The Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes-Ohio VS. Samuel J. Tilden-NY
1. A Disputed election Extremely close election Both Democrats and Republicans claimed victory 3 Southern states were recounted and went from Democrat to Republican Decided by a special commission of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats Democrats agreed to allow Hayes to be President if the Republicans would end military control of the South
The Compromise of 1877 The government would remove federal troops from the South The government would provide land grants and loans for the construction of railroads linking the South to the West coast Southern officials would receive federal funds for construction and improvement projects Hayes would appoint a Democrat to his cabinet The Democrats promised to protect African American civil and political rights Confirmed in the House of Representatives Ended Reconstruction in the South
2. Hayes and the telephone Hayes had the first White House phone Installed on May 10, 1877.
3. Post-Civil War Reconstruction in the South is biggest issue Still don’t have equal rights for African Americans who face violence and poverty 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments passed Reconstruction changed society, especially in the South
4. Hayes is Shocked Thought blacks would be protected from violence in the South Felt betrayed by former Confederate leaders
5. Civil Service Civil Service involves working for the government Elected officials handed out jobs for political support or to reward friendships Also called patronage or spoils system White House scandals had raised questions about how people should receive government jobs 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act People had to start taking a Civil Service Exam to get a government job
The Spoils System Government jobs are handed out to members of the party in power for their loyalty Opposite of merit system in which one receives a job based on his qualifications
6. James A. Garfield White House Firsts First former college president and first preacher
7. Garfield’s Problems He was a waffler who couldn’t always make decisions because he didn’t want to ruffle anyone’s feathers
8. Garfield’s Big “Win” Took on Roscoe Conkling, Senator from NY who appointed the Collector of the Port of New York Garfield appointed a rival of Conkling’s Conkling resigned from the Senate A 1880 political cartoon shows Conkling working at a "Presidential puzzle" of heads of possible candidates
9. July 2, 1881 Garfield was shot twice (arm and torso) by Charles Guiteau Guiteau felt Garfield owed him a government job for helping him win the presidency Garfield went to the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad on his way to deliver a speech at his college Alma Mater He was shot at the RR Station Guiteau The Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station
10. Garfield and his doctors Garfield did not die immediately after he was shot. He remained conscious and alert for several weeks following the shooting. He died after 79 days. Doctors probed his wound with Dirty unsterilized instruments and their fingers, looking for the bullet that lodged by his spine. Garfield Facts While he lie suffering at the White House A crude air conditioner was created to help relieve Garfield from the stifling Washington Heat Alexander Graham Bell invented a metal detector to search for the bullet in Garfield’s back. The metal bed frame kept it from working properly.
11. Chester A. Arthur Sharp dresser with Long sideburns Partier Avid fisherman Didn’t like to work hard
12. Arthur’s sister, Mary Arthur McElroy, served as White House hostess because Arthur’s wife had died in 1880.
13. Arthur’s Irony Arthur, a product of New York’s political machine, became a reformer who fought against the spoils system.
14. The Pendleton Act of 1883 Established Civil Service Commission Jobs must be awarded on basis of merit Job seekers must take exams
15. Arthur Rebuilds the U.S. Navy Built 3 steel Cruisers Four Monitors Following the Civil War the U.S. Navy had declined from nearly 700 vessels to 52, most of of which were obsolete.
Grover Cleveland Presidential power had waned since the Civil War The most powerful men in America were wealthy men like J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller
16. Cleveland’s view of his job Stop bad things from happening Didn’t see Presidency as a platform for positive change He was honest but not proactive Used the veto power 414 was twice the vetoes as all other presidents combined in his first term Vetoed bills for giving Civil War veterans pensions and helping farmers during a drought
“The People should support the government, but the government should not support the people.” 17. Cleveland vetoed on bill that would have given Civil War veterans pensions. It cost Cleveland the veteran vote and the election of 1888.
18.Election of 1888 Cleveland runs for second term Republicans nominate Benjamin Harrison, the grandson of William Henry Harrison Big money candidate Cleveland won the popular vote Harrison won the electoral college and the presidency
Election of 1888 and 2000 1888 Cleveland wins popular vote Harrison wins electoral college 2000 Gore wins popular vote GW Bush won electoral college
19. Benjamin Harrison’s Legacy His Great-grandfather was a signer of the Declaration of Independence (Benjamin V) Grandson of William Henry Harrison
20.Harrison’s Bid for a Second Term McKinley Tariff was highest, most protective import tax in U.S. history Caused foreign manufacturers began to cease exporting goods to the U.S. Corporations in the U.S. began to form monopolies on essential goods because there was no foreign competition Consumer prices skyrocketed Harrison’s popularity with common man plummeted
21. Cleveland’s Second Term Only President to be elected to two non- consecutive terms
22. Bimetallism The use of both gold and silver as money Farmers thought Bimetallism to be very beneficial to them because it would cause inflation which would cause prices of crops to increase Opponents of free silver wanted only the Gold Standard to be used in our money supply
The Gold Standard “The gold standard is a monetary system where a country's currency or paper money has a value directly linked to gold. With the gold standard, countries agreed to convert paper money into a fixed amount of gold. A country that uses the gold standard sets a fixed price for gold and buys and sells gold at that price. That fixed price is used to determine the value of the currency.”
The U.S. stopped using the Gold Standard in 1971.
Bimetallism caused much controversy Was the topic of political debates 1896 and 1900: – Gold Forces/Republicans/William McKinley – “Silverites”/Democrats/William Jennings Bryan McKinley defeats Bryan
William Jennings Bryan Gave “Cross of Gold Speech” – National Democratic Convention – July 9, 1896 Ran for president 3 times “The gold standard has slain tens of thousands.”
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Symbolizes Bimetallism In the original book: – yellow brick road: gold – Traveled the road with silver slippers In 1939, the movie changed the silver slippers into ruby slippers. – Dorothy leads: Scarecrow: Farmers Tin Woodman: Workers Cowardly Lion: Politicians – Goal is to see the Wizard (President) in Oz (Oz. = Ounce) – Munchkins: the “little” people – Wicked Witch of the West: Giant Corporations (the enemy) – Dorothy defeats the Witch: Progressives tried to defeat the Corporations