Presentation on theme: "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute January 29, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green."— Presentation transcript:
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute January 29, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
Objectives: Describe the political corruption of the Grant administration and the mostly unsuccessful efforts to reform politics in the Gilded Age. Describe the economic crisis of the 1870s, and explain the growing conflict between hard-money and soft-money advocates. Explain the intense political partisanship of the Gilded Age, despite the parties’ lack of ideological difference and poor quality of political leadership. AP Focus The post–Civil War era is rife with corruption, graft, and influence- peddling. Corruption is rampant at the local and state levels as well. The infamous New York City political party machine, known as the Tweed Ring, for example, bilks the city and state out of millions of dollars. In an attempt to clean their own house, the Republicans take steps to lower the protective tariff, which many consider unreasonably high and beneficial to specific industries. In addition, to address the problem of nepotism and favoritism in attaining government employment, the Republicans pass modest civil-service reform legislation, such as the Pendleton Act.
CHAPTER THEMES Even as post–Civil War America expanded and industrialized, political life in the Gilded Age was marked by ineptitude, stalemate, and corruption. Despite their similarity at the national level, the two parties competed fiercely for offices and spoils, while doling out “pork-barrel” benefits to veterans and other special interest groups. The serious issues of monetary and agrarian reform, labor, race, and economic fairness were largely swept under the rug by the political system, until revolting farmers and a major economic depression beginning in 1893 created a growing sense of crisis and demands for radical change.
Republicans-James G. Blaine Democrats-Grover Cleveland Some Republicans left for the Democratic party These individuals were known as Mugwumps Holier than thou-they had issues with the morals of James G. Blaine (Mulligan letters) 219 to 182 Electoral vote 4,879,507 to 4,850,293 Blaine blundered in NY(Cleveland won by 1000 votes) by not repudiating a preachers comments about Rum, Romanism and Rebellion (RRR)
1 st Democrat in 24 years Supporter of laissez-faire Vetoed a bill to provide seeds for drought- ravaged Texas farmers Vetoed many Civil War pension bills carefully due to benefits to many that did not serve in the Civil War
High tariffs remained after the Civil War Treasury kept running surpluses Cleveland proposed an appeal for lower tariffs in late 1887 1888 election loomed Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland Republicans went to big business for donations as a result of the Pendleton Act-outlawed government workers from forced donations from their checks to political candidates Cleveland won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote, 233 to 168
1 st congress to appropriate a billion dollars- 1889 Pensions to Civil War Vets Government purchased silver McKinley Tariff Act of 1890-highest peacetime rates ever-48.4% Forced farmers to buy high priced American goods Farmers had to sell in an unprotected market McKinley even lost in the mid-terms of 1890 to angry rural voters
1892 Populist Party forms Platform: 1. inflation-unlimited coinage of silver 2. graduated income tax 3. state ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephone 4. direct election of U.S. senators 5. 1 term limit on President 6. initiative and referendum 7. Shorter work day 8. immigration restriction Nominated James B. Weaver for president in 1892
Homestead Strike-1892 Carnegies plant near Pittsburgh Steelworkers angry over pay cuts Troops broke the strike and the union Populist party in 1892 gained 22 electoral votes and 1,029,846 popular votes Blacks denied the vote in the South, and coupled with racial tones, the Populist Party did not fare well in the South. Grandfather clauses used to exempt whites from taxes/literacy tests
Cleveland wins in 1892 Depression of 1893-4 long years soft money hurt the U.S. credit rating when European banks called in loans from the U.S. William Jennings Bryan emerged as the soft money leader Gold was flying out of the Treasury as people cashed in legal tender for silver it bought Notes had to be reissued Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan to lend the government $65 million in gold
Wilson-Gorman Tariff in 1894 loaded with special interest, it did not dent the McKinley Tariff rates Cleveland pocket vetoed the bill with a 2% income tax on $4,000
Continue Reading Chapter 23, begin chapter 24 Prepare for 10 question reading check on Chapter 24 on Friday