Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Suffer the Children: The Collinwood Tragedy By Paul Rega MD, FACEP Kelly Burkholder-Allen RN, MSEd.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Suffer the Children: The Collinwood Tragedy By Paul Rega MD, FACEP Kelly Burkholder-Allen RN, MSEd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Suffer the Children: The Collinwood Tragedy By Paul Rega MD, FACEP Kelly Burkholder-Allen RN, MSEd

2 Objective The purpose of this topic is to present an American tragedy little-known to disaster management professionals and the public at-large and to demonstrate the vulnerability of our children to any unique situation, whether natural or man-made, accidental or intentional.

3 Dedication This presentation is dedicated to the 174 students and 2 teachers who perished in this disaster and to the citizens of Collinwood, Ohio whose lives were irrevocably changed thereafter. *There is mention in many accounts of an additional individual; a rescuer, who perished in the fire

4 Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. George Santayana

5 Summary On March 4, 1908, the Lakeview Elementary School in Collinwood, Ohio was enveloped in flames. Within thirty minutes, 174 students and 2 teachers perished. This was the worst school fire in the history of the United States up to that time.

6 Before the Disaster A Time of Energy and Promise Prologue

7 Sunday school class

8 Views of Cleveland

9 Collinwood, Ohio

10 As Cleveland grew in importance so did Collinwood. By 1908 it became an enclave of 8,000 citizens many of them immigrant Croats, Slovenes, and Serbs.

11 Immigrants undergoing processing at Ellis Island

12 It was also the center of operations for the Lake Shore and Southern Michigan Railroad. Collinwood Round House

13 Fire Departments of Old

14 Before the fire LAKEVIEW ELEMENTARY

15 Lakeview Elementary Located on East 152nd Street Located on East 152nd Street Built in 1902 Built in 1902 Due to immigration, by 1908 the school population swelled to more than 360. Due to immigration, by 1908 the school population swelled to more than 360.

16 Lakeview’s Design and Architecture 3-Story edifice 3-Story edifice Constructed of wood save for its brick façade: a construction similar to that all over the country, especially in small towns Constructed of wood save for its brick façade: a construction similar to that all over the country, especially in small towns Three exits: Front, back entrances and an uncovered fire escape Three exits: Front, back entrances and an uncovered fire escape Hallways: Long and narrow Hallways: Long and narrow Wooden stairways placed diagonally to exit doors Wooden stairways placed diagonally to exit doors

17 Lakeview’s Design and Architecture To accommodate increased number of students, a third floor auditorium was converted into another classroom. To accommodate increased number of students, a third floor auditorium was converted into another classroom. Vestibule added to rear entrance to create a cloakroom. This narrowed the exit dimensions from 10’4” to 5’3”. Vestibule added to rear entrance to create a cloakroom. This narrowed the exit dimensions from 10’4” to 5’3”. Furnace located in basement directly under first floor area leading to exit. Furnace located in basement directly under first floor area leading to exit.

18 Lakeview was not inspected by the State Fire Marshal, but that was not unusual at that time. It did meet the established building codes of Cleveland.

19 The school had been inspected and insured one year earlier by the Cleveland Insurance Agency and deemed a desirable risk.

20 Lakeview Elementary Fire Drills Conducted three times a year Conducted three times a year For most of the students, the front entrance was identified as the principal route of escape. For most of the students, the front entrance was identified as the principal route of escape. The last drill was conducted just three weeks prior to the fire. The last drill was conducted just three weeks prior to the fire.

21 Principal Players in a Tragedy Fred Hirter: Janitor Fred Hirter: Janitor Ethel Rose: Teacher Ethel Rose: Teacher Katherine Weiler: Teacher Katherine Weiler: Teacher Grace Fisk: Teacher Grace Fisk: Teacher Wallace Upton: Parent Wallace Upton: Parent C.G. McIlrath: Collinwood Police Chief C.G. McIlrath: Collinwood Police Chief W.A. Stevens: Fire escape builder W.A. Stevens: Fire escape builder

22 ACT ONE The Fire

23 March 4, 1908 The day began with the students singing “America”

24 The fire originated near the furnace in the basement.

25 Fire officials determined that the fire was accidental. Apparently, the furnace pipes which were not properly insulated were situated within two inches of the wooden floor. Over time, this placement dried out the wood to the point that it became kindling and ignited.

