Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote.  Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote.  Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold."— Presentation transcript:

1  Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote.  Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold Market with help from Treasury Dept.

2  Boss Tweed/Tweed Ring – NY bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections, making $200 million; jailed by Tilden and Nast.  Credit Mobilier – construction company run by Union Pacific RR, paid itself to build rr.

3  Whiskey Ring – govt workers stealing excise tax revenue, including Sec. War Belknap.  Grant defeated NY Tribune editor Horace Greeley (D) through mud-slinging: free- loving vegetarian, too soft on South.

4  Bloody Shirt  Gilded Age  Fisk/Gould  Boss Tweed  Thomas Nast/Samuel Tilden  Credit Mobilier  Whiskey Ring  Horace Greeley  Newspaper editor lost to Grant  Reason to vote Republican  Corner gold market  RR paid itself to build  NY political boss  Cartoonist, attorney who put away Boss Tweed  Stole tax money

5  Panic of 1873 – too many loans for railroads, mines, factories, farms.  Debtors wanted greenbacks printed for inflation, formed Greenback Party; hard- money advocates won over Grant.

6  Parties agreed on issues; high turnout (80%) based on patronage.  GOP – midwest, rural NE - strict morality, govt involved in ec. and values; Democrats – South and Big Cities – Catholic, Lutheran immigrants, easier going morality

7  Stalwarts – led by Roscoe Conkling (NY), pro-patronage and spoils system.  Half-Breeds – James Blaine (MN), flirted with civil service reform; real fight over who controlled patronage

8  Panic of 1873  Greenbacks  Hard money  Why high turnout?  Republican support  Democratic support  Stalwarts  Half-Breeds  Stalwart leader  Half-Breed leader  James Blaine  Roscoe Conkling  Too many loans  Patronage all the way  Some civil service reform  Midwest, rural NE  South, big cities  Patronage  Helps creditors  Helps debtors

9

10  Rutherford Hayes (R- OH) v. Tilden (D-NY), who won popular vote 184 electoral votes (185 needed).  3 disputed Southern states – FL, SC,LA – two sets of returns.

11  Electoral Count Act – Commission of 15 would count, 8-7 GOP; Compromise 3 days before inauguration: Hayes President, troops out of La/SC.  Civil Rights Cases (1883) – Civil Rights Act 1875 applied to govt, not individuals

12  Jim Crow (segregation) laws passed by Redeemer Southern governments, upheld in Plessy v. Fergeson 1896, enforced through record lynching.  Debt: sharecroppers and tenant farmers; no voting: literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clause, white primaries

13

14  Who ran in 1876?  How close did Tilden come to winning?  What were the disputed states?  What were the terms of the Compromise of 1877?  What did the Supreme Court rule in the Civil Rights Cases of 1883?  What court case enshrined segregation laws?  How was segregation enforced in the 1890s?  How did African-Americans suffer economically? Politically?

15  Nativism – Chinese came to California (“Chinatown in S.F.) to work mines and railroads, mostly male  Irish demagogue Stephen Kearney and others pushed Chinese Exclusion Act 1882, in place until 1943.

16  1880 GOP ticket Garfield (Ohio)/Arthur instead of Hayes.  Stalwart Charles Guiteau shot Garfield (2 nd shortest presidency): “I am a Stalwart. Arthur is now President.”

17  Stalwart Arthur signed Pendleton Act – civil service reform/merit system  By promoting good government, Arthur ruined his political career, and died in 1886.

18  Everybody make a document/cartoon that explains the importance of Garfield’s assassination.

19  Who came to China to work mines and railroads?  What law, pushed by whom, was passed in response?  Who was the second President assassinated? Who killed him and why?  What law did President Arthur sign? How did this affect his political fortunes?

20  Blaine – “Burn this letter” – the 1884 GOP nominee – pushed mugwumps (sanctimonious) to vote Democrat  Democrat Cleveland, so honest he admitted an illegitimate son

21

22  “Burn, burn, burn this letter!” “Ma, ma, where’s my pa?” “Gone to the White House, ha, ha, ha!”  Republican insult of Democrats of “Rum, Romanism, and rebellion” pushed NY Irish to vote Democrat

23  Vetoed Texas farm bill: “people support the govt; govt doesn’t support the people.”  Fought pension- grabbers and the tariff, which caused a surplus (Oh, no!!!), and he lost to Harrison in 1888

