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Watercolor Artists Childe Hassam (American, 1859-1935) "Isles of Shoals Garden - Appledore, New Hampshire" (ca. 1895)

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Presentation on theme: "Watercolor Artists Childe Hassam (American, 1859-1935) "Isles of Shoals Garden - Appledore, New Hampshire" (ca. 1895)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Watercolor Artists Childe Hassam (American, ) "Isles of Shoals Garden - Appledore, New Hampshire" (ca. 1895)

2 Compare and Contrast " "Fishing Boats on the beach” Vincent Van Gogh (Dutch, ) “Schooner in Dock” Frank Wilcox (American, )

3 Vincent Van Gogh (Dutch, ) Vincent Van Gogh was an artist whose work is one of the formative influences of 20th-century art and whose life of suffering has become legendary. The son of a Dutch parson, he was employed by a firm of art dealers in The Hague, London and Paris. Afterwards he became in turn a schoolmaster in Britain, a missionary to the miners in the Borinage, Belgium, and finally, in 1880, an artist. In 1886 he left Holland for Paris, where he lived with his brother Theo, one of the few art dealers encouraging such artists as Bernard, Degas, Gauguin, Seurat and Toulouse-Lautrec. Impressed by the work and personalities of these progressive painters, Van Gogh conceived the idea of founding a 'Studio of the South' at Arles as a working community for progressive artists. He himself went to Arles early in 1888, but the only other painter he persuaded to join him was Gauguin, who visited him at the end of Vincent van Gogh suffered from harrowing bouts of depression and self-doubt throughout his lifetime. On July 27, 1890 Vincent Van Gogh shot himself. He died two days later. He last words were "the sadness will last forever." Frank Wilcox (American, ) Frank Wilcox was a native of Cleveland, Ohio who became a prominent American Scene watercolorist. In 1906 he enrolled in the Cleveland School of Art and later studied with Henry Keller exploring his artistic boundaries. Between 1910 and 1916, Wilcox and Keller experimented with plein air painting and the techniques of the Impressionists. Wilcox developed his signature style which was American Scene or regionalist genre in a transparent watercolor technique. Using fluid and sometimes calligraphic washes Frank Wilcox chronicled the historic lives of the people and scenery of Northern Ohio.

4 Thomas Girtin (English, ) "Thomas Girtin together with his friend J. M. W. Turner, revolutionized watercolor painting and introduced the romantic style in English landscape painting. (Like Keats and Shelley, he died young.) Color in broad transparent washes together with precise, exquisite drawing (one can scarcely tell where drawing in pencil ends and drawing with the brush begins) make Girtin one of the greatest masters of watercolor painting." "The White House, Chelsea" (1800) J.M.W. Turner (English, ) Although Joseph Mallord William Turner learned much about light, atmosphere, and water reflections from the likes of Claude Lorrain and other Dutch marine painters, he pushed the envelope by expanding and aggrandizing the role of light, color, and color key in painting. One of his primary concerns was the overall romantic effects attained through light and color. Turner's later works foreshadows the Impressionists that followed him. “Untitled” Compare and Contrast

5 Name __________________________ _ Date __________________________ _ Class __________________________ _ Describing _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Analyzing ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ________________________________________ Interpreting ________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ________________________________________ Judging ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Critical Analysis of painting by Charles Burchfield "September Wind and Rain" (1949)

6 Charles Burchfield (American, ) Watercolorist Charles Ephraim Burchfield was one of America's most original and visionary watercolor artists. Best known for his romantic, often fantastic depictions of nature, Burchfield developed a unique style of watercolor painting that reflected distinctly American subjects and his profound respect for nature and man's relation to reality as received through all the senses. Burchfield was born on April 9, 1893, in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio. Five years later, following the death of his father, his family moved to Salem, Ohio, where he graduated from high school as class valedictorian in Mr. Burchfield attended the Cleveland School of Art and studied with noted artists of the day.

