HBCU Track and Field Hampton (Institute) University – dominant from 1924-1931 1927: Tuskegee University under the direction of Cleveland Abbott – copied the format of Penn Relays to form first black Relay Carnival – allowed women to participate in a major Carnival for the first time.
1944: Tennessee State Powerhouse: Jessie Abbott as Coach (daughter of Cleveland Abbott- Tuskegee AD. )
1932 – First African American females to participate in 1932 Games (Los Angeles): Tydre Pickett and Louise Stokes. They participated in the 1936 Games.
Louise Stokes and Tydre Pickett: 1932 and 1936 !932 Games: Stokes and Pickett were replaced by two white women- won 400 meter relay ( gold)
Female College Student-Athlete Wilma Rudolph Alice Coachman Video ClipWilma Rudolph Video Clip African American
1948 – Tenn. State and Tuskegee sent students to London Olympic Games Alice Coachman – High Jump Nell Jackson – 200 Meters Mabel Walker – 100 Meters Audrey Patterson – 200 Meters
Emma Reed – Broad Jump Therese Manuel – Javelin & 80 Meters Mae Faggs – 60 Meters Bernice Robinson – 60 Meters Lillian Young – 60 Meters
Ed Temple (Track and Field) : Tennessee State U. Fifty- four Years: 1940-1994 Head Coach, USA Women’s Olympic Teams (1960, 1964) Head Coach, USA Women’s Pan- American Team (1975) Member USOC:1960- 84
Ed Temple (Cont.) Honors: National Track and Field Hall of Fame, Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame, Helms Hall of Fame, Led Tigerbelles to 34 National titles Gold Medal Athletes: Wilma Rudolph(3), Wyomia Tyus(3), Edith McGuire(1), Barbara Jones(1), Martha Hudson(1), Lucinda Williams(1), Chandra Cheeseborough(2)
Mae Faggs Born in 1932 First Black female to participate in three different Olympics: 1948, 1952, and 1956 (Youngest team member on 1948 team)
1952 – Gold Medal – 4x100 team 1956 – Bronze Medal – 4x100 team Member of National Track and Field Hall of Fame
Alice Coachman Attended Tuskegee and Albany State Won the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union: indoor 50m dash x 4 outdoor 50m dash x 2 100m dash x 3 indoor high jump x 3 outdoor high jump x 10 (most victories without a loss)
First Black Female to win an Olympic Gold medal in track and field (HJ) Only woman to win Gold in track and field in 1948 Olympic Games 1991: Inducted into the International Women’s sports Hall of Fame
Created the Alice Coachman Track and Field foundation – an organization dedicated to assisting young athletes as they pursue their dream; assist retired Olympians as they prepare for life after the Games.
Evelyn Ashford Only girl on boy’s high school track team in Roseville, CA Co-captain of high school track team her senior year One of the first women to receive an athletic scholarship from UCLA
1976: 100m dash 1977: Won AIAW championship in the 100 and 200 meters and 800m relay 1978: Won AIAW championship in the 100 and 200 meters
1979: Won World Cup championship in 100 and 200 meters 1980: Left school to train full time for Olympics 1981: Won 100m and 200m World Cup Championship
1983: Pulled hamstring at the World Championship 1984: Set World record in 100m in Zurich 1988: Won Silver medal in 100m; Gold medal in 4x100m relay 1992: 4 th Gold medal at age 35 on 4x100m relay
Valerie Brisco-Hooks 1984: First American woman to win an Olympic Gold Medal in 200 and 400 meter and the second woman to win three Gold Medals
1984 Medals: Gold – 400 Meters (48/83); 200 meters (21.81); 1,600 meter relay (3:18:29) Attended California State in Northridge.
