tut. 3: Modeling a three-pipe intersection (3-D). Project: find a partner for the project. Deliverables: –Before start of second lecture provide instructor with a brief, (less than one page) written description of your technical interests; research projects you are enrolled in (if any); what your objective is in taking this class and what you would like to get out of it. Please include your name, program you are enrolled in, and a list of previously taken fluid mechanics and transport phenomena related classes. This can be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
12 Week 2 (January 14-20) Attend lectures: –Lecture 3 (Jan. 14): Conservation equations. –Lecture 4 (Jan. 17): Classification of flows Reading (Versteeg & Malalasekera): –Chapter 2. “Conservation laws of fluid motion and boundary conditions.” Sections 2.1 “Governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer” through 2.5 “Differential and integral forms of the transport equations.” Fluent tutorials. Complete each tutorial and for each prepare at least one plot showing the geometry, one showing the mesh, and two showing the flow field results. –Tut.1: Introduction to using FLUENT. –Tut 2: Modeling periodic flow and heat transfer. –Tut 3: Modeling external compressible flow. Project: prepare a list of three fluid flow problems that your are interested in modeling and one paragraph descriptions for each problem. Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on January 14 this week): –Plots for Gambit tutorials 1-3 completed during the prior week. These can be e- mailed. –Name of your partner for the project.
13 Week 3 (January 21-27) Attend lectures: –No class on Monday Jan. 21 (MLK day). –No class on Thursday Jan. 24 (Instructor is out). Reading (Versteeg & Malalasekera): –Chapter 2 “Conservation laws of fluid motion and boundary conditions.” Sections 2.6 “Classification of physical behaviour” through 2.12 “Summary.” Gambit tutorials. Complete each tutorial and for each prepare at least one plot showing the final geometry and one showing the final mesh. –Tut. 4: Modeling a combustion chamber (3-D). –Tut. 7: Modeling flow in a tank. –Tut. 11: Industrial drill bit - STEP geometry. Project: make your choice for one of the three problems after instructor provided feedback on each problem. Deliverables (due by e-mail on Tuesday January 22 this week): –Plots for Fluent tutorials 1-3 completed during the prior week. –Project: list with three fluid flow problems you are interested in, and one paragraph descriptions for each.
14 Week 4 (January 28 – February 3) Attend lectures: –Lecture 5 (Jan. 28): Finite volume solver –Lecture 6 (Jan. 31): Boundary conditions. Reading (Versteeg & Malalasekera): –Chapter 3 “ Turbulence and its modelling.” Sections 3.1 “ What is turbulence? ” through 3.4 “ Characteristics of simple turbulent flows. ” Fluent tutorials. Complete each tutorial and for each prepare at least one plot showing the geometry, one showing the mesh, and two showing the flow field results. –Tut. 4: Modeling unsteady compressible flow. –Tut. 6: Using a non-conformal mesh. Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on January 28 this week): –Plots for Gambit tutorials 4, 7, and 11 completed during the prior week. Deliverables (due at start of second lecture on January 31 this week): –Final choice for flow modeling project.
15 Week 5 (February 4-10) Attend lectures: –Lecture 7 (Feb. 4): Meshing. –Lecture 8 (Feb. 7): Turbulence. Reading (Versteeg & Malalasekera): –Chapter 3 “ Turbulence and its modelling.” Sections 3.5 through 3.7. Fluent tutorials. Complete each tutorial and for each prepare at least one plot showing the geometry, one showing the mesh, and two showing the flow field results. –Tut. 9: Using multiple rotating reference frames. –Tut. 23: Postprocessing. Project: create the geometry of your domain in Gambit. Create a surface mesh. Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on Feb. 4 this week): –Plots for Fluent tutorials 4 and 6 completed during the prior week.
16 Week 6 (February 11-17) Attend lectures: –Lecture 9 (Feb. 11): Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence. –Lecture 10 (Feb. 14): Turbulence models. Optional reading. Computational Fluid Mixing. –Download from webpage http://www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150. –Read Chapter 1 “Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics.” Project: –Gambit: create a volume mesh. Define zones and surface boundary conditions. –Fluent: import mesh from Gambit. Set boundary conditions. Start simulations Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on Feb. 11 this week): –Plots for the Fluent tutorials completed during the prior week. –One plot showing the geometry that was created in Gambit and one showing the surface mesh. –The Gambit dbs file created during the previous week. File can be handed on CD, or e-mailed to email@example.com (please zip file first). –Brief written progress description including any problems encountered while creating the geometry and mesh, and if those were resolved or not.
