Presentation on theme: " Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote. Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold."— Presentation transcript:
Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote. Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold Market with help from Treasury Dept.
Boss Tweed/Tweed Ring – NY bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections, making $200 million; jailed by Tilden and Nast. Credit Mobilier – construction company run by Union Pacific RR, paid itself to build rr.
Whiskey Ring – govt workers stealing excise tax revenue, including Sec. War Belknap. Grant defeated NY Tribune editor Horace Greeley (D) through mud-slinging: free- loving vegetarian, too soft on South.
Bloody Shirt Gilded Age Fisk/Gould Boss Tweed Thomas Nast/Samuel Tilden Credit Mobilier Whiskey Ring Horace Greeley Newspaper editor lost to Grant Reason to vote Republican Corner gold market RR paid itself to build NY political boss Cartoonist, attorney who put away Boss Tweed Stole tax money
Panic of 1873 – too many loans for railroads, mines, factories, farms. Debtors wanted greenbacks printed for inflation, formed Greenback Party; hard- money advocates won over Grant.
Parties agreed on issues; high turnout (80%) based on patronage. GOP – midwest, rural NE - strict morality, govt involved in ec. and values; Democrats – South and Big Cities – Catholic, Lutheran immigrants, easier going morality
Stalwarts – led by Roscoe Conkling (NY), pro-patronage and spoils system. Half-Breeds – James Blaine (MN), flirted with civil service reform; real fight over who controlled patronage
Panic of 1873 Greenbacks Hard money Why high turnout? Republican support Democratic support Stalwarts Half-Breeds Stalwart leader Half-Breed leader James Blaine Roscoe Conkling Too many loans Patronage all the way Some civil service reform Midwest, rural NE South, big cities Patronage Helps creditors Helps debtors
Rutherford Hayes (R- OH) v. Tilden (D-NY), who won popular vote 184 electoral votes (185 needed). 3 disputed Southern states – FL, SC,LA – two sets of returns.
Electoral Count Act – Commission of 15 would count, 8-7 GOP; Compromise 3 days before inauguration: Hayes President, troops out of La/SC. Civil Rights Cases (1883) – Civil Rights Act 1875 applied to govt, not individuals
Jim Crow (segregation) laws passed by Redeemer Southern governments, upheld in Plessy v. Fergeson 1896, enforced through record lynching. Debt: sharecroppers and tenant farmers; no voting: literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clause, white primaries
Who ran in 1876? How close did Tilden come to winning? What were the disputed states? What were the terms of the Compromise of 1877? What did the Supreme Court rule in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883? What court case enshrined segregation laws? How was segregation enforced in the 1890s? How did African-Americans suffer economically? Politically?
Nativism – Chinese came to California (“Chinatown in S.F.) to work mines and railroads, mostly male Irish demagogue Stephen Kearney and others pushed Chinese Exclusion Act 1882, in place until 1943.
1880 GOP ticket Garfield (Ohio)/Arthur instead of Hayes. Stalwart Charles Guiteau shot Garfield (2 nd shortest presidency): “I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now President.”
Stalwart Arthur signed Pendleton Act – civil service reform/merit system By promoting good government, Arthur ruined his political career, and died in 1886.
Everybody make a document/cartoon that explains the importance of Garfield’s assassination.
Who came to China to work mines and railroads? What law, pushed by whom, was passed in response? Who was the second President assassinated? Who killed him and why? What law did President Arthur sign? How did this affect his political fortunes?
Blaine – “Burn this letter” – the 1884 GOP nominee – pushed mugwumps (sanctimonious) to vote Democrat Democrat Cleveland, so honest he admitted an illegitimate son
Blaine Mugwump “Burn, burn, burn this letter!” “Ma, ma, where’s my pa!” What response to this? Laissez-faire Support the government Pensions tariff
Republicans under Harrison and House Speaker Thomas Reed passed McKinley Tariff, hurting farmers and losing elections – Cleveland again, only time ever. Populists – People’s Party – met Omaha, Nebraska and nominated Greenback James Weaver, getting 22 electoral votes
Free, unlimited silver Graduated income tax Govt owned railroads Direct election of Senators 1 term Presidency Initiative, referendum Shorter workday Immigration restriction
Georgia’s Tom Watson first wanted interracial populism, but became race-baiting, vociferous segregationist. Panic of 1893; huge debt; Cleveland got loan from JP Morgan and Wall Street
How did Republicans hurt farmers? Populists: where and what candidate? Name 8 Populist proposals. Who was Tom Watson and how did he change?
