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Chapter 23, Section 2: War With Spain

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1 Chapter 23, Section 2: War With Spain
Main Idea: In 1898, the Spanish-American War launched an age of American imperialism in the Caribbean and the Pacific.

2 American Opinion Splits
A. Tension in Cuba By 1890, Cuba was one of only two remaining Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere (Puerto Rico was the other). “Cuba Libre!” Cuba revolted from Spain in 1868, but was defeated after 10 years of fighting. Some revolutionaries fled to the US. Jose’ Marti’ – wrote about Cuban independence in his newspaper Patria & pushed to “Free Cuba!” for over 25 years Marti’ returned to Cuba in 1895, where he led a new revolution. Although he died early, others fought on. They destroyed sugar crops hoping that Spain would leave (no profit). Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to crush the rebellion. Reconcentration – forced ½ million Cubans into detention camps so they could not aid the rebels. Over 100,000 died from starvation & disease. American Opinion Splits The US was very concerned over the events in Cuba. American businesses had over $50 million invested in the Cuban economy & US did over $100 million worth of trade each year w/ Cuba Some Americans felt US involvement would hurt foreign trade. Others sympathized with Cuban freedom (we fought for our independence in 1776).

3 Spain in Cuba

4 * Americans sympathized with the Cuban desire for freedom.

5 B. Americans Call for War
Newspapers (Pulitzer’s World & Hearst’s Journal) whipped up sympathy for Cuba by printing only Spanish atrocities (cruelty & brutality). Why? – War with Spain = better stories = more sales = bigger profits Sensational Newspaper Stories Yellow Journalism –newspapers encouraged US involvement in the conflict between Cuba & Spain. Their stories and headlines were usually exaggerated, biased against Spain, or completely untrue Hearst to a photographer: “You supply the pictures. I’ll supply the war.” Presidents Cleveland & McKinley tried to keep the US out of the conflict Cleveland called war fever in the US an “epidemic of insanity.” “Remember the Maine!” The U.S.S. Maine, which was docked in Havana to “protect American citizens & property,” has an explosion on board that kills 260 of 350 sailors. Spain is blamed by the American press with no proof to support the claims. “Destruction of the Warship Maine was the Work of an Enemy” – NY Journal The real cause of the explosion is still somewhat of a mystery. Most historians believe it was most likely an accident in the boiler or ammo rooms. Despite no proof, “Remember the Maine!” became the rallying cry for war.

6 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war! William Randolph Hearst

7 "New York World" William Randolph Hearst
"New York Journal" Joseph Pulitzer



10 · Spain was accused of destroying the Maine, even though it has never been proven.
· On April 25, 1898, Congress declared war on Spain. Video - wreckage of the battleship Maine Video - burial of the Maine victims

11 C. The Spanish-American War
Victory in the Philippines Dewey Takes Philippines – Commodore George Dewey smashed Spanish fleet at Manila Bay by noon (“surprised” them) War in Cuba US soldiers were poorly supplied & organized (wool uniforms, spoiled food) Rough Riders (TR); Buffalo Soldiers (black) Santiago, San Juan Hill, Kettle Hill Following Spanish surrender in Cuba, US soldiers claimed Puerto Rico too A Quick End “It’s been a splendid little war.” – John Hay only 3 ½ months long (April August 12) few casualties (only 379 battle deaths) gained land (PR, Guam, Philippines, “Cuba”)

12 USA Cuba The Philippines

13 “A Splendid Little War”

14 Brave Dewey and His Men - Audio

15 Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop San Juan Heights, 1898
Rough Riders: Video

16 D. The Debate Over Empire
The Treaty of Paris Cuba gains “independence” (from Spain) see Platte Amendment (next slide) U.S. gains Puerto Rico (Caribbean) & Guam (Pacific) from Spain U.S. pays Spain $20 million for possession of Philippines Many Americans protested the treaty, saying that it made the US a colonial power & the war was fought only to expand US borders (imperialism). Expansionists defended the treaty, saying that it benefited the US economically (new trade territories) & militarily (naval bases). Also, they argued, the natives in those countries would benefit from exposure to American culture (“uplift & civilize” them)

17 "Our Terms," Judge, 1898 by Eugene Zimmerman

18 Revolt in the Philippines
E. Ruling an Empire Cuba American soldiers stayed in Cuba after the war until the Cubans agreed to the Platte Amendment, which limited Cuban rights, allowed US to intervene in cuba & gave US control of Guantanamo bay (naval base) . Puerto Rico Foraker Act gave Puerto Ricans limited say in their affairs. Puerto Ricans were made US citizens in 1917 (a commonwealth) Revolt in the Philippines Filipino nationalists, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, fought for independence from US for 3 years after war. They eventually got it after WWII. More Americans died fighting in this conflict than in the Spanish-American War (4,000 vs. 400) Nearly 220,000 Filipinos died (20,000 soldiers)


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