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Immigration plus industrialization led to rapid urbanization—growth of cities to rapid urbanization—growth of cities.

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration plus industrialization led to rapid urbanization—growth of cities to rapid urbanization—growth of cities."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Immigration plus industrialization led to rapid urbanization—growth of cities to rapid urbanization—growth of cities

3 1920 census: 1921: 51.4% of Americans lived in cities Americans lived in cities of 2,500 or more of 2,500 or more New York City: 3 million in 1900 3 million in 1900 5.6 million in 1920 5.6 million in 1920 Chicago: 1 million in 1900 3 million in 1920 3 million in 1920

4 Cities: Cheapest & most convenient places to live Jobs for unskilled laborers in mills and factories Provided social support of other immigrant families immigrant families 1890, more Irish in NYC than in Dublin, Ireland; world’s largest Dublin, Ireland; world’s largest Polish population in Chicago, IL Polish population in Chicago, IL

5 1861: immigrants: 20% of increase 1881-1885: just short of 50% of increase 1906-1910: 60% of population increase 1916-1920: decline a. World War I b. Great flu epidemic c. Spanish American War d. Chinese Exclusion Act e. Red Scare following W W I Immigration changes population

6 Agricultural inventions reduced need for labor on farms for labor on farms Many farm workers moved to cities for industrial jobs for industrial jobs Included several African Americans moving from the South—200,000 moving from the South—200,000 between 1890 and 1910 to escape between 1890 and 1910 to escape racial violence, economic hardship racial violence, economic hardship and political oppression and political oppression

7 Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux Calvert Vaux Antidote to congestion of the city landscape landscape

8 N. Y. Metropolitan Museum Of Art Daniel Burnham and The Great White City Chicago’sColumbianExposition—1893

9 Row houses—single family dwellings Row houses—single family dwellings for working class for working class Immigrants lived in dumb- Immigrants lived in dumb- bell tenements—over- bell tenements—over- crowded and unsanitary crowded and unsanitary Garbage/trash collection Garbage/trash collection was infrequent and was infrequent and people dumped on street people dumped on street or in building air shafts or in building air shafts causing rats, filth and disease. causing rats, filth and disease.

10 Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives (1910)

11 Transportation: Mass transit First electric streetcar line in Richmond, VA in 1888 Richmond, VA in 1888 Cable cars in San Francisco 1873 Subway in Boston in 1897

12 Elisha Otis Louis Sullivan

13 Fire prevention and fighting Building materials changed from wood to steel and brick wood to steel and brick 1853—Cincinnati, OH—first paid fire department fire department Great fires: Chicago (Oct 8, 1871) San Francisco (earthquake) April 18, 1906 April 18, 1906

14 Chicago: 29 hours, 300 deaths, 3 square miles, 100,000 homeless, 3 square miles, 100,000 homeless, 17,500 buildings, $200 million 17,500 buildings, $200 million San Francisco: 4 days, 478 deaths, 5 square miles, 250,000 homeless, 5 square miles, 250,000 homeless, 28,000 buildings, $500 million 28,000 buildings, $500 million

15 Water—challenge to supply safe, fresh Water—challenge to supply safe, fresh water to people in cities water to people in cities 1840s-1850s, New York and Cleveland built public waterworks Still, little indoor plumbing— Still, little indoor plumbing— faucets on streets; lugged to faucets on streets; lugged to apartments apartments 1893—chlorination; 1908—filtration 1893—chlorination; 1908—filtration

16 ThomasCrapper—but did not solve the sanitation problem as long as sewage poured into open ditches or streams

17 Limited relief, however; Tensions between Protestants and Catholics over religious and Catholics over religious doctrine and standards of doctrine and standards of morality morality Restrict aid to “deserving poor” poor” Too much assistance would breed dependency; poverty due to laziness or breed dependency; poverty due to laziness or alcoholism alcoholism Social Gospel: linking religion to improving society, particularly relief to the poor. society, particularly relief to the poor. Example: The Salvation Army

18 Reform via Settlement Houses Community centers in slums that that provided help and friendship Middle class, college educated women Jane Addams— Hull House in Chicago Hull House in Chicago Solving neighborhood Solving neighborhood problems problems Antiwar & racial justice Antiwar & racial justice activist; Nobel Peace Prize activist; Nobel Peace Prize 1931 1931