26 Between 9-9:45 AM, smoke was detected around the front staircase adjacent to the front entrance. Fred Hirter, the janitor, activated the fire alarm located in a first floor classroom and ran to make sure that the front and back doors were opened. Fred Hirter

27 Initially, the students from the first, second, and third floors evacuated easily enough out the main entrance in keeping with their prior fire drill activities. Matters were going smoothly according to plan.

28 However, within a matter of minutes, the basement fire began consuming the floor in front of the main entrance. That avenue of escape was now blocked by a wall of smoke and flames.

29 The Panic Begins ACT TWO

30 One parent, Wallace Upton succeeded in rescuing 19 children. Yet he was unable to save his own daughter. He saw her as she breathed her last among her burnt and trampled comrades. The janitor lost three of his own. Another parent tried to rescue one of his children from a burning mound of corpses, but only succeeded in pulling off her arms from her incinerated body.

31 The personnel at the Lake Shore shops were rapidly made aware of the situation. The shops were closed and everyone ran to the holocaust. Many of them were parents of the school children. The managers sent along supplies of stretchers, blankets, and other resources. The Lake Shore surgeon, Dr. W.H. Williams, also responded and assisted with the organization and dispersal of those resources.

32 The American railroad industry as personified by those who came from the Lake Shore shops had been victimized time and time again by rail disasters in that era. Those past experiences compelled rail managers to store needed disaster supplies for a potential catastrophe.

33 “… the children lay five or six deep, the fire had already reached them, and I could see the flames catch first one and then another… the fire swept through the hall, springing from one child to another catching their hair and the dresses of the girls. The cries were dreadful to hear.” Henry Ellis, rescuer

34 “...those (students) who could, stretched out their arms to me and cried for me to help them.” Ms. Goldman, teacher; Later accused of abandoning her class

35 “I saw my little Helen among them (children trapped). I tried to pull her out, but the flames drove me back. I had to leave my little girl to die.” Fred Hirter, Janitor/Parent

36 “I reached in and stroked her (trapped daughter) head…trying to keep the fire away from her till a heavy piece of glass fell on me, cutting my hand nearly off. Then I fell back and my girl died before my face.” Mrs. John Philits, Parent

37 The arrival of the Collinwood Fire Department twenty minutes after the alarm was sounded raised the hopes of the frantic parents. Hope of deliverance soon changed to anger and despair.

38 With the traditional escape route blocked the teachers tried to re-direct the students out the first floor windows, up the stairs to the fire escape, and out the rear entrance.

39 Many of the children were unable to deviate from what they learned during past drills. Ominously, the fear and the panic and the terror grew and spread from child to child.

40 The rear entrance whose dimensions were already halved by a makeshift vestibule, was narrowed further when one of the doors closed. The escape width was now down to approximately 2ft. 7 in.

41 The scene at the rear entrance became horrific. Children jammed into the vestibule screamed, writhed, and suffocated as little bodies began to pile up on each other. Children from above hurled themselves from the staircase banisters onto the growing pile below.

42 The narrow hallways and staircases became unintentional flues funneling smoke and fire to all areas of the schoolhouse.

43 As terror overcame authority, many of the children allowed themselves to be enveloped by the piles of bodies, those dead and about to die, wedged into doors and windows.

44 Students Mary Ridgeway, Anna Roth, and Gertrude Davis escaped the encroaching fire by jumping to their deaths from third floor windows.

45 Most of the teachers escaped unscathed assisting in the escape of roughly half of their charges. Teacher, Katherine Weiler, however, died at Glenville Hospital of burns she sustained while re-directing her students down the fire escape. Katherine Weiler

46 Another teacher, Grace Fiske, was found dead in the rubble among her students. Witnesses testified that she was at one of the windows shielding her students as she was guiding them out of the windows.

47 The The Response Response ACT THREE

48 Nearby residents were quickly made aware of the impending tragedy. As they descended onto the site their olfactory and visual senses were assaulted by the smoke and flames and by children hurling themselves from upper story windows. Their ears suffered the cries and screams of the injured and dying.

49 Many of these first responders were the parents. Some escorted the survivors away from the site. Others tore at the building to attempt rescue. The arrival of onlookers and rescuers

50 “Send help. The Collinwood School is burning.” The Collinwood telegrapher alerting Cleveland within a few minutes of the rescue call

51 A Funeral Pyre

52

53 With prosperity came self- assurance and Collinwood rejected any annexation measures with Cleveland. Rather, she relied upon her own citizens, resources, and infrastructure to maintain and sustain herself. Collinwood High School

54 A key ingredient in this infrastructure was the Collinwood Fire Department. It was responsible for the safety and protection of its 8,000 inhabitants, as well as for the millions of dollars of development located over 43 miles of city streets.