17 Week 7 (February 18-24) Attend lectures: –Lecture 11 (Feb. 18): Boundary layers and separation. –Lecture 12 (Feb. 21): Large eddy simulation. Optional reading. Computational Fluid Mixing. –Chapter 2 “Introduction to numerical methods.” –Chapter 5 “Evaluating mixing from flow field results.” Project: –Complete flow pattern calculations. –Start post-processing. Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on Feb. 18 this week): –The Gambit dbs file created during the previous week. File can be handed on CD, or e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org (please zip file first). –The Fluent case file created during the previous week. File can be handed on CD, or e-mailed to email@example.com (please zip file first). –Brief progress description including any problems encountered while creating the mesh and setting up the Fluent case file, and if those were resolved or not.
18 Week 8 (February 25 – March 2) Attend lectures: –Lecture 13 (Feb. 25): Heat transfer. –Lectures 14 & 15 (Feb. 28): Multiphase flow and discrete phase modeling. Project: –Complete post-processing. –Complete report. Report should be in PowerPoint format and suitable for oral presentation to the class. Deliverables (due at start of first lecture on Feb. 25 this week): –The Fluent case and data files created during the previous week. Files can be handed on CD, or e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org (please zip file first). –Brief written progress description including problems encountered while performing the calculations, and if those were resolved or not.
19 Week 9 (March 3-9) There are no lectures this week. On Monday March 3 and Thursday March 6, the instructor will be available to discuss final project details with each student during the regular class hours. Project: –Make any final corrections that are necessary. –Prepare for oral presentation on March 10. Deliverables: –Due by 8AM Monday March 3 Intermediate Fluent case file and Fluent data file for project. Brief written progress description including problems encountered while performing the calculations, and if those were resolved or not. –Due on Thursday March 6: Final Gambit dbs file, Fluent case file, and Fluent data file. PowerPoint file for report.
20 Examination – March 10 The examination consists of your oral project presentation to the instructor and the class. During the time reserved for the examination, each project group will give a 20 minute presentation to the full class. The presentation will be followed by five to ten minutes of questions by the instructor, fellow students, and invited guests. Grading will be based both on the quality of the CFD work and the presentation of the results. Examination date (tentative) is Monday afternoon, March 10, 2pm at ANSYS Inc.
21 FTP Instructions - 1/3 Use command line FTP to transfer files. Graphical FTP programs will not work.
22 FTP Instructions - 2/3
23 FTP Instructions - 3/3
24 Directions to ANSYS Inc. for project presentation Travel to ANSYS Inc., 10 Cavendish Court, Centerra Park, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766. Phone: (603) 643- 2600. Fax: (603) 643-3967. To ANSYS From I-89, Exit 18. Head to Hanover and proceed 1.7 miles north on Rt. 120. At light at top of hill turn right into the Centerra Resource Park and bear to the right up around the knoll. At the next intersection bear right again, Cavendish Court is your next right and you are at Fluent. To Fluent from Hanover. Head south on Rt. 120. At light at top of hill turn left into the Centerra Resource Park and bear to the right up around the knoll. At the next intersection bear right again, Cavendish Court is your next right and you are at ANSYS.
25 Instructor - Biography Dr. André Bakker is a Product Manager with ANSYS Inc., the world’s leading computational fluid dynamics company, in Lebanon, New Hampshire. –He holds engineering and doctorate degrees from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, both in Applied Physics. Furthermore, he holds an MBA in Technology Management from the University of Phoenix and is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). –His specialization includes computational fluid dynamics in chemical engineering applications, including mixing processes and multiphase flow. –He has authored more than 50 presentations and publications in technical and scientific journals including a chapter in the Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, and he holds one US Patent. –He has extensive experience in the area of computational fluid dynamics, multiphase flow, industrial mixing, experimental research, design of industrial reactors, development of design software and manuals, static mixers and stirred tanks, and new mixer development. –More information about Dr. Bakker’s research interests and a full list of publications can be found at his website at http://www.bakker.org.