1865 – 32,000 miles of rr; 1900 – 192,500; government subsidized building – 200 million acres given to railroads Transcontinental RR begun by Union Pacific 1869 Irish workers: low pay, dangerous, “hells on wheels” towns
Central Pacific – 10,000 Chinese laborers; ex- California Governor Leland Stanford; blasting through mountain (many explosion deaths) 1869 wedding of the rails; Stanford drove a golden spike with silver hammar
Innovations: steel rail, standard gauge track, Westinghouse air brake, Pullman Palace car, standard time Economics: Vanderbilt $100 million Markets for raw materials, manufactured goods; source of steel industry
How fast did rrs grow? When was transcontinental rr begun? What two companies? What two groups of laborers? What hazards? Where was the wedding of the rails? Name 6 railroad innovations. What economic significance did the rrs have?
Vanderbilt – shipping, then railroads: “The law/the public” Rockefeller (Reckafellow)– Standard Oil (for lighting first), used trusts; Social Darwinism Carnegie, then banker JP Morgan– U.S. Steel – vertical integration, stock watering
Interstate Commerce Act, over Cleveland’s veto, created Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroads. Often railroad men on the commission, but stabilized system
Kelly/Bessemer – Steel process – cold air blown on hot iron Bell – telephone; had been a teacher of the deaf Edison – phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, moving picture, lightbulb
Rockefeller Carnegie Vanderbilt JP Morgan Edison Bell Bessemer/Kelley ICC Regulate railroads US Steel Shipping/railroads/ public be damned Telephone Steelmaking Lightbulb, phonograph Standard Oil
Rockefeller, – God made me rich; Carnegie – Gospel of Wealth – altruism/responsibility. Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest; Spencer, Darwin
Interstate commerce, 14 th amendment protected corporations; 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act was originally ineffective. New South – Henry Grady Atlanta Constitution; Duke – cigarette production; cotton mills with cheap labor and company store
Women, children doing factory work; inequality and wage labor up. Regimented, repetitive factory an adjustment for farm workers.
Gospel of wealth Social Darwinism Why were corporations hard to regulate? Sherman Antitrust Act Grady/New South Name 2 successful Southern industries 4 Problems of industrialization
1881-1900 23,000 strikes; ½ successful. Challenges: 1. scabs 2. Bought lawyers, press, judges, politicians, and hired thugs (Pinkertons) 3. Lockout, yellow dog contracts, and blacklist
National Labor Union – 1 st ; skilled and unskilled; struggled to unite racially; hurt by Depression Knights of Labor – skilled and unskilled; led by Irish Terence Powderly; fought for 8 hour day; utopian, ruined by Haymarket Square Strike
Led by Jewish Samuel Gompers; skilled only Shunned politics; wanted better hours, pay, conditions Used long strike, closed shop
Union challenges National Labor Union Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor (AFL) Terence Powderly Samuel Gompers Leader of AFL Leader of Knights of Labor 1 st union; hurt by bad economy Skilled worker only union; practical goals Skilled and unskilled; utopian goals
1870-1900 – population doubled, but city population tripled. NY (3.5m), Philly, Chicago, all over 1 million people.
Came for jobs, electricity, plumbing, telephones (1880 – 50,ooo; 1900 – 1 million), department stores (Sister Carrie) Congestion addressed by skyscrapers (Sullivan), subways
Crime (police invented) Trash invented; nothing thrown away on farm; Baltimore smelled like “a million polecats.” Dumbbell tenements and flophouses for urban poor/slums
Circus – PT Barnum – “sucker born every minute – Barnum and Bailey Wild West shows – Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley Sports – baseball, basketball/Naismith, football/Walter Camp
Population 3 cities with a million 4 pull factors 2 solutions to congestion 3 city problems
S and E Europe – Italians, Jews, Russians, Greeks, Polish, Croats, Slovaks Darker skin, Orthodox Christian, parochial schools, for. Language newspapers Esp. in NY, Chicago
Failed European farms, failure in European cities Letters home, advertisements about unlimited opportunity in U.S.
From South; 4m came; ½ went back Worked in construction and as longshoremen 1% graduated high school; raised chickens and vegetables in cities
Where? Assimilation issues Push and pull The Italian experience
Party Bosses controlled local governments, which built schools, parks, and hospital in immigrant communities. Acres of Diamonds v. Social Gospel – Rauschenbusch, Gladden, Salvation Army
Jane Adams – settlement houses – Hull House – aid and train new immigrants. White women: phone operators, social workers, secretaries, Dept store clerks; immigrants – factories; African-Americans - maids
Nativists feared high birthrates, labor scabs, “mongrelization,’ and radicalism formed American Protective Association. Statue of Liberty 1886, gift from France, Emma Lazarus poem
Party bosses Christians Settlement houses/Jane Addams Women workers and race Name 4 nativist fears Emma Lazarus
If you’re in a bad situation, do you try to make the best of it, or change it? Interpret a line from the song.
