Presentation on theme: "U.S. Takes Hawaii Hawaii’s Economy 75% of wealth from sugar plantations / open society multi-nation trade post Some Plantations owned by Americans."— Presentation transcript:
Hawaii’s Economy 75% of wealth from sugar plantations / open society multi-nation trade post Some Plantations owned by Americans Contract Labor imported from Japan/China
Queen Lili’uokalani 1891 Queen new policy: (1)End foreign influence (2) Restore Hawaii monarchy / take back Hawaii from business dominance
Deposing the Queen Organized a revolt against the Queen 1893 group of sugar and pineapple-growing businessmen, aided by the American minister to Hawaii and backed by heavily armed U.S. soldiers and marines, deposed Hawaii's queen. Queen was imprisoned and seized 1.75 million acres of crown land Sanford Dole became the president of Hawaii
Struggle for Hawaii Pres. Cleveland wanted the queen restored to power/ disrespectful Dole refused to give up power/ fear foreign nations Cleveland recognized the Republic of Hawaii, but refused to annex Hawaii. 1897 Pres. McKinley made Hawaii an American territory.
TELLER AMENDMENT Senator Henry M. Teller (Colorado) proposed an amendment which proclaimed that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba US declared Cuba’s Independence! Platt Amendment Senator Orville Platt (R- Connecticut) in February 1901 proclaimed US right to intervene in Cuba if the following happen: (1)Cuba must give US military base (Guantanamo Bay) (2)Cuba must maintain law and order (3)Cuba not make foreign treaties (4)Cuba no debt issues
US Business moves in Cuba- own iron ore mines, sugar field, and tobacco fields! Fidel Castro “1959 Revolution” anti-imperialism movement
On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey had entered Manila Bay and destroyed the “wooden clunkers” Spanish fleet. In December, Spain ceded the Philippines to the Untied States for $20 million.
On June 12, 1898, a young Filipino, General Emilio Aguinaldo, had proclaimed Philippine independence. Pressure on President William McKinley to annex the Philippines was intense. After originally declaring that it would "be criminal aggression" for the United States to annex the archipelago, he reversed his stance, partly out of fear that another power would seize the Philippines.
The Philippine-American War was fought from February 1899 to July 1902. New Colonial war against America. Guerrilla warfare drove the US Army to a "total-war" doctrine. Civilians were given identification and forced into “war camps” All persons found outside of camps without identification would be shot on sight. Thousands of civilians died in these camps due to poor conditions. Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids
More than 4,000 American soldiers and about 20,000 Filipino fighters died. An estimated 200,000 Filipino civilians died during the war, mainly of disease or hunger. Established the United States as a power in the Pacific. Aguinaldo was captured by a raid on the Filipino leader's hideout in March 1901.
1. Spanish American War – Peace Treaty of Paris 2. US Congress ratified the Foraker Law on April 12th, 1900, bringing a civilian government to the island. 3. The Jones Act separated the Executive, Judicial, and Legislative branches of Puerto Rican government, provided civil rights to the individual, and created a locally elected bicameral legislature. However, the Governor and the President of the United States had the power to veto any law passed by the legislature. Also, the United States Congress had the power to stop any action taken by the legislature in Puerto Rico.
4. The U.S. maintained control over economic matters and exercised authority over mail services, immigration, defense and other basic governmental matters.
(1)Panama is territory of Colombia (2) 1903- TR ask Colombia to sign a treaty for the Canal Zone- they reject it (3) Panama is “inspired” to have a revolution for independence from Colombia. TR factor- US aid financially / 10 warships in the neighborhood / US troops blockade RR to stop Colombia military The most spectacular of Roosevelt's foreign policy initiatives was the establishment of the Panama Canal!!!
( 4) RESULTS: 1903 Panama wins Independence / US get Canal Zone $10 million + royalties / US compensated Colombia $25 million
TR visited Panama in 1906 to observe the building of the canal, Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to leave the country during his term of office. He wanted to see the spectacle, which became known as one of the world's greatest engineering feats. Nearly 30,000 workers labored ten-hour days for ten years to build the $400-million canal
Japan historical foreign policy: STRICT ISOLATION / “locked state” one port open to Dutch / 200 years U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry 1853 – gunboat diplomacy / 4 US warships arrived at port Edo 1854 – gunboat diplomacy /8 US warship arrived at port Edo / US gifts trade treaty with the United States
Japan Decision: “If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em” Japanese could benefit from knowledge of what happened to China Japanese felt that they would be in a better position to renegotiate the trade treaties, and be less likely to be imposed upon, if they adopted Western ways (democracy, imperialism, industrialization, militarization, and modernization) – 1890s westernization MEIJI DYNASTY- ruling family was open unlike shogun militant rulers of past
Meiji Japan at War First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) Gained: Formosa (Taiwan) (Manchuria) Sphere of influence in Korea Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) Destruction of Russian fleet Finally respected as a world power Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt won Noble Peace Prize Japan was granted the southern part of Sakhalin Island and a large sphere of influence in Manchuria Treaty sour/Philippines?/ Gentlemen’s Agreement Tension : US v Japan
Dec. 16, 1907- President Theodore Roosevelt stood on the weather-deck of the presidential yacht Mayflower 16 battleships of the US Atlantic Fleet, all painted white, steamed in a long majestic column out of Hampton Roads to the open sea, flanked by auxiliary ships The Cruise of the Great White Fleet
China’s foreign policy historically: STRICT ISOLATION 1839-1842 Opium War- East India Company forced China to trade opium (India) for tea. China refused the opium demanded silver for the tea. This drained England’ s gold reserves. Opium trade continued CHINA OPIUM REVOLT: 20,000 chests burn and dump it! / England navy too strong for China (no navy) Treaty of Nanking: England-China / forced China open to trade
SPHERES OF INFLUENCE 1890 China is victim of imperialism / “extraterritoriality”
US Secretary of State under McKinley / 1899 US LEFT OUT OF CHINA!! With a strong base of operations in Philippines just 400 miles from China, American businesses hoped to take advantage of China's vast resources. The foreign spheres of influence, however, threatened their ambitions. He sent letters to all the foreign powers and suggested an "Open Door" policy in China. This policy would guarantee equal trading rights for all and prevent one nation from discriminating against another within its sphere.
Who: Boxers / “Society of Harmonious Fists” Taoist Spiritual Group Incident: 20,000 Boxers roamed the countryside. (1) They attacked Christian missions, slaughtering 200 foreign missionaries and 18,000 Chinese converts. (2) Then they moved toward the cities, attracting more and more followers as they destroyed all foreign business interests (3) burned and looted Beijing (4) kill 70 Europeans (6) revolt against emperor Result: China pay reparation roughly 450 million in 1900 Goal: stop the “foreign devils” in China and take-back China