Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

13. Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland 1881-1897 “The Gilded Age”

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "13. Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland 1881-1897 “The Gilded Age”"— Presentation transcript:

1 13. Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland 1881-1897 “The Gilded Age”

2 Knights of Labor Worker tools: slow down; strike 1869 – skilled workers form Knights of Labor Meeting in secret…

3 Knights of Labor Worker tools: slow down; strike 1869 – skilled workers form Knights of Labor Meeting in secret…

4 American Federation of Labor Samuel Gompers, 1886, Columbus, OH = new union “AFL” Umbrella union connecting little unions Wanted: higher wages, shorter hours, better working conditions; collective bargaining Most powerful 1886-1910 – still exists Limited to skilled, male, white workers

5 Women Mother Jones – esp eliminate child labor Garment workers unite Tragedy at Triangle Shirtwaste factory 1911

6

7

8

9

10

11 Hard Times for Labor Economic booms and busts – why?? Overproduction = layoffs 1870-1900 2 major depressions and 2 recessions Many violent strikes, esp miners and RR workers

12 Hard Times for Labor Economic booms and busts – why?? Overproduction = layoffs 1870-1900 2 major depressions and 2 recessions Many violent strikes, esp miners and RR workers

13 Westward Expansion

14 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Farmers move west Exodusters – African Amer – Around 60K move to Kansas by 1881 Los Mexicanos – Already lived there – Spanish-speakers – Whites push out Spanish speakers Westward Expansion

15 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Farmers move west Oklahoma Land Rush – Last one … free land – Forced natives out – Noon 22 Apr 1889 … lined up at border – “Sooners” and “boomers” Westward Expansion

16 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Hard Life on the Plains Sodbusting 1877 iron plough strong enough Windmills Reapers Threshing machines Dry! Westward Expansion

17

18 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Hard Life on the Plains Grass fire Grasshopper swarms Super Deep snow Westward Expansion

19 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Hard Life on the Plains Women did lots: doctors, schoolteachers, all home crafts etc (no stores!) Thriving! Huge harvests… crop prices go way down Had borrowed $$ for machinery… couldn’t repay… made less than cost to plant… Yikes! Westward Expansion

20

21 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Land loss Native American land loss was often accompanied by battles and conflict The Homestead Act was one way government helped farmers settle the Plains The transcontinental railroad connected east and west

22 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Westward Expansion Whites move west – Mining – Railroads – Land Pattern: – Treaty signed giving Indians land – Something valuable found on that land that whites want – Conflict, new treaty, Indians move – given poor land Westward Expansion

23 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Native Americans in Retreat Cheyenne, Colorado, 1860s, gold Navajos, southwest, 1860s, raided settlers’ farms Sioux Wars, Dakota Territory, 1870s Nez Perce Resistance, northwest, 1870s Apaches, Arizona-New Mexico Territory, 1880s Westward Expansion

24

25

26

27 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l End of the Buffalo Disease Drought destruction of grazing lands Marker for buffalo robes = increase white hunting Indians hunt more efficiently Sport for rich whites Westward Expansion

28 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Indian Way of Life Ends Ghost Dance – 1889 prophet “Wovoka” among Paiute, So. Plains – “Great Spirit will make new world w/o whites” – Ghost dance will bring about new world Westward Expansion

29 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Indian Way of Life Ends Settlers React – Thought they were preparing for war, dance outlawed – 1890 – police enter Lakota reservation – arrest Sitting Bull, accused of Ghost Dance… accidentally shot Westward Expansion

30 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Indian Way of Life Ends Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890 – Upset by Sitting Bull’s death, Lakotas flee – Army pursues to Wounded Knee Creek (SD) – 29 Dec, Indians prep for surrender – nervous army troupes accept their guns – Shot rings out – massacre of 300, 25 soldiers dead – End Ghost dance religion Westward Expansion

31

32

33

34

35 Reformers Fail Reformers Speak Out – Susette LaFlesche – daughter Omaha chief – wrote & lectured against destruction of native way of life – Helen Hunt Jackson Century of Dishonor 1881 = history broken treaties Westward Expansion

36 Reformers Fail New Federal Policy – Dawes Act 1887 = land; be farmers – Land often sold away cheaply to whites Westward Expansion

37

38 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Results Cheyenne 1860s – war, massacre, reservation Navajos 1860s – “Long Walk” 1864 Sioux Wars 1870s-90s – defeat, revolt, massacre, reservation Nez Perce Resistance 1870s – long chase, reservation Apaches 1880s – chase, defeat, reservation Westward Expansion

39 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l In the end… 1890 – frontier “closed” Realization of manifest destiny Some questioned treatment of Native Americans Some well-intentioned reforms Westward Expansion

40 “The Gilded Age”

41 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l This is one example… … of dishonesty and corruption common at every level of American politics during the Gilded Age. Gilded Age

42 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Tammany Hall & the Tweed Ring Tammany hall = Democratic Party political machine 1790s to the 1960s Irish immigrant base Worst phase – 1870s – Bribery – Embezzlement – Contract fraud – Election control Gilded Age