55 One hour after the alarm was sounded, Cleveland Engine Company #7 arrived on scene with aerial ladders that could pluck the remaining children from their third story perches. With sad irony, it was at that same time that the second and third stories fell victim to the flames and collapsed onto the debris of the decimated first floor.

56 Cleveland Firefighters

57 Police Chief C.G. McIlrath had three children who attended the school. While performing his duties, he witnessed one of his children lead fellow students to safety and then disappear into the flames. For six hours, the Chief remained at his post not knowing whether his children were dead or alive.

58 While onlookers worked with officials to fight the fire and to save any victims, others continued to vent their frustrations on both police and fire personnel. Amidst chaos the search continues

59 Why? Their ladders did not extend beyond the second story. Their ladders did not extend beyond the second story. They forgot their axes– a crucial piece of equipment for breaking through blocked doors and windows. They forgot their axes– a crucial piece of equipment for breaking through blocked doors and windows. The water pressure in their hoses was ineffective beyond the first floor. The water pressure in their hoses was ineffective beyond the first floor.

60 Fire apparatus sending forth a weak stream of water at the school

61 Futility reigns

62 A Daisy-Chain of Parents and Responders Carrying out the Remains

63 The rescue effort slowly became one of body recovery. Officials, parents, and bystanders began to sift through the charred debris to find blackened bones and half-consumed bodies. The remains were brought out in containers no bigger than baskets. They were placed into the twenty or so ambulances “dead wagons” that were lined up at the back of the schoolhouse.

64 A Collinwood “Dead Wagon”

65 During the recovery process, it was estimated that the pile of bodies trapped at the rear entrance approached 5 ft. high. Many of them had died from asphyxiation and crush before any of the flames had reached them. Rear Entrance

66 By 1:30 PM the fire was officially declared over.

67 Shock and Disbelief

68 The crowd continues to build

69 The shell of a corpse

70 The Cleveland Plain Dealer March 7, 1908

71 “The construction (of the schoolhouse)…was an outrage… the poor little children were caught in a veritable trap and held and crushed until burned to death.” Mr. Burke, County Coroner

72 Fingerpointing City council blamed for shelving a motion to upgrade the fire department. City council blamed for shelving a motion to upgrade the fire department. School Board blamed for an oversized school population and for poorly planned and executed fire drills. School Board blamed for an oversized school population and for poorly planned and executed fire drills. Collinwood citizens blamed for voting down annexation measures and bond issues. Collinwood citizens blamed for voting down annexation measures and bond issues. W.A. Stevens, builder of the school’s fire escape, advised the school board that at least three fire escapes should have been built; advice that was rejected due to unwillingness to spend money. W.A. Stevens, builder of the school’s fire escape, advised the school board that at least three fire escapes should have been built; advice that was rejected due to unwillingness to spend money.

73 Official conclusions from local boards of inquiry Given existing laws and regulations, no person or agency was to be blamed for the tragedy. Given existing laws and regulations, no person or agency was to be blamed for the tragedy. The true cause was the panic of the children while attempting to evacuate. The true cause was the panic of the children while attempting to evacuate.

74 An Touch of Irony The school board awarded the contract to design and construct the new school to Searles, Hirsch, & Gavin -- the same firm that designed the old school. The school board awarded the contract to design and construct the new school to Searles, Hirsch, & Gavin -- the same firm that designed the old school.

75 Repercussions in Ohio Duties of the Ohio State Inspector of Workshops and Factories expanded to include oversight of schools Duties of the Ohio State Inspector of Workshops and Factories expanded to include oversight of schools Addition of 10 additional deputy inspectors Addition of 10 additional deputy inspectors All future school construction to be approved by the Chief Fire Inspector All future school construction to be approved by the Chief Fire Inspector

76 Repercussions in Ohio Within a year, laws were passed that mandated Within a year, laws were passed that mandated –Frequent, adequate fire drills –Fire safety instruction to children –Every private/public school teacher to spend thirty minutes/month to teach students (ages:6-14 yr.) fire rules to be developed by the Fire Marshal.

77 Ultimately, the Collinwood tragedy created a groundswell of activities and measures that led to the condemnation of unsafe buildings, alterations in fire escape design, development of safer exits and devices such as “panic bars”, and relocation of furnaces to safer locations.

