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Chapter 23 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 1869-1889.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 1869-1889."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE,

2 The “Bloody Shirt” Elects Grant Grant was immensely popular after the war Grant was immensely popular after the war Nation was weary after war, and eager for a fresh face. Nation was weary after war, and eager for a fresh face. Republicans, nevertheless, enthusiastically nominate Grant Republicans, nevertheless, enthusiastically nominate Grant Grant is singularly unequipped to be President. Grant is singularly unequipped to be President.

3 The “Bloody SHIRT” Elects Grant Democrats divided between eastern and western democrats. Democrats divided between eastern and western democrats. Nominate Horatio Seymour Nominate Horatio Seymour Republicans wave the “Bloody Shirt” Republicans wave the “Bloody Shirt” Republican Platform Republican Platform Democrats divided over redemption of Bonds. Democrats divided over redemption of Bonds. Grants wins easily in the electoral college, but by only 300,000 votes. Grants wins easily in the electoral college, but by only 300,000 votes. Impact of Black vote. Impact of Black vote.

4 The Era Of Good Stealings Civil War bred corruption and graft. Civil War bred corruption and graft. Causes Causes RR corruption RR corruption Jim Fisk and Jay Gould scheme to corner the gold market. Jim Fisk and Jay Gould scheme to corner the gold market. Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall. Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall. Samuel Tilden. Samuel Tilden.

5 A Carnival Of Corruption Grant’s administration was riddled with corrupt officials. Grant’s administration was riddled with corrupt officials. Credit Mobilier scandal. Credit Mobilier scandal. Exposed in Exposed in Members of congress censured. Members of congress censured. Vice President implicated. Vice President implicated. Whiskey Tax scandal. Whiskey Tax scandal.

6 Liberal Republican Revolt Of 1872 Liberal republicans were tired of corruption Liberal republicans were tired of corruption Liberal Republican party. Liberal Republican party. Nominate Horace Greeley Nominate Horace Greeley Democrats endorse him, too. Why? Democrats endorse him, too. Why? Campaign very ugly Campaign very ugly

7 Grant v. Greeley Grant wins easily, , because: Grant wins easily, , because: Grant is perceived to be the lesser of two evils Grant is perceived to be the lesser of two evils Democrats are still stained with fault for the Civil War. Democrats are still stained with fault for the Civil War. Did lead the Republicans to clean their own house. Did lead the Republicans to clean their own house. General amnesty Act, General amnesty Act, lowered tariffs lowered tariffs Mild civil-service reform Mild civil-service reform

8 Depression And Demands For Inflation 1873 severe recession hits 1873 severe recession hits Causes Causes 15,000 businesses went under. 15,000 businesses went under. Collapse of Jay Cooke and Co. Collapse of Jay Cooke and Co.

9 Depression And Demands For Inflation Debtors advocate inflationary policies. Debtors advocate inflationary policies. Call for more Greenbacks. Call for more Greenbacks. Federal government had removed one- fourth from circulation. Why? Federal government had removed one- fourth from circulation. Why? Grant sides with conservatives and signs Resumption Act of 1875 Grant sides with conservatives and signs Resumption Act of 1875

10 Silver Debtors advocated the coinage of silver dollars. Debtors advocated the coinage of silver dollars. Why? Why? Congress had formally dropped silver money in Congress had formally dropped silver money in Reasons Reasons Grant rejects call to mint Silver. Grant rejects call to mint Silver. Consequences of Grant’s policy Consequences of Grant’s policy

11 Bland-Allison Act Bland-Allison Act. Bland-Allison Act. What does it authorize? What does it authorize? Why does it have little inflationary effect. Why does it have little inflationary effect. Leads to Democratic backlash in congressional elections. Leads to Democratic backlash in congressional elections. Plants the seeds of the Grange Plants the seeds of the Grange

12 Pallid Politics In The Gilded Age Balance of two political parties during the Gilded Age from Balance of two political parties during the Gilded Age from Majority in Congress flipped back and forth six times in the 11 terms between Majority in Congress flipped back and forth six times in the 11 terms between Few controversial stands Few controversial stands Few dramatic policy differences between parties. Few dramatic policy differences between parties. Voter turnout /voter loyalty. Voter turnout /voter loyalty. Political machines and patronage Political machines and patronage

13 Republicans v. Democrats Republicans: Republicans: Embodied the old Puritanical ideals. Strict moral codes and belief that government should be an instrument in regulating economic and moral affairs of the community. Strong in Midwest and in rural and small-town New England. Got most of votes from Freedman and from Union Civil War Vets.

14 Republicans v. Democrats Democrats Democrats More Roman Catholic and Lutheran. More Roman Catholic and Lutheran. South and northern industrial cities South and northern industrial cities Large immigrant base and strong Dem. machines. Large immigrant base and strong Dem. machines.