19 Murder rate in late 19 th century 1880: 25 per million; 100 per million

20 Evolution of political machines Evolution of political machines Organization controlling activities of one political party in cities one political party in cities Services to voters and business in exchange for votes or money exchange for votes or money City boss; ward bosses; precinct captains and workers captains and workers City boss’s power: control of thousands of jobs, including police, thousands of jobs, including police, firefighters, sanitation & influence firefighters, sanitation & influence over courts and licenses over courts and licenses

21 Political machines sympathetic to Political machines sympathetic to immigrants—jobs, citizenship, housing, immigrants—jobs, citizenship, housing, political protection in exchange for political protection in exchange for votes votes Some machines turned to fraud Some machines turned to fraud Dogs, children, dead people voting Kickbacks on municipal contracts— workers turn in bill higher than workers turn in bill higher than actual cost & “kick back” a portion actual cost & “kick back” a portion of earnings of earnings

22 Tammany Hall New York City Democratic machine, 1869-1871 1869-1871 William Marcy “Boss” Tweed & Tweed Ring— Tweed & Tweed Ring— pocketed $200 million pocketed $200 million in kickbacks & payoffs. in kickbacks & payoffs. Ridiculed by cartoonist Thomas Nast in Harper’s Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly. Tweed eventually convicted. Weekly. Tweed eventually convicted.

23 Factors that made boss rule possible Power of immigrant voters Link between political organizations and the wealthy, prominent citizens who profited from wealthy, prominent citizens who profited from their dealings their dealings Structural weaknesses of city governments Boss: invisible government—alternative to inadequate municipal government inadequate municipal government

24 Shopping First shopping center: Cleveland, OH, 1890 Cleveland, OH, 1890 First department store: Marshall Field in Chicago in 1865. “Give the lady in Chicago in 1865. “Give the lady what she wants.” Allowed people to what she wants.” Allowed people to take merchandise home on approval. take merchandise home on approval. F. W. Woolworth—The Five and Dime Store and first chain store, 1870s Store and first chain store, 1870s

25 Mail-order catalogs Montgomery Ward--1872 Sears Roebuck--1896 1910—10 million Americans 1910—10 million Americans shopped by mail—enhanced shopped by mail—enhanced by RFD (Rural Free Delivery) by RFD (Rural Free Delivery) Richard Sears & Alvah Roebuck

26 Simon Patten Simon Patten The Theory of Prosperity The Theory of Prosperity The New Basis of Civilization The New Basis of Civilization In modern, industrial societies, the In modern, industrial societies, the problems of scarcity had been problems of scarcity had been overcome. The new economics overcome. The new economics would create enough wealth to satisfy needs and desires; focus—pursuit of pleasure American Leisure 1889 saying: “Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, and eight hours eight hours for rest, and eight hours for what we will.” for what we will.”

27 American Leisure Amusement parks—often built by trolly-car companies seeking more trolly-car companies seeking more riders riders Coney Island in NY (first roller coaster 1884) First Ferris Wheel: Chicago World’s Fair 1893

28 Spectator sport of baseball 50 clubs by 1850 1869—Cincinnati Red Stockings toured playing local teams toured playing local teams 1876—National League 1901—American League 1903—First World Series— Boston Pilgrims beat Boston Pilgrims beat Pittsburgh Pirates Pittsburgh Pirates Negro Leagues for African Americans Americans

29 Shoeless Joe Jackson

30 Football: appealed to the more elite segments of the male population—originated in colleges/universities Rutgers v. Princeton, 1869 Dr. James Naismith

31 Spectator sport of boxing (prize fighting) fighting) Bare knuckles Marquis of Queesnberry rules rules John L. Sullivan—1882 Gentleman Jim Corbett used footwork (boxing used footwork (boxing skill) to knock out skill) to knock out Sullivan in 21 st round in Sullivan in 21 st round in 1892 1892

32 Live theater—Sarah Bernhardt, Lillie Langtry, and Jenny Lind Lillie Langtry, and Jenny Lind Vaudeville—songs, dancing, slapstick comedy, chorus lines slapstick comedy, chorus lines Circus: P. T. Barnum & Anthony Bailey The Greatest Show On Earth