78 Donations to the grief- stricken came from across the country. Noteworthy were donations from the schoolchildren of Cleveland, a travelling vaudevillian by the name of Harry Houdini, and survivors from the recent General Slocum catastrophe. Houdini General Slocum

79 A bill to provide $25,000 to assist with the burials was passed by the Ohio General Assembly. The Collinwood Board of Trade added $3,000 more.

80 Reverberations Across America Illinois Board of Health ordered the closure of all schools with doors that opened inward and had combustible fire escapes. Illinois Board of Health ordered the closure of all schools with doors that opened inward and had combustible fire escapes. Cleveland school board mandated that school basements be fireproof, that staircases be constructed of iron, that fire escapes be enclosed, and that vestibules have no inner doors. Cleveland school board mandated that school basements be fireproof, that staircases be constructed of iron, that fire escapes be enclosed, and that vestibules have no inner doors. Similar actions took place in Indiana, Kansas City, and Pittsburgh among others. Similar actions took place in Indiana, Kansas City, and Pittsburgh among others.

81 Reports from New York City At about the same time, a fire developed in a school in lower Manhattan. Over 1,000 students were safely evacuated in two minutes. The successful operation was the result of fireproof construction, broad hallways, and the conducting of fire drills every 2-4 months. At about the same time, a fire developed in a school in lower Manhattan. Over 1,000 students were safely evacuated in two minutes. The successful operation was the result of fireproof construction, broad hallways, and the conducting of fire drills every 2-4 months. However, a few weeks after Collinwood, NYC Fire Chiefs reported that schools over 10 years old had defective doors, wooden staircases, and malfunctioning fire extinguishers. However, a few weeks after Collinwood, NYC Fire Chiefs reported that schools over 10 years old had defective doors, wooden staircases, and malfunctioning fire extinguishers.

82 London reported their schools harbored similar conditions that were found at Lake View. London reported their schools harbored similar conditions that were found at Lake View. Parisian authorities decreed that fire drills be conducted more frequently than once a month. Parisian authorities decreed that fire drills be conducted more frequently than once a month. The German Press having witnessed the death toll in the Iroquois Theatre and General Slocum catastrophes were exceedingly harsh in their judgments about American concerns for safety. The German Press having witnessed the death toll in the Iroquois Theatre and General Slocum catastrophes were exceedingly harsh in their judgments about American concerns for safety. Reverberations Overseas

83 Meanwhile, Days of Sadness… Loss of Innocence Each day, scores of funeral processions led by small white coffins traversed the streets of Collinwood. Each day, scores of funeral processions led by small white coffins traversed the streets of Collinwood. Due to the numbers of dead, hearses were unavailable. Special “funeral” streetcars draped in black and white were substituted. Due to the numbers of dead, hearses were unavailable. Special “funeral” streetcars draped in black and white were substituted. One coffin contained the remains of three playmates who were found in the fire huddled together. One coffin contained the remains of three playmates who were found in the fire huddled together.

84 Glenville Hospital cared for a number of the injured victims. At the end of the day, this hospital sheltered the remains of seven victims. Little else is known about the numbers who were injured, but survived.

85 The destination of most of the “dead wagons” was the storehouse at the Lake shore shops. It would be the temporary morgue for the next twenty- four hours. Remains of the dead along the storehouse floor

86 Identifying the dead

87 At this “morgue”: Police and shop personnel stood guard as the blanketed remains were placed in rows of ten. One railroad worker was in charge of each row. Tags were placed on each of the remains to identify gender. One family at a time was escorted in to identify loved ones. Physicians and nurses were arriving to assist families both medically and psychologically. The second floor of the storehouse became the “hospital”.

88 Victim identification was no easy task. In many cases, identification was accomplished by circumstantial evidence. Eight-year-old Danny Clark's remains were identified by his favorite bright green marble located on his torso. Nine-year-old Russell Newberry was identified from a watch chain fragment. Recent dental fillings and shreds of new clothes helped to identify others.

89 Hour after grisly hour, the process continued. Once a loved one was identified it would be wrapped in white and the family escorted out to make way for the next family’s ordeal. Police Chief McIlrath, at one point, told that one of his children was dead, went to the morgue, identified the remains, then went back to his duties well into the night.