7 Rex Brandt (American, ) A gifted watercolorist, Rex Brandt hailed from San Diego, California. A year before graduation from UC Berkley in Brandt was part of a regional group of like-minded artists enchanted with the unique light, color and landscape of southern California. Together in 1937 they formed a traveling group exhibition called "The California Group." The group introduced America to the exuberance, color and creativity of this new rogue band of western watercolor painters. Among Brandt's friends in this "en plein air" group of California painters were Milford Zornes, Phil Dike, and Millard Sheets. By 1937 Fortune magazine had featured a portfolio of his work and his paintings were among those displayed at the 1939 New York World's Fair "American Art Today" art exhibition. By 1949 Brandt had published his first book "Watercolor with Rex Brandt." He authored many popular watercolor painting and art books including Watercolor in 15 Easy Lessons (1950), The Composition of Landscape Painting (1959), Watercolor Landscape (1963), The Artists Sketchbook and Its Many Uses (1966), San Diego, Land of the Sundown Sea (1969), Winning Ways of Watercolor (1973), and Seeing with a Painter's Eye (1984) Rex Brandt was an avid teacher his entire life, his Brandt Painting Workshops started in 1955 and he continued to teach and lead workshops through "The Brothers Light"

8 Paul Cézanne (French, ) Paul Cézanne was born on January 19, 1839, in Aix-en- Provence, France. While in school, he had become an intimate friend of fellow artist Emile Zola. After a failed return to law school he spent the next twenty years dividing his time between the Midi and Paris. He briefly attended the Atelier Suisse with Camille Pissarro. Cézanne also had long friendships with painters Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Cézanne's watercolor technique relied on subtle overlapping washes incorporating the white of the paper as in integral element in the piece. His method of work was to apply his colors pure with only the rare mixing on the palette preferring to allow the layered color washes of subtly different hues to merge into additional colors. Cézanne's use of direct drawing in either charcoal or pencil often played a major role in supporting the stylistic foundation of his watercolor paintings. “River with the Bridge of the Three Sources” 1906 Mill at the River 1900–1906

9 Mario Cooper (Mexican/American, ) Mario Cooper's painting style was based in playful design with a modern southwestern twist. Born in Mexico City, he was raised in Los Angeles and ultimately studied at Columbia University and the Grand Central School of Art in New York. A highly regarded illustrator and fine artist, Mr. Cooper's illustrations appeared over the years in magazines like Collier's, Esquire, and Cosmopolitan. Although his sculpture and illustration skills were in high demand, he excelled in watercolor painting, composition and design. He was president of the American Watercolor Society (AWS) from 1959 to Mario Ruben Cooper was a member of the Society of Illustrators, the Allied Artists of America, the National Academy of Design, the American Watercolor Society, and the Audubon Society. "San Trovaso" (1974)

10 J.W.S. Cox (American, ) J.W.S. Cox is known for having first "invented" and explored the full possibilities of the wet-on-wet watercolor technique, the technique of painting on water saturated paper. Cox was born on May 18, 1911 in Yonkers, New York, the son of an architect and his wife. He grew up in Brunswick and Wallkill, New York, and from an early age sketched landscapes. He graduated from Pratt Institute in New York City (1933), while working at various jobs during the Great Depression. From Cox studied the works of El Greco for composition, Feininger for design, Turner for color and Cèzanne for style and brushwork, John Marin for composition and color, Marsden Hartley for design, Whistler for technique and Charles Burchfield for style and subject matter. "Venice Evening"

11 Charles Demuth (American, ) Coming from rather wealthy circumstances and suffering a delicate health and lameness, Charles Demuth grew up with a quiet interest in the arts. After completing studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1910 he went on to study painting at several art academies in Paris. Demuth experimented with the artistic influences of the day including cubism and expressionism. His most memorable personal style is at once intimate and calculating with subtle shadings of color and form as in the watercolor Flowers, Cyclamen Demuth used structured washes with controlled bleeds and blotting to intensify the color depth and texture while masterfully conserving the white of the paper. Other phases of his work reflect influences of the art of his contemporaries, Charles Sheeler, Reginald Marsh, Cezanne, and John Marin. “House and Tree Forms” 1916 “Abstract Landscape” 1915 “Trees #5” “Sailboats and Roofs” 1918

12 Winslow Homer (American, ) Born in Boston is 1836, Winslow Homer is one of the most notable figures in Civil War era American art. Working as an apprentice to a local lithographer at age 19, and being entirely self-taught, Homer's drawings were in high demand in leading periodicals of the day. After the war Homer then devoted his talents to recording man in the natural beauty of the great outdoors. His Maine seascapes, woodland scenes in the Adirondacks and watercolors of the Bahamas, brought him much acclaim as an accomplished naturalist artist. He died at Prout's Neck, Maine, September 29, “The Northeaster”