43 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Tammany Hall & the Tweed Ring 1860s-1871 Ward bosses Patronage machine Graft Some benefits – Increase pay for teachers, doctors – Increase charitable giving – Assistance for immigrants Gilded Age

44 Thomas Nast created the popular American icons of the Republican Elephant, the Democratic Donkey, Uncle Sam, Santa Claus… Gilded Age

45 Thomas Nast Drew Boss Tweed as a corrupt politician Tweed sent his thugs with instructions to, "Stop them d**** pictures. I don't care what the papers write about me. My constituents can't read. But, d*** it, they can see the pictures.“ End 1871. Tweed escaped jail - fled to Spain 1876 recognized and arrested by a customs officer who couldn’t read English but had seen Nast's cartoons of Tweed. Gilded Age

46

47

48

49

50 Civil Service Exams Spoils system Patronage Civil service examination Pendleton Act 1883 Gilded Age

51 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l James Garfield 1880 [R] 200 days In favor of Civil Service Reform Shot 1881 – Took July- Sept. to die Gilded Age

52 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Charles Guiteau Lawyer Assassinated Garfield Worked hard to get Garfield elected – Felt he deserved ambassadorship Lined up every day to get job – Told to go away Thought God told him to kill Garfield Caught & Hanged Gilded Age

53 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Chester Arthur "The Father of Civil Service" "No man ever entered the Presidency so profoundly and widely distrusted, and no one ever retired... more generally respected.“ Publisher Alexander K. McClure Gilded Age

54 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Civil Service Exams 1883 – Pendleton Act – Civil Service Commission – By 1900, covered 40% Fed jobs Gilded Age

55 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Laissez-Faire Economics Laissez-faire = French “hands off” or “leave alone” Government should not regulate business Thomas Jefferson, Adam Smith “Best government is government that rules least” Gilded Age

56 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Laissez-Faire Economics Libertarianism Low taxes Caveat emptor Big companies deserve their size Wealthy deserve their wealth Gilded Age

57 “Immigration”

58 Immigration

59 OldNew 1840-1860 Northern and Western Europeans Faced discrimination Settled on frontier / west 1880-1900 Southern and Eastern Europeans and Asians Had it tougher---they did not know the language-had different cultures Frontier was closed settled in cities Immigrants Immigration

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71 PUSHPULL 1.Land scarce in home country 2. Political and/or religious persecution 3. Revolutions 4. Poverty Plentiful and cheap land in the West (until the frontier was closed) Jobs and opportunities Religious freedom Political freedom Hope for a new life Land “Streets paved with gold” Why Emigrate / Immigrate Immigration

72 Ellis Island Used - 1892 to 1954 Immigration

73 Adjusting to America Many lived in ghettos (community of one culture of ethnic group) – Spoke native language – Celebrated holidays with foods from the “old country” Being with their “own people” made life in America easier Needed jobs – Many lived off the land – Took low paying jobs – Seen as a threat—willing to work less – Workers afraid immigrants would take all of the jobs Immigration

74 Adjusting to America Had to learn English – Children in school (learned the easiest) – Workers Children wanted to be seen as Americans – Helped family learn English – Played American games – Wore American clothing Immigration

75 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Living in Tenements Immigration

76

77

78

79

80 Nativism Anti-Immigrant Feelings: Americans feared immigrants would not assimilate – Language/religion/customs too different Many American workers resented the new immigrants---took jobs for low pay People on the West Coast worked to end immigration from China – Chinese immigrants worked on the RR-- Looked for other jobs after RR completed – Many people did not want to hire them-did not understand the Chinese culture Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 – Barred Chinese workers for 10 years – Renewed several times – Repealed in 1943 Immigration

81

82

83 “Panics”

84 Economics Review “Panic”, “Recession”, “Depression” – Business practices affect everyone, not just business Law of Supply and Demand How banks work… the basics New: raising capital through a corporation Panics

85 Technological Advances… Communication – connect consumer and producer more efficiently (advantage to producer with best communication) Transportation – same effect – the sale goes to the producer who gets to the consumer first. Panics

86 Months it lasted… Panics

87 Causes Panic of 1873 CAUSES Germany stops using silver in coins (thaler) USA – Coinage Act of 1873 – dollars used to be backed by silver and gold – now just gold Panics (aka Depressions and Recessions) happen when a bubble bursts One bubble in 1873 was the railroad boom Banks fail when the bubble bursts because they cannot collect on loans Panics

88 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Panic of 1873, continued Panics (aka Depressions and Recessions) happen when a bubble bursts One bubble in 1873 was the railroad boom Banks fail when the bubble bursts because they cannot collect on loans Panics

89 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Panic of 1893 Railroad overbuilding continues! USA starts using silver again for money briefly, causing loss in money’s value, then repeals Sherman Silver Purchase Act Bank runs Credit crunch Panics