33 Ragtime music: Scott Joplin Motion pictures 10-minutes; 1 reel 10-minutes; 1 reel The Great Train Robbery 1903—told a story 1903—told a story D. W. Griffith’s epic The Birth of a Nation 1915—3 hours but Inflamed racial prejudice

34 Mass Circulation Newspapers Sensational headlines and promotional stunts (Nellie Bly, New York World) Joseph Pulitzer— pioneered Sunday pioneered Sunday editions, sports pages, editions, sports pages, comics, women’s news comics, women’s news “Sin, sex, and sensation”

35 Mass Circulation Newspapers William Randolph Hearst Yellow journalism— exaggerated tales of exaggerated tales of Spanish cruelty. Also Spanish cruelty. Also personal scandals, personal scandals, hypnotism, and an hypnotism, and an imaginary conquest imaginary conquest of Mars of Mars

36 Leaders: political mediocrities Rigid stalemate Both major parties: strength and stability But: Federal government did relatively little of importance of importance Politics: not national; rather based on broad regional, ethnic or religious broad regional, ethnic or religious sentiments sentiments Party system: 16 solidly Republican states 14 solidly Democratic (South) 14 solidly Democratic (South) 5 “Swing” States 5 “Swing” States

37 A period of GOP presidents (all but Cleveland) Popular vote separation: 1.5% or less Popular vote separation: 1.5% or less GOP: Senate (treaties, Supreme Court justices political appointments) political appointments) Democrats: House of Representatives (Money bills) (Money bills) Voter turnout: 78% of those eligible to vote 60-80% for off year or local elections 60-80% for off year or local elections CA Primary 2006: 28%; General: 37% CA Primary 2006: 28%; General: 37%

38 Party Loyalty: Democrats Southerners (the Solid South) Southerners (the Solid South) Catholics Catholics Immigrants Immigrants Poorer workers Poorer workers Temperance; pro-immigration Temperance; pro-immigrationRepublicans Northern Protestants Northern Protestants Old stock citizens Old stock citizens More nativist (anti-immigation) More nativist (anti-immigation)

39 Federal government: Deliver mail Maintain a military Conduct foreign policy Collect tariffs and taxes Administer Civil War pensions For Civil War veterans who had retired or for widows and children or for widows and children At peak: majority of elderly Northern male citizens male citizensCorrupt

40 Reform of Spoils System Patronage (giving of government jobs to those who helped candidates get to those who helped candidates get elected) out of control elected) out of control Many not qualified for positions Some used positions for personal gain Reformers pushed for a merit system

41 Enraged GOP Sen. Roscoe Conkling and his supporters, the Stalwarts. Half-Breeds: James G. Blaine Both competed for control of the GOP; but neither much interested in political change—simply wanted more power and patronage

42 Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican or G.O.P) Named independents to cabinet cabinet One member fired clerks who had no work to do who had no work to do Commission to investigate customhouses. Hayes fired two top customhouses. Hayes fired two top officials of NYC customhouse. officials of NYC customhouse.

43 James A. Garfield Hayes chose not to run in 1880 in 1880 GOP Convention floor fight between Stalwarts between Stalwarts (opposing spoils reform) and two (opposing spoils reform) and two groups of reformers: Mugwumps groups of reformers: Mugwumps (civil service reform) & Half-Breeds (civil service reform) & Half-Breeds (reform but still loyal to party) (reform but still loyal to party) Garfield a compromise candidate

44 James A. Garfield Garfield ties to reformers Conkling supporter, Chester A. Arthur, named VP candidate named VP candidate Arthur had been one of two NYC customhouse two NYC customhouse officials fired by Hayes officials fired by Hayes Garfield defeated Battle of Gettysburg hero Winfield S. Hancock Gettysburg hero Winfield S. Hancock

45 Garfield defeated Battle of Gettysburg hero Winfield S. Hancock

46 Garfield gave reform Republicans most patronage jobs. Stalwarts furious patronage jobs. Stalwarts furious July 2, 1881, Garfield shot in July 2, 1881, Garfield shot in Washington, D.C. train station by Washington, D.C. train station by deranged Stalwart, Charles Guiteau, deranged Stalwart, Charles Guiteau, whom Garfield had turned down whom Garfield had turned down for a patronage job. for a patronage job. Garfield dies September 19, 1881 Garfield dies September 19, 1881 and Arthur becomes president and Arthur becomes president