13 Edward Hopper (American, ) "'My aim in painting has always been the most exact transcription possible of my most intimate impressions of nature.' Few artists have painted so honest and revealing a portrait of America as did Edward Hopper. His timeless images of the wayside night cafe, the empty movie theatre, and the Victorian house by the railroad track all live in memory as the ultimate rendering of those subjects. Born in Nyack, New York, along the Hudson River, Hopper began to study art in the local schools before seeking instruction in commercial art in New York City in l899. From l900 to about l906 he studied at the New York School of Art under Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller, both of whom urged their students to concentrate on modern subjects. Among his fellow students were George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, and Guy Pene du Bois. There is a frugality in Hopper's work, a careful selection of people, buildings and interiors, just as there was to the man himself. He worked in the same studio on Washington Square for fifty-four years, rarely venturing out, except for summers in New England and an occasional visit to the Southwest. He died in his studio on May l5, l967." "The Mansard Roof" (1923)

14 George Inness (American, ) The 19th century landscape painter, George Inness, saw the artist's aim as "simply to reproduce in other minds the impression which a scene had made upon him." He was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1825 and regardless of the virtual lack of support from his father and no formal training, became a member of the National Academy of Art in Inness traveled extensively during his life, and works from these trips included Yosemite and Monterey Peninsula paintings. Innes focused on a light-infused tonalism and relied on glazes for his desired effects. He was a master of both watercolor and oil painting. "Albano, Italy" (ca. 1872)

15 Dong Kingman (American, ) "Dong Kingman is recognized as one of the premier watercolor masters in America and a pioneer of the California school of painting. Born in Oakland, California as Dong Moy Shu, Mr. Kingman returned to Hong Kong with his family at age five. There, at the Lingnan School, he studied painting with a Paris-trained teacher. When he returned to Oakland in 1929, he already excelled at calligraphy and watercolor painting; however, he enrolled at a local art school to further his studies. A solo exhibition in San Francisco in 1936 elevated him to national recognition. In the decades that followed, Mr. Kingman became the recipient of every major award for watercolors, including two Guggenheim Fellowships (1942/1943), a Metropolitan Museum of Art Award (1975) and the American Watercolor Society's Dolphin Medal (1987). Dong Kingman's work is represented in the permanent collections of 50 museums and universities, including the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Whitney Museum, Museum of Modern Art, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Hirshhorn Museum, Art Institute of Chicago and Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts." "Four Men on a Bicycle"

16 Paul Klee (Swiss, ) German-Swiss artist Paul Klee brought his personal expression about in the form of fantasy and whimsy. His perception of the "modern" world was rendered in brevity with a simplistic, primitive style which he drew from children's and primitive art. A member of the Blue Rider School, he believed in the unity of nature and emotion and derided illusionistic art. Using simple line and forms of men, animals, and fantastic creatures, his gentle commentary on human weakness and folly exploited the symbols, signs and archaic patterns of the collective unconscious. Klee's works are replete with allusions to dreams, music, and poetry, set in a gently playful style sometimes reminiscent of the surrealists and cubist who so influenced the times. Klee taught at the Bauhaus from then at the Düsseldorf academy from and irritated the Nazi's so much they labeled his work degenerate and made him resign. "Southern (Tunisian) Gardens" (1919)

17 John Marin (American, ) "John Marin was born in Rutherford, New Jersey, and grew up in nearby Weehawken. He attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, studying with Thomas Anshutz, then studied at the Art Students League in New York, and from 1905 to 1909, studied in Europe. In Paris, he associated with the Fauvist circle. John Marin earned a reputation for abstract watercolor paintings influenced by Cubism and Futurism. He was one of the Taos, New Mexico Colony painters in the late 1920s, and his work is credited as an important precedent to Abstract Expressionism. Because he was so respected nationally, his use of watercolor in New Mexico set a precedent for others painting there." "Marin Island" (1914)

18 Georgia O'Keeffe (American, ) Born and raised in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, Georgia O'Keeffe became one of the first American modernists, the first woman to gain recognition for that style, and a signature painter of Southwest landscape and structures. She went to the Art Institute of Chicago in and studied with John Vanderpoel. She then attended the Art Students League in New York under William Merritt Chase, Kenyon Cox, and F. Luis Mora. At this time in New York, she first became aware of modernist art. Although O'Keeffe was an award-winning artist at the League, she quit painting from 1908 to 1912 to work as a commercial artist. From 1916 to 1918, she headed the art department at West Texas State Normal School in Canyon. In 1924, she began to paint the botanicals, which became a signature part of her work. In the 1920s, she also did a series of New York City skyscraper scenes. In 1929, she first went to the Southwest and visited each summer until her husband died in 1946, when she became a permanent resident. She settled in Albuquerque and produced the landscape and architectural paintings for which she is best known. Her style is austere as was her lifestyle; she dressed simply and followed a regular routine that nourished her creativity. “Abstraction” (1917)