Gail Devers 1993: Named 1993 Athlete of the Year 1992: Barcelona, Spain Won 100 meters (10.82 sec.) 1988: Set an American record in 100 meter hurdles She had Graves Disease: Thyroid Disease (Took radiation treatment to cure)
Florence Griffith Joyner (Flo Jo) 1988 – First black female to win four Gold Medals in a single Olympics –100 meters – 10.54 –200 meters – 21.34 –4 x 100 relay – 4198 –Broad jump She also got a silver medal in the 1,600 meter relay
1984 – LA Games – Won Silver Medal in the 200 meters
Lucinda Williams Earned Bachelor and Masters degree from TSU Referred to as the “Lady Dancer” Associate Director of comprehensive health, physical education, driver education and safety with the Dayton Ohio Public Schools
1959: Pan American Games in Chicago won 3 Gold Medals American Record holder in 220 yard dash (1958) 1960: Won Gold medal on the 4x100m relay Member Special Olympics Board of Directors
U.S. Olympian Society Lifetime Achievement Award from Ohio Professional and Amateur Athletics Committee Presidential Award from AAHPERD; AAHPERD- Past President
Charles D. Henry Award (1998) Honorary Doctorate of from Springfield College Inducted into State of Georgia Hall of Fame
Wilma Rudolph Overcame double pneumonia, polio, and scarlet Star basketball player in high school (all-state) Invited to attend training camp at Tennessee State (coach Ed Temple)
Attended Tennessee State (1958) First black woman to win an Olympic Gold Medal in sprint (Rome, 1960) Set World Record in 200 m at Olympic Games in Rome
Declared fastest female runner: AP Female Athlete of the Year (1960) Credited with stirring interest among females in track Formed the Wilma Rudolph Foundation in Indianapolis, IN to help under-privileged children
Honored in hometown’s first integrated parade Received the Sullivan Award (1959) – Given to the top amateur female athlete in U.S. Inducted into the Black Sports Hall of Fame 1980
Inducted into National Women’s Hall of Fame First recipient of President Clinton’s National Sports Awards (1993)
Awards The Babe Zaharias Award 1962 United Press Athlete of the Year 1960 U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame 1983 Vitalis Cup for Sport Excellence 1983 1977 she wrote her autobiography:Wilma
Jackie Joyner-Kersee Attended UCLA on Basketball scholarship 1986 American record holder in the heptathlon; American record in Long Jump World Record at the Goodwill games in heptathlon
Sullivan Award First woman to receive the St. Louis Ambassadors Sportswoman of the Year Award First woman to get the Sporting New Athlete of the Year Award
Received the Jesse Owens Memorial Award Founded the Jackie Joyner- Kersee Community Foundation to develop leadership programs in urban areas
Zina Garrison 1988 – Gold Medal for Doubles Bronze Medal for Singles First black female to play at Wimbleton since Althea Gibson in 1958.
Problems with HBCU Track and Field Competitions held in Black conferences not accredited/ sanctioned by the AAU or ICAAA Inadequate facilities Inadequate coaching Inadequate funding
Did not have quality competition – only allowed to compete in 3 major meets: Penn Relays, CIAA, and Tuskegee Carnival Problems led to migration of black to predominantly white schools – state of the art equipment, records set were certified
Summary of History of Blacks in Track and Field African Americans In the North: –Attended prestigious white colleges –African Americans at white colleges gained world wide attention –Better competition
African Americans in the South –Did not want to spend time training for a sport that did not offer a professional outlet –Blacks were not expected to go to school past the 7 th grade – expected to engage in farming or business related to farming
Black Conferences 1916: Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) 1924: Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAC) 1933: The Midwestern Athletic Association (MWAA) 1936: Southwestern Athletic Association (SWAC)
Other Conferences Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Intercollegiate Amateur Athletic Association of America (ICAAA- founded in 1875)
Define Title IX No person in the US shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving financial assistance.
Female Athlete: Categories(2003) Basketball Am. Indian 9 Asian 13 Black 663 Hispanic 30 N-R Alien 79 White 676 CC/Track 12 25 828 75 267 1385
Most Popular Sports-2004 1) Basketball 2) Volleyball 3) CC 4) Soccer 5) Softball 6) Tennis 7)T&F 8) Golf 9) Swimming 10) Lacrosse
Lack Of Women in Leadership Positions Success of old boys club network Lack of support systems for females Female burnout Failure of old girl club networks Acosta and Carpenter
Racial and Sexual Barriers: Corbett and Johnson Limited financial support P.E. teachers often lacking in the background to coach Lack of administrative support Tendency of White coaches to associate the Black female athlete with certain sports Limited skill development opportunity Coaches’ hours