47 Arthur turned reformer as president Urged Congress to enact a civil service law a civil service law Pendleton Act of 1883— bipartisan civil service bipartisan civil service commission to make commission to make appointments to federal appointments to federal jobs through merit system jobs through merit system determined by an examination. determined by an examination. Caused politicians to court big business for campaign contributions business for campaign contributions

48 1884, Arthur does not run; Democrat Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Blaine—first Democratic president Blaine—first Democratic president in 24 years in 24 years Supported lower tariffs to bring down prices/ opposed by business/ industry. Congress did not support

49 1888, Cleveland defeated by Indiana Senator Benjamin Harrison Harrison financed by big business/industry business/industry Cleveland won popular vote; Harrison won electoral vote Harrison won electoral vote During Harrison Administration, Congress enacted McKinley Tariff Act Congress enacted McKinley Tariff Act of 1890, raising tariffs to highest of 1890, raising tariffs to highest level level

50 Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 Proposed by John Sherman, Senator from Ohio Senator from Ohio Outlawed trusts as interfering with interfering with free trade free trade Almost impossible to enforce—law to enforce—law was too vague and was too vague and Supreme Court did not support Supreme Court did not support

51 McKinley Tariff (October 1890) William McKinley Highest protective tariff in the history of the U. S. up to that time history of the U. S. up to that time Republicans suffered a stunning defeat in the 1890 off-year defeat in the 1890 off-year elections elections

52 Cleveland elected again in 1892 Supported lowering tariffs, but refused to sign the but refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act because it required a because it required a federal income tax. federal income tax. After 10 days, Sundays excluded, unsigned acts become law. unsigned acts become law.

53 During the period of history we During the period of history we have just studied, and up to today, have just studied, and up to today, Republicans have been the party Republicans have been the party of big business and have liked of big business and have liked high tariffs. High tariffs cause other countries to place high tariffs on their exports making them more expensive for Americans to buy; so Americans will tend to buy American goods, produced by big business. Continued To help sum up, here is a key fact from political history about which you should be aware.

54 U. S. farmers have always tended U. S. farmers have always tended to produce more than Americans to produce more than Americans can consume; so they export can consume; so they export many crops to other nations. If many crops to other nations. If our high tariffs cause other countries to increase their tariffs, our farm products won’t sell as well abroad. But, until 1913 when the 16 th Amend- ment created a permanent income tax, tariffs were the main source of income for the U.S. Government. Because Democrats were the party of the worker and, more importantly in this case, the farmer, they tended to dislike high tariffs.

55 Attempt to regulate the railroads railroads Clear: only Federal Government could Government could regulate railroads regulate railroads Banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls and short hauls RRs required to publish rate schedules and file them with the government file them with the government All interstate rail rates had to be reasonable and just and just Created the Interstate Commerce Commission Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

56 Oliver H. Kelley and the Grange Grange: elite system of initiation and ritual; strict code of secrecy Depression of 1873: major decline in farm prices; South and Midwest were strongest regions Granger Laws: Reforms attempting to bring railroads under more government control State initiatives Soon destroyed by courts; Grange lost prestige

57 Farmers’ Alliances Successors to the Grange South (Texas) 1880: Southern Alliance: >4 million members Primarily concerned with local problems Formed cooperatives and other marketing mechanisms mechanisms Argued for a sense of mutual, neighborly responsibility, enabling farmers to resist responsibility, enabling farmers to resist oppressive outside factors oppressive outside factors

58 Mary E. Lease Fiery populist orator Denounced banks, railroads and middlemen middlemen “Raise less corn and more hell!” Women also argued that sobriety was the key to stability in rural was the key to stability in rural society society

59 Ocala Demands 1889—loose merger of Southern and NW Alliances Alliances National convention in Ocala, FL Party Platform for the Alliances Party Platform for the Alliances 1890 Off-year elections: Alliance candidates won partial or complete control of 12 state legislatures, complete control of 12 state legislatures, 6 governorships, 3 U. S. Senate seats, 6 governorships, 3 U. S. Senate seats, 50 House seats 50 House seats But many simply Democrats