15 Stalwarts v. Halfbreeds Republicans had two rival factions Republicans had two rival factions Stalwarts (Conklingites) Stalwarts (Conklingites) led by NY Sen. Roscoe Conkling). Big believers in patronage. Half-Breeds. Half-Breeds. Led by James Blaine. Flirted with civil service. Consequences of this division Consequences of this division

16 The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 Republicans dissuade Grant from running again. Republicans dissuade Grant from running again. Rutherford B. Hayes. Rutherford B. Hayes. Hayes largely unknown, but a civil war officer Hayes largely unknown, but a civil war officer Also, importantly, former three-term governor of Ohio. Also, importantly, former three-term governor of Ohio.

17 The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 Samuel Tildon. Samuel Tildon. Platform. Attacks against Republicans. Electoral College dispute Electoral College dispute Reasons Attempts to resolve Electoral Count Act Further compromise

18 Hayes-Tilden Disputed Election of 1876

19 End of Reconstruction Compromise was the end of reconstruction. Compromise was the end of reconstruction. Literacy tests and poll taxes Literacy tests and poll taxes Civil Rights Cases Civil Rights Cases Crop-Lien System/Share Cropping Crop-Lien System/Share Cropping Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws Plessy v. Ferguson Plessy v. Ferguson

20 Sharecropping

21 Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing MerchantTenant FarmerLandowner  Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop.  Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest.  Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt.  Plants crop, harvests in autumn.  Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent.  Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt.  Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.

22 Class Conflicts And Ethnic Clashes Strikes in the 1870s Strikes in the 1870s Who wins? Who wins? Why? Why? Chinese in California Chinese in California Dennis Kearney/Kearneyites Dennis Kearney/Kearneyites Chinese Exclusion Act Chinese Exclusion Act

23 Election of 1880 Hayes administration was not very noteworthy. Did not accomplish much beyond end to reconstruction. Hayes administration was not very noteworthy. Did not accomplish much beyond end to reconstruction. “Old 8-7” and “His Fraudulency.” “Old 8-7” and “His Fraudulency.” He did not run for reelection and wouldn’t have been renominated had he tried. He did not run for reelection and wouldn’t have been renominated had he tried.

24 Republicans in 1880 Stymied by Stallwart-Halfbreed rivalry and take 35 ballots to settle on a candidate. Stymied by Stallwart-Halfbreed rivalry and take 35 ballots to settle on a candidate. Chose James Garfield. Dark-Horse. Chose James Garfield. Dark-Horse. Chester Arthur, was chosen VP. Why? Chester Arthur, was chosen VP. Why? Platform is for higher tariffs and (weakly) for civil service reform Platform is for higher tariffs and (weakly) for civil service reform

25 Election of 1880 Democrats chose Winfield Hancock Democrats chose Winfield Hancock Civil War General, but popular in south Civil War General, but popular in south Why?. Why?. Both parties shun substantive political issues. Both parties shun substantive political issues. Garfield wins by only 40,000, but in electoral college. Garfield wins by only 40,000, but in electoral college. He was besieged by office seekers. He was besieged by office seekers. Made Blain Sec. of State Made Blain Sec. of State Battle raging politically between Stalwarts and Half- Breeds. Battle raging politically between Stalwarts and Half- Breeds.

26 Election of 1880

27 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!

28 CHESTER ARTHUR TAKES COMMAND Not many expected much from Arthur. Why? Not many expected much from Arthur. Why? Displayed surprising integrity, intelligence and independence. Displayed surprising integrity, intelligence and independence. Arthur threw his support behind reform of spoils system. Arthur threw his support behind reform of spoils system. Pendleton Act of 1883 Pendleton Act of 1883 Details Unintended consequences?

29 THE BLAINE-CLEVELAND MUDSLINGERS OF 1884 Rep. nominate Blain Rep. nominate Blain Tainted with numerous rumors of scandals. Tainted with numerous rumors of scandals. The “tattooed man” “Mulligan letters” Mugwumps. Mugwumps.

30 Grover Cleveland Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland. Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland. Reputation for reform and honesty. Cleveland’s Bastard. Cleveland’s Bastard. One of the ugliest campaigns in American history One of the ugliest campaigns in American history New York the key state New York the key state Rum, Romanism and Rebellion

31 Election of 1884

32 Old Grover Takes Over First Dem. president since Buchanan First Dem. president since Buchanan Issues raised by this? Issues raised by this? Cleveland’s political philosophy Cleveland’s political philosophy Last Jeffersonian Democrat? Last Jeffersonian Democrat? Named two former confederates to his cabinet, helping to heal the north-south divide Named two former confederates to his cabinet, helping to heal the north-south divide

33 Tariffs and Pensions Cleveland and office seekers—fires 2/3 of federal employees Cleveland and office seekers—fires 2/3 of federal employees Military Pension issue Military Pension issue Tariffs Tariffs Country was running at a surplus because of high tariffs. Country was running at a surplus because of high tariffs. Republicans had little motivation to reduce these tariffs. Republicans had little motivation to reduce these tariffs. Cleveland’s two choices? Cleveland’s two choices? He favored reducing tariffs. Why? He favored reducing tariffs. Why? Cleveland makes tariff reduction his number-one issue. Cleveland makes tariff reduction his number-one issue. Created a real political difference between the parties just in time for the election of Created a real political difference between the parties just in time for the election of 1888.

