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PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND POLITICS. During the late 1800s, the development of new industrial products such as the steel plow and barbed wire MOST directly.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND POLITICS. During the late 1800s, the development of new industrial products such as the steel plow and barbed wire MOST directly."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS AND POLITICS

2 During the late 1800s, the development of new industrial products such as the steel plow and barbed wire MOST directly contributed to the migration of people to the A.Pacific Northwest. B.Great Plains. C.Mississippi Delta. D.Great Lakes region.

3 During the late 1800s, the development of new industrial products such as the steel plow and barbed wire MOST directly contributed to the migration of people to the A.Pacific Northwest. B.Great Plains. C.Mississippi Delta. D.Great Lakes region.

4 Gilded Age The term refers to when much corruption and poverty existed in the US despite the outward appearance of prosperity during the Industrial Era; a “gilded” surface is shiny and golden while the material underneath is cheap and fake Examples include: unsafe working conditions, low wages, child labor, long hours, discrimination of minorities and women… vs. the wealthy industrialists who profited from their workers

5 Republicans received support from: people who supported the Union during the Civil War, African Americans, business leaders, and Protestant Northerners. Democrats received support from: Southern Whites, Northern political machines, and Irish/German immigrants

6 Election of Rutherford B. Hayes-R vs. Samuel Tilden-D –Tilden won the popular vote by 250,000 votes –However, 20 electoral votes were disputed (LA, SC, and FL submitted two sets of electoral votes- one Republican and one Democratic) –The Electoral Count Act was passed that est. a bi-partisan 15 man committee to settle the issue 19 th President

7 –The committee accepted the Republican ballots and Southern Democrats threatened a filibuster –The Compromise of 1877 was composed to resolve the issue. Democrats agreed to accept Hayes as President in exchange for: –Ending military reconstruction in the South –Promise for the support of Congress in building a southern transcontinental RR from New Orleans to the West Coast

8 –Major issues of Hayes Administration: –The end of military reconstruction –Civil service reform –Labor problems developed b/c of a bad economy –RR strikes (federal troops used to restore order) –Labor and racial problems disrupted the economy of the west »1. Chinese/Irish problems led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (1st immigration restriction law passed in US)

9 Election of James Garfield-R vs. Winfield Scott Hancock- D –Garfield won the popular and electoral vote –In 1881, a mentally deranged office seeker, Charles Guiteau, assassinated Garfield. –Patronage or the “spoils system” had allowed winning candidates the ability to appoint their supporters to government jobs; Guiteau thought he deserved a job –Garfield’s death illustrated the need for Civil Service Reform –Chester A. Arthur then became president

10 20 th President 21 st President

11 –Major events of the Arthur administration: –Passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883 »It set up the Civil Service Commission that administered competitive exams for applicants seeking federal jobs »The act classified 15,000 jobs which would be filled by passing a competitive exam- they had to be competent and qualified –Arthur convinced Congress to provide money to upgrade our navy. By 1898, the US navy ranked 5th among the world fleets

12 Election of James Blaine- R vs. Grover Cleveland-D –Republicans who didn’t support Blaine were called “mugwumps” –For the first time since the Civil War, a Democrat, Cleveland, carried the “Solid South” –Achievements of Cleveland’s Administration: –Civil Service Reform- fired 120,000 federal employees –Fought major abuses in the Civil War pension system –Fought for a lower tariff 22 nd /24 th President

13 Election of Benjamin Harrison-R vs. Grover Cleveland-D –Harrison elected –Cleveland was the first incumbent President since Martin Van Buren to be defeated for re-election His administration is most remembered for economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time.

14 Election of Benjamin Harrison-R, Grover Cleveland-D, vs. James Weaver- Populist –Cleveland opposed free silver and inflation which appealed to business leaders –Weaver sought support from both white and black voters which hurt him in the South –Harrison was hurt by labor discontent (he sent in troops to restore order in the Homestead Strike) –Cleveland won the election –However, the Populists won 14 Congressional seats

15 Election of William McKinley-R vs. William Jennings Bryan-D –Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” speech was the most important event of the Democratic convention- it supported free silver; he easily received the party’s nomination afterwards –Bryan appealed to farmers but not to urban, industrial states –McKinley’s victory seemed to endorse the “status quo”- Americans were content with the traditional approach to government

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18 The Presidential candidate of 1896 depicted in the cartoon above was A. William McKinley. B. James Garfield. C.Williams Jennings Bryan. D. Theodore Roosevelt.

19 What major event in US History took place at Promontory Point, Utah in 1869? A) the final major battle of the “Indian Wars” B) the discovery of gold C) the completion of the first, transcontinental railroad line across North America D) the death of General George Armstrong Custer

20 The invention of the light bulb contributed to industrial growth in the United States by making it possible for A.production to continue at night. B.workers to light their homes. C.electric companies to raise their prices. D.cities to reduce crime by lighting city streets.

21 The invention of the light bulb contributed to industrial growth in the United States by making it possible for A.production to continue at night. B.workers to light their homes. C.electric companies to raise their prices. D.cities to reduce crime by lighting city streets.

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