Site8/27 & 8/28/03 (CFU/100ml) 9/13/03 (CFU/100 ml) 9/22/03 (CFU/100 ml) Point Beach 1 (lighthouse) > 2,400, 390510146 Point Beach 2 (pumphouse) >2,400, 1200483125 Point Beach 3 (lodge) >2,400, 1045388130 Neshota Beach 265, 1045567115 Manitowoc Harbor 2602069520 Red Arrow>2,40028315644 Fischer Creek95639603 Fischer Beach>2,4007091558 E. Coli count data for rain events by site and date
Coastal Zone Management Grant Form a Task Force to identify and recommend actions for identification of bacteria sources. Coordinate with multiple parties data collection that will assist in resolution of problem sources of bacteria.
Figure A-6: E. coli survey on June 12, 2001. Heavy rain (1.75 inches in 24 hours); CSO within 48 hours; wind from west-southwest. E. coli counts (CFU/100 ml)
Gull isolates on LB plate with Ampicillin (20 g/ml) Sewage isolates on LB plate with Ampicillin (20 g/ml) Stormwater isolates on LB plate with Ampicillin (20 g/ml) Antibiotic Resistance Testing was chosen to be Conducted August ‘03
Next Steps Dairy manure collections for AR COMPLETED Identify beach specific investigation strategies Spatial survey of E coli occurrence COMPLETED Map outfalls COMPLETED Bacteriodes-Prevotella PCR (DNA test) ? ONGOING- UW Milwaukee Water Institute
Antibiotic Resistance Frequency of Manitowoc Beaches and Host Samples
Continuing Issues Is there a link between E coli and algae? Manitowoc - Cleveland - Sheboygan Is E coli a good and valid indicator? Does wave action stirring up E coli off the bottom = beach closures Individual beach Investigations Red Arrow, Neshota, Fischer Cr – outfall influences? Point Beach – Why the AR bacteria?
Red Arrow Health Department Samples “Spacial Survey” E coli Includes samples at stormwater ponds near Wal-Mart Bacteriodes PCR beach and mouth of river E coli in sand Variables = outfall, sand medium, near shore current, wave action, river influence, parking lots, gulls, WWTP
Neshota Beach Health Department Samples “Spacial Survey” E coli Bacteriodes PCR beach and mouth of river E coli in sand - Inconclusive Beach issues:Gulls, restricted beach grooming, river influence, stormwater outfalls, sand and wave influence
Beach Management Algae Management Can the beach be cleaned? Can the algae be managed? Avian Management Is your beach gull habitat? Are birds attracted by feeding? Grooming vs. Nongrooming Clean smooth grooming vs aerated and rough
Public Policies Ordinances Controlling Sources Septage, bird feeding, animal waste runoff, Urban runoff Urban Nonpoint Education E coli standard for closure 235 colonies / 100ml 1000 colonies / 100 ml
Public Relations Focus on healthier sites Understanding of risks and making personal choices Non-science understanding of the issues and risks
Bacteria Abatement Wetland construction to treat E coli? Stormwater / sanitary infrastructure Nonpoint pollution sources from urban and rural Pet waste Parking lots Rural livestock Domestic sewage
What do we know now? Bacteria is not likely blowing in from the lake Gulls are a part of the mix at Neshotah and Pt Beach Dairy livestock – probably not the cause Suspect bacteria is rinsing out of beach sand during rain or wave events
What do we know now? Landscape runoff is likely a major contributing factor – Urban Stormwater, Rural Stormwater Still some hints of human pollution @ Point Beach
Manitowoc County Discovery Farm Projects & Research New tilling approaches which reduce non-point runoff from fields planted to row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The impact of liquid manure applications on tiled fields with heavy clay content. Buffer effectiveness. Collaboration with other agencies that may aid in determining causes of Lake Michigan beach closings and excessive algae.
Remember, our beaches are much cleaner than what our parents swam in!