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Chapter 20.  Four presidents “squeezed” into office  Control of the House of Representatives changed five times  7 western states admitted to Union.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20.  Four presidents “squeezed” into office  Control of the House of Representatives changed five times  7 western states admitted to Union."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20

2  Four presidents “squeezed” into office  Control of the House of Representatives changed five times  7 western states admitted to Union  Incredible voter turnout  Two major issues  Economic Reform  Civil Service Reform  Political statement  Prevailing political ideologies  Campaign tactics  Party patronage

3 REPUBLICANSDEMOCRATS  “bloody shirt”  Rural and small town NE, PA, and mid-west  Platform  High tariff  Commitment to Union widow’s pensions  No right of government to regulate corporations  Leaders  Rutherford B. Hayes  James Garfield  Chester Arthur  William McKinley  Revival  South, Urban areas, Immigrants  Against tariff  Opposed prohibition  Defended immigrants  Republican programs excessive use of government  Leaders  Grover Cleveland

4  Return of Virtue  Not connected with Grant, corruption  Lemonade Lucy  Hayes “Achievements”  End of Reconstruction  Civil Service reform  NY Custom house  Stalwarts  success

5  1870s question  How to create money supply without inflation  Only “trustworthy” money silver and gold  Groups  Expansion of supply  Debtors, farmers  Limiting supply  Bankers, creditors, businessmen, politicians  Questions  Should greenbacks be retained, even expanded?  Panic of 1873  Greenback Party 1877  Wanted expanded money supply  Benefits for farmers and workers  Health and safety regulations in the workplace  Supported by labor  Return of prosperity = decline of the party  Silver Debate continued  Demonetized in 1873  Bland-Allison Act 1878  Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890

6  Republican  Civil service reform  Rival of Roscoe Conkling  Ended spoils system in NY  Martyr for reform movement  Shot in first year of term

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8  Continued civil service reform  1883 Civil Service Law (Pendleton Act)  Approves development of modern navy  Begins to question tariff  Not re-nominated by Republican party

9  Republican  James Blaine  Gilded Age controversy  Democrat  Grover Cleveland  Fought bosses and spoils system  Illegitimate child  Mugwamps and Tammany Hall  Cleveland Wins!

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11  Tariff  Believed in limited government  Wants lower tariff  Government surplus encouraged pork-barrel spending and corruption  Pensions  Vetoed bill for disabled Civil War vets  Business  Interstate Commerce Act 1887  First attempt to regulate business

12  Cleveland  Benjamin Harrison  Argued lower tariff would hurt business prosperity  Results  Harrison’s big business support too much to overcome  “Take care of the place, we’ll be back”

13  Passed McKinley Protective Tariff 1890  No foreign competition  Highest rates ever  US Business happy  People were not  Passed pension for Civil War vets in 1890  Almost bankruptcy treasury  1 st Billion dollar Congress  Sherman Anti-trust  Sherman Silver Purchase Act

14  Grange  Farming a bust in mid- west  “patrons of husbandry”  1.5 Million members  Emotional support, information, biweekly gatherings  Concern  Believed plight was due to freight rates, excessive interest rates, and federal policies  Attacked railroads  Munn v. Illinois 1877  Wasbash v. Illinois 1886  Failure  Rails too popular  Cash-only issue  Goal unrealistic  Complaints  Farmers have no control over prices of their crops  Railroads controlled where crop transported

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16  Alliance Movement  Began in Texas, 1870s  Poor farmers  Spread throughout South  Initially advocated Co- ops  Exchanges loan $ to farmers and sell their produced  1890: 3 million members  Became political  Stressed economic reform  Macune’s Ideas  Store non-perishables in government warehouses and low-interest loans

17  Grew from Alliance movement  Economic upheavals at mercy of eastern banks, manufacturing monopolies, eastern railroad trusts, and depression  Beliefs  National ownership of railroads and telegraphs  System for keeping non- perishable crops  Graduated income tax  Platform Speech  Omaha Speech  Direct popular election  State laws initiated through referendums

18  Collapse of railroad  over speculation  Government resources drained  Vet’s benefits/pork- barrel spending  Sherman Silver Purchase Act  Panic will last 4 years

19  Campaign  Reduce tariff  Laissez-faire government  Panic  Worst depression  Money debate again  Cleveland supported gold standard  Repealed Silver purchase act  Downfall  Pullman Strike  Reaction  Pawn of Industrialists  To save gold reserve, went to J.P Morgan  Borrowed $62 million  Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894  Income tax of 2%  Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust

20  Protests 1884  Mid-term reelection of Democrats a disaster  Issue: Money  Democratic Split  Silver  William J. Bryan  Populist support  Republicans Triumph  William McKinley  Mark Hanna “king maker”  Front-porch campaign  1 st modern campaign  Mass media blitz

21  Consequences of Election  Populist demise  Urban domination of politics  Beginning of modern politics  Tariff  Dingley Tariff 1897  New all-time high rates  Ok b/c of economic recovery  Gold in Alaska  Currency Act 1900  Committed US to gold standard  Expansionism  Cuba  Philippines  Death  Murdered at World’s Fair  Severe consequences

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23  Roots  1840s Manifest Destiny  1880s US “Global Destiny”  Europe takes the lead  1884 dividing of Africa  Asia  Navy  Alfred T. Mahan 1890  Religion  Spread Christianity  Racist tinge  Supporters of Expansion  1890’s patriots “jingoism”  Henry Cabot Lodge  Teddy Roosevelt  Skirmishes  US v. Great Britain  Bering Sea  Canada 1898  Latin America  Chile 1891  Venezuela 1895  Pacific Expansion  Samoan Islands 1889  Hawaii  Sugar plantations control 1887  Queen Liliuokalani  Annexation “requested” 1893  Cleveland balks  McKinley annexes 1898

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27  Crisis  Rebellion 1895  Concentration camps  Yellow Journalism  William Randolph-Hearst  Frederic Remington  “You furnish me the pictures, I’ll furnish the war”  Joseph Pulitzer  Resolution? I think not.  Attempt 1897  De Lome Letter 1898  USS Maine 1898  270 died  War message  Teller Amendment  Spanish-American War  “splendid little war”  Battle: short  Dewey: Philippines  Black soldiers segregated  Fought with distinction  Cuba: Santiago de Cuba  Rough Riders  Deaths  379 deaths  5,000 to disease, food poisoning  Armistice July 17  Results  20 Million  Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico  Platt Amendment 1901  Critics  Anti-Imperialists

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29  Stepping stones to the Pacific  Guerilla War  Difficult  Long, costly war  Civilians suffered  Expansion and Progression  US expansionism buoyed  Economic modernization of the Philippines

30  Return of Democrat Rule  Loss of voting rights  Return of segregation  lynching  No help  Alliance movement  AFL  Supreme Court  Civil Rights Act 1875 nullified  Civil Rights Cases 1883  Plessey V. Ferguson 1896  Response  Kansas Exodus  1879-1880  40-60,000  Benjamin “Pap” Singleton  Booker T. Washington  Blacks must acquire useful skills like farming and carpentry to prove economic value  Don’t join Unions  Racism would fade

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