24

25  Blaine  Mugwump  “Burn, burn, burn this letter!”  “Ma, ma, where’s my pa!”  What response to this?  Laissez-faire  Support the government  Pensions  tariff

26  Republicans under Harrison and House Speaker Thomas Reed passed McKinley Tariff, hurting farmers and losing elections – Cleveland again, only time ever.  Populists – People’s Party – met Omaha, Nebraska and nominated Greenback James Weaver, getting 22 electoral votes

27  Free, unlimited silver  Graduated income tax  Govt owned railroads  Direct election of Senators  1 term Presidency  Initiative, referendum  Shorter workday  Immigration restriction

28  Georgia’s Tom Watson first wanted interracial populism, but became race-baiting, vociferous segregationist.  Panic of 1893; huge debt; Cleveland got loan from JP Morgan and Wall Street

29  How did Republicans hurt farmers?  Populists: where and what candidate?  Name 8 Populist proposals.  Who was Tom Watson and how did he change?

30  1865 – 32,000 miles of rr; 1900 – 192,500; government subsidized building – 200 million acres given to railroads  Transcontinental RR begun by Union Pacific 1869  Irish workers: low pay, dangerous, “hells on wheels” towns

31  Central Pacific – 10,000 Chinese laborers; ex- California Governor Leland Stanford; blasting through mountain (many explosion deaths)  1869 wedding of the rails; Stanford drove a golden spike with silver hammar

32  Innovations: steel rail, standard gauge track, Westinghouse air brake, Pullman Palace car, standard time  Economics: Vanderbilt $100 million Markets for raw materials, manufactured goods; source of steel industry

33  How fast did rrs grow?  When was transcontinental rr begun?  What two companies?  What two groups of laborers?  What hazards?  Where was the wedding of the rails?  Name 6 railroad innovations.  What economic significance did the rrs have?

34  Vanderbilt – shipping, then railroads: “The law/the public”  Rockefeller (Reckafellow)– Standard Oil (for lighting first), used trusts; Social Darwinism  Carnegie, then banker JP Morgan– U.S. Steel – vertical integration, stock watering

35

36  Interstate Commerce Act, over Cleveland’s veto, created Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroads.  Often railroad men on the commission, but stabilized system

37  Kelly/Bessemer – Steel process – cold air blown on hot iron  Bell – telephone; had been a teacher of the deaf  Edison – phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, moving picture, lightbulb

38  Rockefeller  Carnegie  Vanderbilt  JP Morgan  Edison  Bell  Bessemer/Kelley  ICC  Regulate railroads  US Steel  Shipping/railroads/ public be damned  Telephone  Steelmaking  Lightbulb, phonograph  Standard Oil

39  Rockefeller, – God made me rich; Carnegie – Gospel of Wealth – altruism/responsibility.  Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest; Spencer, Darwin

40  Interstate commerce, 14 th amendment protected corporations; 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act was originally ineffective.  New South – Henry Grady Atlanta Constitution; Duke – cigarette production; cotton mills with cheap labor and company store

41  Women, children doing factory work; inequality and wage labor up.  Regimented, repetitive factory an adjustment for farm workers.

42  Gospel of wealth  Social Darwinism  Why were corporations hard to regulate?  Sherman Antitrust Act  Grady/New South  Name 2 successful Southern industries  4 Problems of industrialization

43  ,000 strikes; ½ successful.  Challenges:  1. scabs  2. Bought lawyers, press, judges, politicians, and hired thugs (Pinkertons)  3. Lockout, yellow dog contracts, and blacklist

44  National Labor Union – 1 st ; skilled and unskilled; struggled to unite racially; hurt by Depression  Knights of Labor – skilled and unskilled; led by Irish Terence Powderly; fought for 8 hour day; utopian, ruined by Haymarket Square Strike

45  Led by Jewish Samuel Gompers; skilled only  Shunned politics; wanted better hours, pay, conditions  Used long strike, closed shop

46  Union challenges  National Labor Union  Knights of Labor  American Federation of Labor (AFL)  Terence Powderly  Samuel Gompers  Leader of AFL  Leader of Knights of Labor  1 st union; hurt by bad economy  Skilled worker only union; practical goals  Skilled and unskilled; utopian goals

47  – population doubled, but city population tripled.  NY (3.5m), Philly, Chicago, all over 1 million people.