90 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Panic of 1893, cont’d 15,000 companies failed 500 banks failed 17%-19% of the workforce was unemployed at the Panic's peak. Unemployment + loss of life savings kept in failed banks = middle-class could not meet their mortgage payments – Many walked away from recently built homes as a result Panics

91 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Panic of 1893, cont’d collapse of railroad overbuilding shaky railroad financing set off a series of bank failures run on the gold supply Over-poduction in western mines Until the Great Depression, the Panic of '93 was considered the worst depression Panics

92

93 EFFECTS of 1873 & 1893 1873 Massive business failure Unemployment reaching 14% Construction halted Wages cut Banks failed – savings lost Real estate value falls protectionism 1893 Severe strikes – Pullman Strike 1894 Farmers in trouble Marches on Washington Mines close in west – Mining towns collapse Many abandon homes & move west Policy moves toward gold standard and protectionism Panics

94 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Farmers’ Troubles Increased food production leads to decrease in food prices High railroad rates Debt Expensive machinery necessary to farm the Plains Loans dry up in recessions Farmers’ Troubles

95 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Solutions to Farmers’ Troubles The Grange – 1867 – “Cooperatives” – Election organizing The Farmer’s Alliance – 1870s – Join with factory workers and miners Farmers’ Troubles

96 Farmers Take Action The Grange – 1867 organization – Boost farm profits and reduce RR freight rates – Cooperatives (pool money to buy machinery, seeds, etc = wholesale) – Voting in blocks Farmers’ Troubles

97 Farmers Take Action Farmer’s Alliance – 1870s – Texas & So Farmers’ Troubles

98 Populists 1892 Farmers and labor unions Demands: – Raise prices for farm produce – Regulate RR rates – Income tax – 8-hr workday – Free silver Farmers’ Troubles

99

100 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Free Silver Pro & Con Mint Western silver into money to increase supply Increase money supply would make it easier for farmers to repay debts because farm prices would go back up. Increase money would decrease its value and lead to inflation Favored the Gold standard Farmers’ Troubles

101 The Gold standard Each dollar back then = stood for certain amt of actual gold backed by gov’t Since supply of gold limited, less money in circulation, which should prevent inflation Farmers’ Troubles

102 Election 1896 Populists support political candidates and almost win Party broke up in 1896 when Democrats adopted some of their ideas Farmers’ Troubles

103 1896 Farmers’ Troubles

104 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l The Populist Party 1892 Farmers + Workers Demand gov help raise farm prices Income tax 8 hour day Limit immigration “free silver” Farmers’ Troubles

105 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Election of 1896 Bad Depression 1893 Election affected by Populists – William Jennings Bryan – “Great Commoner” – Bryan carries south & west, McKinley wins northeast, so wins presidency – Broke up after ‘96 – Dems adopt some ideas – prosperity Farmers’ Troubles

106 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer – Lamarck instead of Darwin but inspired by the latter “Survival of the Fittest” applied to society (coined by Spencer) Believe that the rich are better so they deserve it; earned it; better bred (racism)

107 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Antitrust Efforts Interstate Commerce Act 1887 – Interstate Commerce Commission Sherman Antitrust Act 1890

108 “Progressives and Muckrakers”

109 “President Wilson and Envoy Root [American statesman Elihu Root]...say ‘We are a democracy...’We women of America tell you that America is not a democracy. Twenty million women are denied the right to vote....Tell our government that it must liberate its people... ” —Leaflet written and distributed by Alice Paul outside of the White House 1917 “Everybody counts in applying democracy. And there will never be a true democracy until every responsible and law-abiding adult in it, without regard to race, sex, color or creed has his or her own inalienable and unpurchasable voice in government.” —Carrie Chapman Catt upon the establishment of the League of Women Voters, 1920

110 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Muckrakers reform-oriented journalists popular magazines investigative journalism reporting

111 Progressive Political Reforms Or “How to make the US more Democratic”

112 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Lawmaking problems Lawmakers were hand-picked to run by political bosses and stuck to the directions their supporters gave them. What the people wanted often came last. The only influence over lawmaking by “the people” was voting

113 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Lawmaking solutions Initiative – voters could force the legislature to debate a bill Referendum – voters could pass laws over the legislators’ heads

114 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Elections problems Big party bosses and wealthy connected businessmen chose who could run in elections to become legislators. (Sometimes it didn’t even matter who won!) State legislators chose state senators Only men could vote

115 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Elections solutions Primary – voters select their candidate in a special ‘election before the election” Recall – lawmakers who do not do as they promised can be voted out of office

116 More democracy? Republic = rule by elected representatives Democracy = rule by the people Progressives made our Republic more democratic by giving more people more influence in lawmaking and electing representatives.

117 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Settlement House Movement Community center offer svcs = poor Jane Addams 1889 Hull House

118 Click to edit the outline text format  Second Outline Level Third Outlin e Level  F o ur th O utl in e L ev el F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Settlement House Movement Idealistic young women from wealthy or middle class families Volunteers Pressing for gov’t reform


Download ppt "13. Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland 1881-1897 “The Gilded Age”"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google