19 Maurice Prendergast (American, ) Maurice Brazil Prendergast was born in Boston, and trained in art as a painter of advertising placards in Boston and later in France and Italy. He returned to Boston in Prendergast was a member of The Eight, a group of artists led by Robert Henri. The group had an influential exhibition in 1908; they broke with the academic tradition that reigned at the time and proposed that painting be connected to everyday life. In 1914 he moved to New York City, where he spent the remainder of his life. His work is characterized by rich, powerful color applied in dots and in short brushstrokes. Many of his subjects are landscapes with figures, as for example, Central Park (1901, Whitney Museum, New York City). A number are of the seashore. Others include Boston street scenes and sketches of Neapolitan and Venetian life." "Bridge and Steps, Venice" (ca )

20 Millard Owen Sheets (American, ( ) Millard Sheets grew up in California in the Pomona Valley east of Los Angeles and by the age of 19 he was an elected member of the California Watercolor Society. At age 20, he was still a student at the Chouinard Art Institute when the school asked him to teach their watercolor class while he was completing his other studies. By the 1930s Mr. Sheets was exhibiting and selling work at major cities across the US. and Europe. His sales enabled him to travel and paint on location in the US and abroad. When the Great Depression hit he worked for the Public Works of Art Project (P.W.A.P.) hiring artists to create public works of art. In World War II Millard Sheets served as an artist-correspondent in India and Burma and by 1946 he was back home in the United States as president of the California Watercolor Society. The early 1950s found Millard Sheets to be a highly sought after architect and mosaic artist, completing many large commissions and designing scores of buildings in California. By 1954 Mr. Sheets was the Director of the Otis Art Institute where he directed the structuring of the BA and MFA programs and taught there until his departure in In 1997 the Otis College of Art and Design renamed their library "The Millard Sheets Library." Millard Sheets was a major force in the California Style watercolor movement of the 1930s and 1940s working in friendly competition with other painters like Rex Brandt and former student Milford Zornes. "Balboa Evening"

21 Andrew Wyeth (American, ) A painter of landscape and figurative subjects in Pennsylvania and Maine, Andrew Wyeth became one of the best-known American painters of the 20th century. His style is deceptively realistic with compositions based on natural abstract elements in natural light. His richly pigmented and direct, highly textured watercolors are his playground for finding images that strike a resonance within. In Wyeth's more formal egg tempera paintings he can freeze crisp shards of daily rural life in time with meticulous detail and technique. He was born in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, and was trained by his father, American illustrator and muralist Newell Convers Wyeth. In 1937, Wyeth's first one-man show of Maine watercolors sold out at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. Andrew first spent his summers in Port Clyde, Maine with his family, but after his marriage to Betsy James in 1940, he and his wife went regularly to Cushing. From Pennsylvania to Maine, Wyeth formed close friendships with, and painted, many of his cherished neighbors. Wyeth became the first visual artist to be nominated for the Presidential Medal of Freedom and in 1990, Wyeth was the first artist to receive the Congressional Gold Medal. Andrew and Betsy Wyeth had two sons, Nicholas and Jamie Browning. Jamie is now a prominent American artist, and Nicholas is in the field of aviation. In 2009 at the age of 91 Andrew Wyeth died in his sleep. "Nick and Jamie"

22 Milford Zornes (American, ) Milford Zornes was born and raised in Oklahoma and he finished high school in California. After spending a couple years hitch-hiking across the USA he ended up studying art in 1927 at the Otis Art Institute. His watercolor instructor was Millard Sheets, a gifted painter and teacher, who joined Zornes as member of the "California Group." Mr. Zornes started winning awards for his work by 1933 and soon found himself working as a P.W.A.P. artist in the New Deal, painting murals in government and public buildings. In appreciation he was given a one man show in Washington, D.C. where president Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and his wife picked a Zornes painting to hang in the White House. He was drafted in 1943, and after serving as a traveling artist in the U.S. Army in World War II, Mr. Zornes returned to California to help lead the en plein air movement of the "California Style" artists. He worked alongside Millard Sheets, Rex Brandt, Pike Dike and others depicting the brightly lit western landscape in a direct, bold and colorful manner. Mr. Zornes was a passionate and popular watercolor instructor and he traveled world- wide teaching watercolor painting workshops. During his career he worked as a teacher at Otis, a theatre Art Director in Claremont California, and a fine artist. In 1994 he received the American Artist Achievement award from American Artist magazine. Mr. Zornes continued painting and giving watercolor workshops until his death at the age of 100. Milford Zornes paintings can be found in many collections and museums including the White House, the Library of Congress Collection, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Beach Party"


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