60 Populists (People’s Party) Tom Watson of GA Leonidas L. Polk of NC

61 Populists (People’s Party) 1892 Election Nominated James B. Weaver of Iowa

62 Populist Reform Demands Government warehouses—farmers depositGovernment warehouses—farmers deposit crops as collateral for borrowing money from crops as collateral for borrowing money from the government at low interest rates the government at low interest rates Abolition of national banksAbolition of national banks End of absentee ownership of landEnd of absentee ownership of land Direct election of U. S. SenatorsDirect election of U. S. Senators Government ownership & regulation ofGovernment ownership & regulation of railroads, telephones and telegraphs railroads, telephones and telegraphs Government-operated postal savings banksGovernment-operated postal savings banks Graduated income taxGraduated income tax Inflation of currencyInflation of currency

63 The Panic of 1893 March 1893: Philadelphia & Reading RRMarch 1893: Philadelphia & Reading RR  Declared bankruptcy National Cordage Company failed in MayNational Cordage Company failed in May Stock Market collapseStock Market collapse Wave of bank failuresWave of bank failures Contraction of credit—many business failuresContraction of credit—many business failures Domino effectDomino effect The U. S. economy was heavily dependent on the health of the railroads—nation’s most powerful corporate institutions

64 Coxey’s Army Jacob S. Coxey—advocated massive public works program to create jobs public works program to create jobs for the unemployed and currency for the unemployed and currency inflation inflation No progress in Congress Congress Led a march of the unemployed to unemployed to Washington Washington Armed police barred from capitol barred from capitol Coxey arrested

65 Bimetalism: most of its existence, U. S. had recognized both gold and silver as backing for currency Crime of 1873: 1870s: 16 oz of silver = 1 oz of gold1870s: 16 oz of silver = 1 oz of gold Silver used more for jewelry than for coins;Silver used more for jewelry than for coins; Mints stopped coining silverMints stopped coining silver 1873: Congress—officially discontinued silver1873: Congress—officially discontinued silver coins coins Value of silver fell below 16:1; many felt aValue of silver fell below 16:1; many felt a conspiracy of big bankers; demanded a conspiracy of big bankers; demanded a return, at once, to free silver and unlimited return, at once, to free silver and unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1 coinage of silver at 16:1

66 Sherman Silver Act of 1890 Nation’s gold reserves were dropping The Act required the Government to purchase but not coin silver and pay for it in gold but not coin silver and pay for it in gold Congress repealed based on a request from President Cleveland President Cleveland Bitter and divisive battle; split in Democratic Party Party Southern and Western Democrats—alliance against Cleveland and Easterners against Cleveland and Easterners

67 William McKinley: GOP candidate for president in 1896 for president in 1896 Opposed free coinage of silver except by agreement with leading except by agreement with leading commercial nations commercial nations William Jennings Bryan Democratic National Convention Western & Southern delegates Western & Southern delegates determined to seize control determined to seize control Wanted a pro-silver candidate Wanted a pro-silver candidate

68 Majority Report: Westerners and Southerners: tariff reduction, income tax tariff reduction, income tax stricter control of railroads stricter control of railroads and trusts, and free silver and trusts, and free silver Minority Report: Easterners: Echoed GOP platform Echoed GOP platform (opposed free coinage of (opposed free coinage of silver) silver) Bryan, the Great Commoner, The Cross of Gold Speech The Cross of Gold SpeechThe Cross of Gold SpeechThe Cross of Gold Speech

69 1896 Election: GOP $7 million; Democrats: $300,000 McKinley: front porch campaign Bryan: 36 years old, first candidate to campaign among the people; 18,000 miles; 5 million people Campaign antagonized some in Democratic base

70 McKinley Administration: Return to relative calm Return to relative calm Dissent exhausted Dissent exhausted Labor unrest subsided Labor unrest subsided Politically shrewd and committed to Politically shrewd and committed to reassuring stability reassuring stability Economic crisis gradually eased Economic crisis gradually eased Dingley Tariff Dingley Tariff Currency (Gold Standard) Act o 1900 Currency (Gold Standard) Act o 1900


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