90 By 4PM, 165 bodies were arrayed on the storehouse floor. All but 56 were identified by midnight. These were later These were later removed to the removed to the town hall. In town hall. In time all but time all but nineteen bodies nineteen bodies were identified. were identified. Town Hall

91 Lost Innocence

92

93 The Next 24 hours The Next 24 hours Nearly 25,000 people converge upon Collinwood. American Amusement Co. begins selling souvenir postcards of the scene to the public. The Young Women’s Christians Association of Cleveland send 100 volunteers to care for the families and the injured. Two hundred members of the Salvation Army arrive. Various church groups, doctors, and nurses also come to assist. Crowd control provided by members of the Collinwood and Cleveland Police Departments.

94 The Next Few Days As one segment of the Collinwood family begins to bury its dead, the coroner’s office, the school board, and the village council begin their series of investigations. The janitor is singled out by the community as having played a part in the fire. Rumors spread that he was not at his post and that he had locked the doors of escape. Fearing his life was in danger, police provided guards to protect him from the hundreds gathered at his house. Only the sight of the white caskets of his children issuing from his house forced the throng to reconsider any thoughts of revenge.

95 EPILOGUE Recovery

96 A Funeral Procession

97 Another white casket leaving home one last time

98 Horse drawn hearse with a white coffin

99 Lake View Cemetery and the burial site of a number of the school fire victims

100

101 Close-up of the Collinwood Elementary School Monument at the Lake View Cemetery

102 The grave layout of the victims at Lakeview Cemetery. The top row contains the unidentified. Grace Fiske is at the lower left on the bottom row.

103 Note that many of the names are of Middle and Eastern European ancestry.

104 A Graveside Casket

105 The City of Collinwood purchased a common grave at Lake View Cemetery for the interment of the 21 children who remained unidentified and unclaimed. White Caskets In Array

106 Teacher and pupils: Together in death and forever

107 Lakeview Cemetery graves registration card for one of the unidentified children

108 Another Lakeview Cemetery graves registration card

109 Amidst the dirt and fallen leaves lies embedded a grave marker of one of the unidentified children.

110 The Memorial Elementary School was built on the site of the previous school. 1910

111 Boarded-up entrance of the now-defunct Memorial School

112 1909 A memorial garden created

113 Despite a general ignorance surrounding this tragedy, efforts continue to assure that the victims are not forgotten. Note: Only known record that a rescuer was also killed on that day.

114 Marie Pengler, the last known Collinwood survivor

115 memento mori

116 Bibliography “All Collinwood Mourn.” New York Times. March 9, “All Collinwood Mourn.” New York Times. March 9, “Anger Is Now Mingled With Collinwood’s Sorrow and Woe.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 6, 1908, p 1-4. “Anger Is Now Mingled With Collinwood’s Sorrow and Woe.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 6, 1908, p 1-4. Bellamy, JS: They Died Crawling & Other Tales of Cleveland. Cray and Co., Cleveland, OH, Bellamy, JS: They Died Crawling & Other Tales of Cleveland. Cray and Co., Cleveland, OH, Cigliano, J: Showplace of America: Cleveland’s Euclid Avenue Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, Cigliano, J: Showplace of America: Cleveland’s Euclid Avenue Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, City of Cleveland, Board of Public Safety. “Resolution Authorizing Contract Between Board of Public Safety and Waterworks, Division of Board of Public Safety for Construction of Pipeline Extension. December 17, City of Cleveland, Board of Public Safety. “Resolution Authorizing Contract Between Board of Public Safety and Waterworks, Division of Board of Public Safety for Construction of Pipeline Extension. December 17, City of Cleveland, Department of Fire. “Ordinance Amendment: Section 149 of Revised Ordinances of 1907, re: Fire Personnel.” February 11, City of Cleveland, Department of Fire. “Ordinance Amendment: Section 149 of Revised Ordinances of 1907, re: Fire Personnel.” February 11, City of Cleveland Department of Public Safety. “Communication to City Council of City of Cleveland, re: Installation of Pumping Station.” March 16, City of Cleveland Department of Public Safety. “Communication to City Council of City of Cleveland, re: Installation of Pumping Station.” March 16, Cleveland Memory Project: Cleveland Memory Project: Condon, GE: Yesterday’s Cleveland. EA Seeman Publisher, Miami, OH Condon, GE: Yesterday’s Cleveland. EA Seeman Publisher, Miami, OH. 1976