Christian Science – Mary Baker Eddy (not scientology) faith makes you healthy Evolution – Darwin and accomodationists Public high schools increased; illiteracy halved Fact/value, public health improved – Lister and Pasteur
Booker T. Washington – Tuskegee Institute – self- help, segregation, agriculture (Carver) and trades, “Uncle Tom?” W.E.B. Du Bois – talented 10 th, NAACP, Niagara Movement, Harvard PhD Ida B. Wells - antilynching
Black colleges – Howard, Morehouse Hatch Act (1887) extended Morrill Act for agricultural colleges – Cal, Ohio State, Texas A&M Philanthropists – Stanford, U of Chicago
Christian science Evolution Public health Trades and segregation NAACP Black colleges Pragmatism Hatch Act/Morrill Act Mary Baker Eddy – pray for healing Agricultural colleges Pasteur/Lister WEB Du Bois Booker T. Washington Howard, Atlanta U Truth as consequence
Pragmatism – John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, William James – evaluate truth of idea by consequences Yellow journalism – Hearst, Pulitzer – sensationalism, v. AP, New York Times
Mark Twain – Huck Finn, The Gilded Age Emily Dickenson – no fame poetry Stephen Crane – Red Badge of Courage Jack London – Call of the Wild Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie
Divorce rate up, birthrate down Carrie Chapman Chatt – suffrage (Wyoming first ) is good for urban motherhood WCTU – Francis Willard, Carrie Nation
Pragmatism Yellow Journalism Mark Twain – Emily Dickenson Stephen Crane Jack London Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie Women’s issues no fame poetry Call of the Wild James, Dewey, Holmes – truth of idea in consequence sensationalism Divorce, suffrage, antilynching Sister Carrie Huck Finn, The Gilded Age Red Badge of Courage
Plains Tribes: Comanche in Texas, Sioux in Dakotas, Apache in AZ and NM, Cheyenne in Wyoming Horses, buffalo (1865 – 15 million; 1885 < 1000) key to hunting and warfare
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851; Fort Atkinson, 1853 tribal territory in Oklahoma, Dakotas Problems: 1. illegit. Signers 2. broken promises 3. defective provisions 4. corrupt agents
1864 Sand Creek, Colorado – Chivington massacred 400, including women and children 1866 William Fetterman and 81 others killed by Sioux in Wyoming Mountains, defending Bozeman Trail
Name 4 tribes of Plains Indians, with their location 2 key animals 2 treaties 2 reservations 4 problems with treaties 2 massacres
US army – many immigrants, 1/5 African-American “Buffalo soldiers” Bozeman Trail abandoned in 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, but 1874 Gen. Custer discovers gold in SD Black Hills
Battle of Little Bighorn, 1876 Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and 2500 Sioux killed Custer and 264 Chief Joseph and Nez Perce were chased 1700 miles, just short of Canada: “I will fight no more forever.”
Geronimo and Apaches fled to Mexico; finally surrendered in 1886 Wounded Knee Massacre 1890, result of Ghost Dance, last violence
Describe the U.S. army in Indian Wars Where was gold discovered, by whom? Where was Custer killed, when, by whom? Where was Chief Joseph captured/what quote? What Apache holdout? What happened at Wounded Knee?
Why Indians lost: 1. rr – endless supplies and settlers 2. disease 3. alcohol/firewater 4. demise of buffalo – 15m to < 1000 in 20 years; Buffalo Bill killed 4000
1880 Helen Hunt Jackson – Century of Dishonor – bad treatment Dawes Act – 160 acres, forced assimilation 1879 Carlisle Indian School (PA) – “kill the Indian and save the man” 1934 Indian Reorganization Act – tribes recognized
1858 – “paydirt” in Pike’s Peak, Colorado 59ers – Comstock Lode in Nevada; gold and silver, statehood 1864 Boomtowns/ghost towns, mines, suffrage
Why did the Indians lose (4 reasons)? What book was written about the bad treatment of Indians? What did the Dawes Act do? What was the philosophy of the Carlisle Indian School Where else was gold found? Where was the Comstock Lode?
Cowboys - confed vets, freedmen, Mexicans - in Texas took Longhorns on long drive, mainly to cattle towns in Kansas Longhorns sent to NY, Chicago, other cities;
Long Drives ended because: 1. barbed wire 2. overgrazing 3. winters 1885-1886 Cattle production shifted to large ranches
Homestead Act of 1862 brought farmers (“Homesteaders, sodbusters”) west, given 160 acres for promise to farm five years; dry farming worked. 8 new western states 1893 – Turner Thesis – closing of the frontier
Push all reforms, stay pure and lose; join Democrats for a chance to win; supported Bryan and free silver. Bryan – 18,000 miles, 600 speeches, 5m listeners; McKinley front porch campaign more money
McKinley won 271-176; Bryan wound South and west, not urban workers. Soon crop prices rose and more gold was found, inflating currency; farmers prospered, no need for Populists
What candidates? What third party? What issue? What speech? Why did Populists join Democrats? Why did McKinley win? Why was the election important?
Populists/Democrat William Jennings Bryan – cross of gold speech; unlimited silver purchase McKinley and gold standard, business and workers won; 4 th party system/realignment