34 Harrison Ousts Cleveland Dems renominate Cleveland. Dems renominate Cleveland. Rep. turn to Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison. Rep. turn to Benjamin Harrison, grandson of William Henry Harrison. Primary issue? Primary issue? Republicans use fear of British against Cleveland. Republicans use fear of British against Cleveland. Republicans raise a huge war chest. How? Republicans raise a huge war chest. How? Harrison wins electoral vote but looses the popular vote. Harrison wins electoral vote but looses the popular vote.

35 1888 Presidential Election

36 Cleveland and History Cleveland the first sitting president to be voted out of office since Van Buren in (Others: J. Adams, J.Q. Adams, Harrison, Hoover, Carter, Bush) Cleveland the first sitting president to be voted out of office since Van Buren in (Others: J. Adams, J.Q. Adams, Harrison, Hoover, Carter, Bush) Cleveland last to win popular vote and lose electoral college until Gore. Cleveland last to win popular vote and lose electoral college until Gore. Cleveland only president to have two non- consecutive terms. Cleveland only president to have two non- consecutive terms.

37 The Republicans Return Under Harrison Benj. Harrison in the White House. Benj. Harrison in the White House. Republicans eager for patronage. Republicans eager for patronage. Blaine is Secretary of State. Blaine is Secretary of State. Teddy Roosevelt Civil Service Commission. Teddy Roosevelt Civil Service Commission. Republican quorum problem in the House Republican quorum problem in the House Speaker Thomas Reed Speaker Thomas Reed

38 Political Gravy For All Billion Dollar Congress Billion Dollar Congress Pension Act of 1890 Pension Act of 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act Sherman Anti-Trust Act Tariffs and Silver Tariffs and Silver Easterners wanted a higher tariff Easterners wanted a higher tariff Westerners and farmers wanted more silver minted Westerners and farmers wanted more silver minted

39 Tariff Ire Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 McKinley Tariff Bill McKinley Tariff Bill raised tariff rates to their highest peace-time level—48% raised tariff rates to their highest peace-time level—48% Farmers hated the new tariff. Why? Farmers hated the new tariff. Why? Republicans punished in 1890 congressional election. Republicans punished in 1890 congressional election. Lose nearly 60 seats and Dems have a huge majority in Congress Lose nearly 60 seats and Dems have a huge majority in Congress

40 1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP)

41 Populists Populists emerge as a potent third party. Populists emerge as a potent third party. Officially the People’s Party Officially the People’s Party Nominate James B. Weaver Nominate James B. Weaver Populist Agenda: Populist Agenda: free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen to one free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen to one graduated income tax graduated income tax Gov’t ownership of telephone, telegraph and RR Gov’t ownership of telephone, telegraph and RR direct election of US senators direct election of US senators one-term limit on presidency one-term limit on presidency use of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to propose and review legislation. use of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to propose and review legislation. Shorter work day-to appeal to labor Shorter work day-to appeal to labor restriction on immigration—to appeal to labor restriction on immigration—to appeal to labor

42 Populists Labor is mad and are ripe for wooing by Populists. Labor is mad and are ripe for wooing by Populists. Homestead strike Homestead strike Populists poll over one- million votes and become one of the few third parties to win electoral votes Populists poll over one- million votes and become one of the few third parties to win electoral votes Populists problems with Blacks Populists problems with Blacks Grandfather Clause Grandfather Clause

43 1892 Presidential Election

44 OLD GROVER CLEVELAND AGAIN Depression of 1893 Depression of 1893 Causes: Causes: Over-building and over-speculation Over-building and over-speculation labor unrest labor unrest agricultural depression from low commodity prices agricultural depression from low commodity prices reduction of US credit abroad because of Silver Purchase Act reduction of US credit abroad because of Silver Purchase Act Problems with overseas banks, which were forced to call in US loans. Problems with overseas banks, which were forced to call in US loans. Cleveland does next to nothing— laissez faire Cleveland does next to nothing— laissez faire

45 Gold Problem Treasury was running a deficit because of the Silver Purchase Act. Reasons Treasury was running a deficit because of the Silver Purchase Act. Reasons Cleveland saw no choice but to repeal the Silver Purchase Act. Cleveland saw no choice but to repeal the Silver Purchase Act. William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan Cleveland forced to issue bonds to raise money in order to buy gold Cleveland forced to issue bonds to raise money in order to buy gold J.P. Morgan deal J.P. Morgan deal Public reaction Public reaction

46 DEMOCRATIC TARIFF TINKERING McKinley Tariff causes deficit McKinley Tariff causes deficit Democrats propose bill to reduce tariff but add income tax Democrats propose bill to reduce tariff but add income tax Senate tacks on lots of provisions to help special interests. Senate tacks on lots of provisions to help special interests. Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of Cleveland refused to sign it, but can’t veto. Cleveland refused to sign it, but can’t veto. Supreme Court throws out income tax Supreme Court throws out income tax Public opinion hates the bill and blame Dems. Public opinion hates the bill and blame Dems. Democrats hammered in 1894 mid-term election. Democrats hammered in 1894 mid-term election.


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