Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23-AP Notes 39 million by 1870-26.6% increase Many were upset by waste and extravagance of America Grant Hero of war-received big $ from supporters."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 23-AP Notes 39 million by 1870-26.6% increase Many were upset by waste and extravagance of America Grant Hero of war-received big $ from supporters all over Only voted once yet a huge hero so Repubs nominated Democrats could not agree-eastern delegates wanted war bonds redeemed in gold, Mid Western delegates wanted redemption in greenbacks, farmers wanted interest rates lowered-problem w/ $ policy Nominee for Dems-Horatio Seymour Grant and “Bloody Shirt” won 214-80 yet only 300,000 500,000 former slaves for Grant
Good Stealings Reconstruction brought great corruption Jay Gould(brother in law of Grant) and Jim Fisk attempted to corner the gold market and although they failed Gould made a huge profit “Boss” Tweed in New York controlled the city($200 million) Grant’s in laws received federal jobs Credit Mobilier(1872) Union Pacific insiders hired themselves at inflated prices to build RR lines & bought off Congressman to not investigate-VP Schuyler Colfax took $ too Whiskey Ring robbed treasury of millions in excise tax $ Secretary of War Wllm. Belknap took bribes from suppliers of whiskey to Indian Reservations and took bribes for sale of Indian trading posts-impeached yet resigned
Revolt of 1872 Liberal Wing of the Republican Party began to emerge with all the scandal-wanted an end to Grant and Reconstruction-many of the Radicals were now dead or out of office Liberal Wing and Dems chose Horace Greeley? Grant won 56% of vote-largest total between Jackson and TR Repubs removed political disabilities from all but a few Confederate leaders and reduced high Civil War tariffs
Economic Woes Panic of 1873-Promoters had laid more track, sunk more mines, built more factories, and grown more grains than the markets could tolerate Bankers had made too many poor loans-profits faltered, so too did loans-15,000 businesses went bankrupt War led to $450 million in greenbacks-by 1870s $356 million remained in circulation-some supported the idea of allowing them and others wanted a return to hard money In 1874 Congress passed a measure to allow a modest reissuing of greenbacks-vetoed by Grant-hard $ won out Resumption Act of 1875 passed-treasury dropped silver Farmers and workers dumbfounded-$ per capita decreased- contraction Greenback Party emerges!
Gilded Age(3 decades after Civil War) Politics were a gamble-House majorities switched 6 times from 1869-1891-rare to have complete branch control 80% of eligible voters participated-some bipartisanship on issues such as tariffs, civil service reform and currency Sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the parties Repubs-puritanism, big government, single moral standard Dems-Lutheran or Catholic, professed toleration Dem-Solid South & Industrial North Repubs-Midwest & rural small town N’East Patronage was key to votes Repubs-Roscoe Conkling-swapping civil service jobs Opposing them were the Half-Breeds-James Blaine-deadlocked party
Hayes vs. Tilden-1876 Rep.-R.B. Hayes-gov. of Ohio Dem. S. Tilden-184 of 185 necessary votes-3 states unsure returns: LA, SC, FL-all 3 sent 2 sets of returns Compromise of 1877 Electoral Count Act-Electoral Commission-8Repubs/7Dems Compromise: Hayes gets presidency, Remove Federal troops, promised Democrats pork, & money for transcontinental RR- settled March 1 Violence was averted by sacrificing freedom-running out of steam anyway Civil Rights Act of 1875-guaranteed equal accommodations in public places & prohibited racial discrimination in jury selections Supreme Court rulings on 14th?
Jim Crow Solid South returned: New South-Redeemers: Old South’s ruling planters, middle class looking for commercial and industrial development, professional politicians looking to benefit with any group(laissez-faire & white supremacy) Blacks and poor whites lost rights-sharecropping and tenant farming “Crop Lien” system Better than Slavery? Discrimination grew-legal codes of discrimination-Many methods used to deny right to vote. Plessy v Ferguson (1896) Segregation created “Separate yet Not Equal” Whites dealt harshly with any blacks who challenged
Class Conflicts Regional Conflicts ended-class conflict took over Product of long years of depression & deflation RR-massive cuts-work stoppage brought fighting Strike failed-labor powerless Irish/Chinese fought in California-By 1880-10% of California’s population was Asian-mostly men San Francisco-Violence vs. Chinese-resented competition Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Garfield and Arthur 1880-Republican James Garfield vs. Dem. Winfield Hancock Greenback-Weaver---Garfield won close race Conflict brewed as James Blaine was chosen as Secretary of State and Roscoe Conkling was upset-Garfield shot by a deranged office seeker and eventually died-Chester Arthur took over Attempt at reform of the Spoils System-Pendleton Act of 1883- made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal & established Civil Service Commission Now politicians looked to corporations for big $
Election of 1884 Republican James Blaine (corrupt-Mulligan letters)-led to the mugwumps Dem. Grover Cleveland(gov. of NY) father of an illegitimate child? Cleveland barely won-laissez faire-eventually fell prey to spoils Tariff High during war-now a huge surplus-Options-plunder on pork or lower-Cleveland opposed lowering 1888 Presidential election Cleveland lost election to Benjamin Harrison yet won the popular vote(Harrison raised $3 million)
Billion Dollar Congress Repubs ready for jobs-also enjoying surpluses-Democrats planned stall tactics Thomas Reed-Maine-new speaker-ruled the House First Congress to appropriate $1 billion Congress showered pensions, increased government purchases of silver-raised the tariff-McKinley Tariff of 1890 Farmers hurt-buy expensive home products & sell grains in unprotected world market 1890 Elections-Repubs lost majorities
Pg. 510-520 Quiz 1.What case set up the “Separate But Equal” doctrine? 2.What two ethnic groups clashed in California over jobs and opportunities? 3.What was the answer to increase in population of the Chinese in the United States? 4.What was the solution to the spoils system after James Garfield was assassinated? 5.Who won the election 1888?
Discontent People’s Party emerged-Populists(Farmer’s Alliance)-wanted govmnt reform, free & unlimited coinage of silver-16 oz. of silver to 1 oz. of gold, graduated income tax, government ownership of RR, telegraph, telephone, direct election of senators, 1 term limit for president, allow citizens to shape laws, shorter workday, immigrant restrictions Nominated James Weaver for president in 1892 Strike at Pittsburgh Good showing for Populists in 1892 Election-South did not support-Race Issue? Populists once supported & then turned backs on African Americans Democrats and Cleveland return to office in 1892
Cleveland Panic of 1893-worst depression of 19th Century Causes: Overbuilding, overspeculation, labor disorders, agricultural depression, pinch on US finances when European banks called upon loans Businesses closed, unemployment grew and government did little Deep Deficit Gold/Silver debate grew
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