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The United States from 1877 to 1914 The Tariff: real issue or diversion? Republicans for it Helps manufacturing Helps workers keep their jobs Democrats.

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Presentation on theme: "The United States from 1877 to 1914 The Tariff: real issue or diversion? Republicans for it Helps manufacturing Helps workers keep their jobs Democrats."— Presentation transcript:

1 The United States from 1877 to 1914 The Tariff: real issue or diversion? Republicans for it Helps manufacturing Helps workers keep their jobs Democrats against it Hurts consumers Raises prices on farmers But the Populists say the tariff debate is just a diversion from more fundamental issues, such as regulation of railroads, telegraph, and access to credit.

2 The United States from 1877 to 1914 the gendered tariff Democrats: tariff weakens the autonomy of the white male farmer and consumer; emasculates him Republicans: tariff enables male wage earner to support his wife, who then can protect the domestic hearth

3 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Grover Cleveland: home-wrecker? Accused in election of 1884 of having fathered illegitimate child Cleveland had “foraged outside the city [Buffalo, NY] and surrounding villages, a champion libertine, an artful seducer, a foe to virtue, an enemy of the family,” according to one newspaper Once in office quickly marries Frances Folsom Mr. Cleveland on a less successful day of foraging

4 The United States from 1877 to : Cleveland v. Harrison (r) Tariff remains key issue to the campaign Harrison wins majority of electoral votes, but loses Congress in the election of 1890 to Democrats and Populists Populists win women support in western states with their advocacy of suffrage Benjamin Harrison “reminds me of a pig blinking in the cold wind.” –Theodore Roosevelt

5 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Alliance St. Louis platform, 1889 Abolition of national banks Substitution of money issued by the U.S. Treasury Government ownership of railroads and telegraph Progressive taxation The sub-treasury plan

6 The United States from 1877 to 1914 “Bleeding Kansas,” 1854

7 The United States from 1877 to 1914

8 “Pitchfork” Ben Tillman of South Carolina James Hogg of Texas Faux populists

9 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Tom Watson of Georgia “Here is a tenant – I do not know, or care, whether he is white or black. He knows perfectly well that he cannot get goods as cheap as cash.” The system “tears a tenant from his family and puts him in chains and stripes because he sells his cotton for something to eat and leaves his rent unpaid.”

10 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Election of 1892 Populists elected three governors Five U.S. Senators Populist presidential candidate gets 1,041,000 votes 8.5 percent of the total vote Grover Cleveland (D) defeats Harrison (R) by 300,000

11 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Coin’s Financial School, 1892 Advocated the unlimited coinage of silver to create a more deflationary currency Adopted by William Jennings Bryan

12 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Shipping rates have to be "reasonable and just" Rates must be published Secret rebates outlawed Price discrimination against small markets illegal. Interstate Commerce Act, 1887

13 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890 Trusts “in restraint of trade” made illegal  Punishable by fines of up to 10 million dollars Individuals who “conspire to monopolize” guilty of a felony Attorney General empowered to enforce the law

14 The United States from 1877 to 1914 U.S. vs. E.C. Knight Company, 1895 E.C. Knight produced 98 percent of refined sugar in U.S. But Supreme Court declared it wasn’t violating Sherman act because it was involved in manufacturing, not trade Nyah nyah nyah...

15 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Supreme Court: Income tax unconstitutional 1895: by 5 to 4 in Pollock v. Farmers Loan Supremes say that “direct taxes” may not be imposed directly, “unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.” (Section 9, para 4 of Constitution) Furthermore: “Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states.” Court narrowly (5-4) construes this to mean that Federal government can’t directly collect taxes

16 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Showdown for the People’s Party, St. Louis: 1896 “Fusionists” want to ally with Democrats using free silver issue, and endorse William Jennings Bryan “Mid-roaders” want to stick to issues like the sub-treasury plan Bryan says he will not fuse with People’s Party unless they accept pro-gold standard Democrat Samuel Sewall as well Populists endorse Bryan, with Tom Watson as their Vice Presidential candidate

17 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Bryan’s 1896 political program A graduated Federal income tax Direct election of United States Senators Greater regulation of the railroads, telegraph, and monopolies to protect consumers Lower tariffs to protect consumers Backing the dollar with silver as well as gold for a more flexible currency

18 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Mark Hanna: Mastermind of the McKinley campaign of 1896

19 The United States from 1877 to 1914 Frank L. Baum, Wizard of Oz, 1900 Dorothy = average American citizen Scarecrow = farmer Woodman = factory worker Lion = William Jennings Bryan Mark Hanna = The wizard of OUNCE (aka.OZ)


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