48  Came for jobs, electricity, plumbing, telephones (1880 – 50,ooo; 1900 – 1 million), department stores (Sister Carrie)  Congestion addressed by skyscrapers (Sullivan), subways

49  Crime (police invented)  Trash invented; nothing thrown away on farm; Baltimore smelled like “a million polecats.”  Dumbbell tenements and flophouses for urban poor/slums

50  Circus – PT Barnum – “sucker born every minute – Barnum and Bailey  Wild West shows – Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley  Sports – baseball, basketball/Naismith, football/Walter Camp

51  Population  3 cities with a million  4 pull factors  2 solutions to congestion  3 city problems

52  S and E Europe – Italians, Jews, Russians, Greeks, Polish, Croats, Slovaks  Darker skin, Orthodox Christian, parochial schools, for. Language newspapers  Esp. in NY, Chicago

53  Failed European farms, failure in European cities  Letters home, advertisements about unlimited opportunity in U.S.

54  From South; 4m came; ½ went back  Worked in construction and as longshoremen  1% graduated high school; raised chickens and vegetables in cities

55  Where?  Assimilation issues  Push and pull  The Italian experience

56  Party Bosses controlled local governments, which built schools, parks, and hospital in immigrant communities.  Acres of Diamonds v. Social Gospel – Rauschenbusch, Gladden, Salvation Army

57  Jane Adams – settlement houses – Hull House – aid and train new immigrants.  White women: phone operators, social workers, secretaries, Dept store clerks; immigrants – factories; African-Americans - maids

58  Nativists feared high birthrates, labor scabs, “mongrelization,’ and radicalism formed American Protective Association.  Statue of Liberty 1886, gift from France, Emma Lazarus poem

59  Party bosses  Christians  Settlement houses/Jane Addams  Women workers and race  Name 4 nativist fears  Emma Lazarus

60  If you’re in a bad situation, do you try to make the best of it, or change it?  Interpret a line from the song.

61  Christian Science – Mary Baker Eddy (not scientology) faith makes you healthy  Evolution – Darwin and accomodationists  Public high schools increased; illiteracy halved  Fact/value, public health improved – Lister and Pasteur

62  Booker T. Washington – Tuskegee Institute – self- help, segregation, agriculture (Carver) and trades, “Uncle Tom?”  W.E.B. Du Bois – talented 10 th, NAACP, Niagara Movement, Harvard PhD  Ida B. Wells - antilynching

63  Black colleges – Howard, Morehouse  Hatch Act (1887) extended Morrill Act for agricultural colleges – Cal, Ohio State, Texas A&M  Philanthropists – Stanford, U of Chicago

64  Christian science  Evolution  Public health  Trades and segregation  NAACP  Black colleges  Pragmatism  Hatch Act/Morrill Act  Mary Baker Eddy – pray for healing  Agricultural colleges  Pasteur/Lister  WEB Du Bois  Booker T. Washington  Howard, Atlanta U  Truth as consequence

65  Pragmatism – John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, William James – evaluate truth of idea by consequences  Yellow journalism – Hearst, Pulitzer – sensationalism, v. AP, New York Times

66  Mark Twain – Huck Finn, The Gilded Age  Emily Dickenson – no fame poetry  Stephen Crane – Red Badge of Courage  Jack London – Call of the Wild  Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie

67  Divorce rate up, birthrate down  Carrie Chapman Chatt – suffrage (Wyoming first ) is good for urban motherhood  WCTU – Francis Willard, Carrie Nation

68  Pragmatism  Yellow Journalism  Mark Twain –  Emily Dickenson  Stephen Crane  Jack London  Theodore Dreiser  Sister Carrie  Women’s issues  no fame poetry  Call of the Wild  James, Dewey, Holmes – truth of idea in consequence  sensationalism  Divorce, suffrage, antilynching  Sister Carrie  Huck Finn, The Gilded Age  Red Badge of Courage

69  Plains Tribes: Comanche in Texas, Sioux in Dakotas, Apache in AZ and NM, Cheyenne in Wyoming  Horses, buffalo (1865 – 15 million; 1885 < 1000) key to hunting and warfare

70  Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851; Fort Atkinson, 1853 tribal territory in Oklahoma, Dakotas  Problems:  1. illegit. Signers  2. broken promises  3. defective provisions  4. corrupt agents

71  1864 Sand Creek, Colorado – Chivington massacred 400, including women and children  1866 William Fetterman and 81 others killed by Sioux in Wyoming Mountains, defending Bozeman Trail

72  Name 4 tribes of Plains Indians, with their location  2 key animals  2 treaties  2 reservations  4 problems with treaties  2 massacres

73  US army – many immigrants, 1/5 African-American “Buffalo soldiers”  Bozeman Trail abandoned in 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, but 1874 Gen. Custer discovers gold in SD Black Hills

74  Battle of Little Bighorn, 1876 Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and 2500 Sioux killed Custer and 264  Chief Joseph and Nez Perce were chased 1700 miles, just short of Canada: “I will fight no more forever.”