117 Bibliography Cornell, J: T he Disaster Book, 3 rd Edition. Charles Scribner’s Sons, NY, NY Cornell, J: T he Disaster Book, 3 rd Edition. Charles Scribner’s Sons, NY, NY Council, City of Cleveland. “Ordinance Amendment, Section 14 of Title XXXI for Part II for the Ordinance Number A, re: Building Codes.” April 2, Council, City of Cleveland. “Ordinance Amendment, Section 14 of Title XXXI for Part II for the Ordinance Number A, re: Building Codes.” April 2, Davis L: Manmade Catastrophe, Facts on File. NY, NY, 1993 p 325. Davis L: Manmade Catastrophe, Facts on File. NY, NY, 1993 p 325. Everett, M: Complete Story of the Collinwood School Disaster. NG Hamilton Publishing Co., Cleveland, OH Everett, M: Complete Story of the Collinwood School Disaster. NG Hamilton Publishing Co., Cleveland, OH “Fire Traps Here Will Be Closed.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 8, p 1-4. “Fire Traps Here Will Be Closed.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 8, p 1-4. Foote, KE: Shadowed Ground: America’s Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX p 85-86, Foote, KE: Shadowed Ground: America’s Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX p 85-86, Gilbert, WD: “Ohio Auditor of State Annual Report 1908.” Springfield Publishing Corp., Springfield, OH Gilbert, WD: “Ohio Auditor of State Annual Report 1908.” Springfield Publishing Corp., Springfield, OH “Investigators Believe It Was Caused by Overheated Boiler-Janitor Collapses.” New York Times. March 6, “Investigators Believe It Was Caused by Overheated Boiler-Janitor Collapses.” New York Times. March 6, 1908.

118 Bibliography Johnson, SC: History of Cuyahoga County, Ohio. DW Ensign and Co., Cleveland, OH Johnson, SC: History of Cuyahoga County, Ohio. DW Ensign and Co., Cleveland, OH Jones, Edmond: “The 55 th Annual Report of the State Commissioners of Community Schools 1909.” Springfield Publishing Corps., Springfield, OH Jones, Edmond: “The 55 th Annual Report of the State Commissioners of Community Schools 1909.” Springfield Publishing Corps., Springfield, OH “Legislature Provides Relief: Governor Appoints Commission to Distribute $25,000 at Collinwood.” The Blade. March 6, “Legislature Provides Relief: Governor Appoints Commission to Distribute $25,000 at Collinwood.” The Blade. March 6, “Many Schools Fire Traps.” New York Times. March 8, “Many Schools Fire Traps.” New York Times. March 8, Miller CP, Wheeler R: Cleveland, A Concise History Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN Miller CP, Wheeler R: Cleveland, A Concise History Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN Newton: “Collinwood: Fire Drill That Failed.” New York American. March 5, 1908, (eds.), in Disaster, Disaster, Disaster: Catastrophes Which Changed Laws. Franklin Watts, Inc., p Newton: “Collinwood: Fire Drill That Failed.” New York American. March 5, 1908, (eds.), in Disaster, Disaster, Disaster: Catastrophes Which Changed Laws. Franklin Watts, Inc., p “Public Schools: A Fire Emptied in a Minute.” New York Times. March 7, “Public Schools: A Fire Emptied in a Minute.” New York Times. March 7, Scully, FX: “The Fire That Ignited America’s Conscience.” The Western Reserve Magazine p Scully, FX: “The Fire That Ignited America’s Conscience.” The Western Reserve Magazine p Smith, W: Museum Echoes. July p Smith, W: Museum Echoes. July p

119 Bibliography State of Ohio. “Ohio Building Code.” FJ Heer Printing Co., Columbus, OH State of Ohio. “Ohio Building Code.” FJ Heer Printing Co., Columbus, OH “Toll of Death in Collinwood Fire 174: All Day Hearses Wend Way to Graveyards.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 7, p 1-5. “Toll of Death in Collinwood Fire 174: All Day Hearses Wend Way to Graveyards.” Cleveland Plain Dealer. March 7, p 1-5. Van Tassel, D and Grabowski, J: Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, 2 nd Edition. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis and Bloomington, IN p 305. Van Tassel, D and Grabowski, J: Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, 2 nd Edition. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis and Bloomington, IN p 305. “Victims in School Fire Number 165; Stern Hand Falls On Those To Blame.” Cleveland Plain Dealer Extra Edition. March 5, p 1-3. “Victims in School Fire Number 165; Stern Hand Falls On Those To Blame.” Cleveland Plain Dealer Extra Edition. March 5, p 1-3. Vonada, D: Amazing Ohio. Orange Frazier Press, Wilmington, OH Vonada, D: Amazing Ohio. Orange Frazier Press, Wilmington, OH


Download ppt "Suffer the Children: The Collinwood Tragedy By Paul Rega MD, FACEP Kelly Burkholder-Allen RN, MSEd."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google