Presentation on theme: "Primary Sources on the Web Use in the Classroom Stephen Titchenal Program Specialist for Technology Cleveland Heights – University Heights City School."— Presentation transcript:
Primary Sources on the Web Use in the Classroom Stephen Titchenal Program Specialist for Technology Cleveland Heights – University Heights City School District S_Titchenal@staff.chuh.org
What is a Primary Source? The Ohio Historical Society defines primary sources as a "source created by people who actually saw or participated in an event and recorded that event or their reactions to it immediately after the event. In contrast, secondary source is defined as a "source created by someone either not present when the event took place or removed by time from the event." · www.ohiohistory.org/resource/teachers/prim ary.html#definitions www.ohiohistory.org/resource/teachers/prim ary.html#definitions
Library of Congress Definition: Primary sources are defined as "actual records that have survived from the past, such as letters, photographs, articles of clothing." In contrast, secondary sources are accounts of the past created by people writing about events sometime after they happened. For example, your history textbook is a secondary source. Someone wrote most of your textbook long after historical events took place. Your textbook may also include some primary sources, such as direct quotes from people living in the past or excerpts from historical documents. memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/psources/sour ce.html memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/psources/sour ce.html
Copyright and the Public Domain Anything created after 1977 is copyrighted at the moment of creation and protected for at least 70 years*. Anything is in the public domain (free to use) in the U.S. if it was created by a federal government employee, published before 1923, published before 1978 without copyright notice, or before 1964 and not renewed*. *INFO: www.unc.edu/~unclng/public-d.htmINFO: www.unc.edu/~unclng/public-d.htm
Unpublished Works Publication: distribution of copies to the public by sale, rental, lease or lending. Works created before 1978 and not published or registered are protected for: Life of the author plus 70 years (2003 - 70 years = died in 1933) Corporate authors: 120 years. (2003 - 120 = 1883)
Reproductions, Compilations Sometimes the only way students can access primary source materials Photographs, copies or digital representations of public domain works are sometimes protected by license. Compilations of public domain materials. Any new material can be copyrighted.
Objects / Artifacts Ohio Historical Society ohiohistory.org ohiohistory.org Ohio Memory Bicentennial Scrapbook ohiomemory.org ohiomemory.org Ohio History Central ohiohistorycentral.org ohiohistorycentral.org
Images Ohio Memory: My Scrapbook personalized web page Cleveland Memory (CSU) clevelandmemory.org Post Cards Cleveland Press clevelandmemory.org Post CardsCleveland Press Associated Press Photo Archive www.chuh.org/students/ www.chuh.org/students/
Audio National Public Radio www.npr.org www.npr.org Library of Congress American Folk Life Center - Blues memory.loc.gov/ammem/ftvhtml/ftvhome.html memory.loc.gov/ammem/ftvhtml/ftvhome.html History and Politics Out Loud http://www.hpol.org/ http://www.hpol.org/ Historic American Sheet Music scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic/ scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic
Video/Film Internet Archive www.archive.org www.archive.org NASA www.jpl.nasa.gov/video/ www.jpl.nasa.gov/video/ Television Archive www.televisionarchive.org www.televisionarchive.org
Internet Wayback Machine www.archive.org type a web site address (URL) to see what the web site looked like in the past www.archive.org
Maps Rails and Trails: www.railsandtrails.com www.railsandtrails.com Library of Congress: www.americanmemory.org www.americanmemory.org
Statistics CensusScope – 2000 Census data www.censusscope.org/ www.censusscope.org/ IPUMS – 1850-1990 Census data http://www.ipums.umn.edu/ http://www.ipums.umn.edu/ NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/ http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/ Economic Time Series Data Collection www.economagic.com/ www.economagic.com/
Text Cleveland Heights High School History www.chuh.org/CHHS/CHHS1901-1966/home.html www.chuh.org/CHHS/CHHS1901-1966/home.html Early Cleveland History (3rd Grade - Coventry) www.chuh.org/Coventry/EarlyCleveland/TITLE.HTM www.chuh.org/Coventry/EarlyCleveland/TITLE.HTM Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (CWRU) ech.cwru.edu/ ech.cwru.edu/ Cuyahoga River (CSU) web.ulib.csuohio.edu/ellis/ web.ulib.csuohio.edu/ellis/
Community Cleveland Heights Historical Society www.chuh.net/chhistory/ www.chuh.net/chhistory/ Cleveland Alive www.chuh.org/clevealive/ www.chuh.org/clevealive/ Cleveland Press – Cleveland Heights www.railsandtrails.com/CleveHts/ www.railsandtrails.com/CleveHts/
Interviews My mother could never forget and often told me about an enormous blizzard that hit Cleveland, November 9, 1913, while she was still carrying me. Maybe that's why I always liked snow. An article in the paper tells of 60 miles per hour winds brought suffocating clouds of snow, 22.4 inches over three days. It shut down business, trapped people in their homes, placed the whole area into panic, and caused frantic searches for food. Street cars and trains were stopped cold against a wall of snow. Automobiles had to be pulled out by teams of horses. Communication was nearly impossible as the wind toppled thousands of poles holding telegraph and electric wires. The Nov. 10th, 1913 record of 17.4 inches in 24 hours still stands. Steamers stayed in the harbor, however some ran aground, one ran aground at E 40th street, despite rescue attempts, 142 people were lost in the storm. For days the undertakers could not bury the dead. Milk and coal was scarce, water supplied by the city was so muddy it had to be boiled to make it potable. Fortunately mother had enough food and the gas remained on my mother could boil the water, keep the house warm and cook food. Mayor Newton D. Backer decreed he would prevent a recurrence of downed lines in the future, by installing all lines underground from that point on.
Lesson Plan Examples Evaluating Eyewitness Reports edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?ID=281 edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?ID=281 NARA Digital Classroom www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/ www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/ National Parks Service Teaching with Historic Places www.cr.nps.gov www.cr.nps.gov Library of Congress American Memory Learning Page memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/index.html memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/index.html
Creating Your Own Project Collaborate with a local historical society, university or government body Interview family members or community Identify experts in your community Organize your school’s archive
Digitizing Your Own Project Scan images at 300-600 dpi and save as tiff file (burn to CD for “archival” storage) Convert images to jpg, djvu or pdf for web viewing.djvu Use OCR to convert text to “html” format. Add research and bibliographic information. Use a database to organize project www.railsandtrails.com/digitizing.htm
Handling oversize originals (Maps) Scan in overlapping sections Use a graphics program such as Photoshop to straighten if necessary. Use layers in Photoshop to overlap sections or Use a commercial program such a Panavue Image Assembler. Panavue Image Assembler.
For more information Stephen Titchenal Program Specialist for Technology 14780 Superior Road Cleveland Heights, Ohio 44118 S_Titchenal@staff.chuh.org Latest version of handouts will be at: www.chuh.org/Workshops/primarysources /main.lasso www.chuh.org/Workshops/primarysources /main.lasso