75  Geronimo and Apaches fled to Mexico; finally surrendered in 1886  Wounded Knee Massacre 1890, result of Ghost Dance, last violence

76  Describe the U.S. army in Indian Wars  Where was gold discovered, by whom?  Where was Custer killed, when, by whom?  Where was Chief Joseph captured/what quote?  What Apache holdout?  What happened at Wounded Knee?

77  Why Indians lost:  1. rr – endless supplies and settlers  2. disease  3. alcohol/firewater  4. demise of buffalo – 15m to < 1000 in 20 years; Buffalo Bill killed 4000

78  1880 Helen Hunt Jackson – Century of Dishonor – bad treatment  Dawes Act – 160 acres, forced assimilation  1879 Carlisle Indian School (PA) – “kill the Indian and save the man”  1934 Indian Reorganization Act – tribes recognized

79  1858 – “paydirt” in Pike’s Peak, Colorado  59ers – Comstock Lode in Nevada; gold and silver, statehood 1864  Boomtowns/ghost towns, mines, suffrage

80  Why did the Indians lose (4 reasons)?  What book was written about the bad treatment of Indians?  What did the Dawes Act do?  What was the philosophy of the Carlisle Indian School  Where else was gold found?  Where was the Comstock Lode?

81  Cowboys - confed vets, freedmen, Mexicans - in Texas took Longhorns on long drive, mainly to cattle towns in Kansas  Longhorns sent to NY, Chicago, other cities;

82  Long Drives ended because:  1. barbed wire  2. overgrazing  3. winters  Cattle production shifted to large ranches

83  Homestead Act of 1862 brought farmers (“Homesteaders, sodbusters”) west, given 160 acres for promise to farm five years; dry farming worked.  8 new western states  1893 – Turner Thesis – closing of the frontier

84

85  Name 3 groups of cowboys.  Where did the Long Drives go?  Why did the Long Drives end?  What law brought people west?  What were the conditions?  Name 8 new states.  Which 2 were special?

86  New farmers problems:  1. one crop – wheat or corn  2. world market  3. deflation  4. interest rates  5. boll weevil  6. droughts and floods  7. property taxes  8. freight rates

87  1. Grange (Oliver Kelly), 2. Alliance – social activities – cooperative stores, warehouses, some political success  Mary Lease – Populist leader – “raise less corn and more hell!”

88  Free, unlimited silver  Graduated income tax  Govt owned railroads  Direct election of Senators  1 term Presidency  Initiative, referendum  Shorter workday  Immigration restriction

89  Panic of 1893 – Coxey’s army marched on DC, demanded public works jobs  Pullman strike – Eugene Debs, palace car workers protested lower wages; army called by Cleveland

90  Name 10 farmers problems  Name 2 farmers organizations  ID:  Mary Lease  Coxey’s army  Pullman Strike

91  GOP - McKinley – pro- tariff, Gold Standard; Westerners walked out of convention  Democrats – William Jennings Bryan – Cross of Gold speech; free silver

92

93  Push all reforms, stay pure and lose; join Democrats for a chance to win; supported Bryan and free silver.  Bryan – 18,000 miles, 600 speeches, 5m listeners; McKinley front porch campaign more money

94  McKinley won ; Bryan wound South and west, not urban workers.  Soon crop prices rose and more gold was found, inflating currency; farmers prospered, no need for Populists

95  What candidates?  What third party?  What issue?  What speech?  Why did Populists join Democrats?  Why did McKinley win?  Why was the election important?

96  Populists/Democrat William Jennings Bryan – cross of gold speech; unlimited silver purchase  McKinley and gold standard, business and workers won; 4 th party system/realignment


Download ppt " Grant elected 1868 thanks to Black Republican vote.  Mark Twain’s term “gilded age” for corruption such as Jim Fisk, Jay Gould tried to corner the Gold."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google