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INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Damon Burton & Andy Gillham University of Idaho.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Damon Burton & Andy Gillham University of Idaho."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Damon Burton & Andy Gillham University of Idaho

2 What are the 2 sport psychologies? What are the 2 sport psychologies?

3 What does Martens think about orthodox science? Why? What does Martens think about orthodox science? Why?

4  What is objectivity?  Why does Kuhn and Polyani think this doctrine is false?

5 How does science evolve?

6 What is the difference between the leap and the creep approaches?

7 What is reductionism? Is it a good paradigm?

8 What is DK Theory?

9 DK THEORY Damn Konfident Scientific Method (Using the Heuristic Paradigm ) Systematic Observation Single Case Study Shared (Public) Experience Introspection Intuition Don’t Know

10 What is the difference between idiographic and nomothetic methods?

11 What other types of experiential knowledge could be used more in sport psychology? What other types of experiential knowledge could be used more in sport psychology?

12  What are the roles of basic” and “applied” research?  What balance should there be between these 2 types of research?

13 KINESIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY Kinesiology – study of human movement Kinesiology – study of human movement Kinesiological psychology -- psychological study and ramifications of human movement Kinesiological psychology -- psychological study and ramifications of human movement Kinesiological Psychology Motor Learning Motor Development Social Psych of Physical Activity Sport Psychology

14 KINESIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY Motor Learning -- study of motor behavior from a learning psychology perspective. Motor Learning -- study of motor behavior from a learning psychology perspective. Motor Development -- study of motor behavior from a developmental psychology perspective. Motor Development -- study of motor behavior from a developmental psychology perspective. Social Psychology of Physical Activity -- study of how social psychological variables influence motor behavior and new movement patterns and visa versa. Social Psychology of Physical Activity -- study of how social psychological variables influence motor behavior and new movement patterns and visa versa. Sport Psychology -- study of human motor behavior in a sport context. Sport Psychology -- study of human motor behavior in a sport context.

15 FUNDAMENTAL AXIOMS OF SCIENCE reality of space reality of space reality of time reality of time reality of matter reality of matter quantifiability of matter quantifiability of matter belief that space is real belief that space is real belief that time is real belief that time is real belief that matter is real belief that matter is real what exists, exists in some amount what exists, exists in some amount what exists, and even relationships between existing phenomena, are amenable to observation and measurement what exists, and even relationships between existing phenomena, are amenable to observation and measurement

16 FUNDAMENTAL AXIOMS OF SCIENCE consistency in the universe consistency in the universe The universe is organized in an orderly manne r The universe is organized in an orderly manne r There is regularity, constancy, consistency, and uniformity in the operation of the universe There is regularity, constancy, consistency, and uniformity in the operation of the universe

17 FUNDAMENTAL AXIOMS OF SCIENCE Intelligibility of the Universe Intelligibility of the Universe Determinism Determinism Empiricism Empiricism Science holds that we can observe, know, and understand the universe in which we live. Science holds that we can observe, know, and understand the universe in which we live. All events are determined or caused. All events are determined or caused. Knowing is the result of first-hand, direct original observation. Knowing is the result of first-hand, direct original observation. Information derived from Lachman (1960)

18 POLANYI’S TRIAD OF KNOWLEDGE Focal Target (Problem) Subsidiary Awareness (Clues) Person (Links the 2 Together)

19 OPERATING CONCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Concept of Objectivity Concept of Objectivity Concept of Amorality Concept of Amorality Scientists must remain impersonal, impartial, and detached in making observations and in interpreting data; the scientists must maintain a disinterested attitude Scientists must remain impersonal, impartial, and detached in making observations and in interpreting data; the scientists must maintain a disinterested attitude Science is not moral or immoral; it is amoral Science is not moral or immoral; it is amoral

20 OPERATING CONCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Concept of Caution Concept of Caution Concept of Skepticism Concept of Skepticism Scientists must maintain meticulous caution and painstaking vigilance in their methods Scientists must maintain meticulous caution and painstaking vigilance in their methods Scientists reject the notion of absolutism; refuse to acknowledge authoritarianism or dogmatism as a source of knowledge, even the data of science are viewed as tentative Scientists reject the notion of absolutism; refuse to acknowledge authoritarianism or dogmatism as a source of knowledge, even the data of science are viewed as tentative

21 OPERATING CONCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Concept of Theory Construction Concept of Theory Construction and Utilization and Utilization Concept of Parsimony Concept of Parsimony Science strives to build and test theory Science strives to build and test theory Science should be conservative in stating the implications of its data; the data should be interpreted in the simples, most succinct form possible Science should be conservative in stating the implications of its data; the data should be interpreted in the simples, most succinct form possible

22 OPERATING CONCEPTIONS OF SCIENCE Concept of Reductionism Concept of Reductionism Science strives to reduce specific data to succinct statements of consistency Science strives to reduce specific data to succinct statements of consistency Reductionism demands that generalizations be specified in terms of precise mathematical formulae Reductionism demands that generalizations be specified in terms of precise mathematical formulae

23 HARLAN CLEVELAND (1985) Cleveland provides a complementary way of looking at knowledge. He says there are four key terms related to knowledge: data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. Cleveland provides a complementary way of looking at knowledge. He says there are four key terms related to knowledge: data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. Data are undigested observations, unvarnished facts. Data are undigested observations, unvarnished facts. Information is organized data. Information is organized data. Knowledge is organized information, internalized by me, integrated with everything else I know from experience or study or intuition, and therefore useful in guiding my life. Knowledge is organized information, internalized by me, integrated with everything else I know from experience or study or intuition, and therefore useful in guiding my life. Wisdom Wisdom

24 HARLAN CLEVELAND (1985) “Wisdom,” Cleveland states, “is integrated knowledge, information made super useful by theory, which relates bits and fields of knowledge to each other, which in turn enables me to use the knowledge to do something” (p. 23). “Wisdom,” Cleveland states, “is integrated knowledge, information made super useful by theory, which relates bits and fields of knowledge to each other, which in turn enables me to use the knowledge to do something” (p. 23). This is what Polanyi calls the “tacit dimension.” This is what Polanyi calls the “tacit dimension.”


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