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Gilded Age Politics APUSH

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1 Gilded Age Politics APUSH
After the election of Rutherford Hayes and the Compromise of 1877, the national government settled into an era of stalemate and comparative inactivity. Americans at this time shifted their attention away from national politics to economic change: the development of the West, industrialization and the labor movement and the growth of cities The politics of the era is often criticized as mostly show with little substance. It was the era of “forgettable” presidents, none of whom served two consecutive terms, and of politicians who largely ignored problems arising from the growth of industry and cities. The two major parties in these years avoided taking a stand on controversial issues. APUSH

2 The “Politics of Equilibrium”

3 A Two-Party Stalemate

4 Well-Defined Voting Blocs
Democrats Republicans White Southerners Catholics Recent immigrants Urban working poor Most farmers Northern whites African Americans Northern Protestants Old WASPs Most of the middle class

5 Presidency as a Symbolic Office
Party bosses ruled Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party The President just doled out federal jobs

6 Grant Administration

7 1868 Presidential Election

8 Grant Scandals & Grantism

9 The Tweed Ring in NYC

10 Who Stole the People’s Money?

11 1872 Presidential Election

12 Check Point

13 In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
transformed his personal popularity into a large majority in the popular vote owed his victory to the votes of former slaves gained his victory by winning the votes of the majority of whites demonstrated his political skill All of these Correct Answer B

14 New York Times exposes and the cartoons of Thomas Nast
New York’s notoriously corrupt Boss Tweed was finally jailed under the pressure of New York Times exposes and the cartoons of Thomas Nast federal income tax evasion charges the RICO racketeering act new York City’s ethics laws testimony by Tweed’s partners in crime Correct Answer A

15 The Credit Mobilier scandal involved public utility company bribes
Bureau of Indian Affairs payoffs railroad construction kickbacks evasion of excise taxes on distilled liquor manipulating the Wall Street stock market Correct Answer C

16 During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans
had few significant policy differences agreed on currency policy but not the tariff disagreed primarily over the power of the federal government held similar views on all economic issues except for civil-service reform were divided over silver vs. gold currency Correct Answer A

17 the Grand Army of the Republic the Roman Catholic Church
During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and Republican parties was the Grand Army of the Republic the Roman Catholic Church ideological commitment big-city political machines political patronage Correct Answer E

18 Hayes Administration

19 1876 Presidential Election

20 The Political Crisis of 1877
“Corrupt Bargain” Part II?

21 Hayes Prevails

22 Rutherford B. Hayes Ended Reconstruction
Use of Federal troops to put down RR strike Civil Service Reform Southern Democrats appointed to cabinet

23 Garfield Administration

24 1880 Presidential Election

25 James Garfield Laissez Faire Star Route Scandal Spoils System
In his first weeks in office, Garfield was besieged in the White House by hordes of Republicans seeking some 100,000 federal jobs.

26 1881: Garfield Assassinated!
Charles Guiteau: I am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!

27 Chester Arthur Chinese Exclusion Act Pendleton Act

28 Pendleton Act (1883) Civil Service Act
The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform 1883 – 14,000 out of 117,000 federal government jobs became civil service exam positions 1900 – 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal government jobs

29 Republican “Mugwumps”
Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Arthur Reform to them – create a disinterested, impartial government run by an educated elite like themselves Social Darwinists Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism and the spoils system seen as government intervention in society Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform! Republicans who did not play the patronage game were ridiculed as the Mugwumps for sitting on the fence – their “mugs” on one side of the fence and “wumps” on the other

30 The Mugwumps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever.

31 Check Point

32 The Compromise of 1877 resulted in
a renewal of the Republican commitment to protect black civil rights in the South the withdrawal of federal troops and abandonment of black rights in the South The election of a Democrat to the presidency Republican support for an inflationary sliver-money policy a plan to build the first transcontinental railroad Correct Answer B

33 Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office; the second was
Rutherford Hayes William McKinley Chester Arthur Benjamin Harrison James Garfield Correct Answer E

34 take a competitive examination
The Pendleton Act required people applying for many federal government jobs to take a competitive examination present a written recommendation from a congressman or senator agree to make financial contributions to their political party submit a resume listing their experience and providing references have a college degree Correct Answer A

35 contractors doing business with the federal government
With the passage of the Pendleton Act, prohibiting political contributions from many federal workers, politicians increasingly sought money from new immigrants contractors doing business with the federal government factory workers and farmers foreign contributors big corporations Correct Answer E

36 Cleveland Administration

37 1884 Presidential Election

38 1884 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland (D) James Blaine (R)

39 He’s going to the White House, ha…ha…ha…!
A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha…ha…ha…!

40 Little Lost Mugwump Blaine in 1884

41 Cleveland’s First Term
The “Veto Governor” from New York First Democrat elected since 1856 A public office is a public trust! His laissez-faire presidency: Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!

42 The Tariff Issue After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new United States industries Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not 1885 – tariffs earned the US $100 million in surplus President Cleveland’s views on tariffs??? Tariffs became a major issue in the presidential election

43 Harrison Administration

44 1888 Presidential Election

45 1888 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland (D) Benjamin Harrison (R)

46 Coming Out for Harrison

47 Benjamin Harrison Billion Dollar Budget McKinley’s Tariff
Pursued Annexation of Hawaii

48 Cleveland Administration (again)

49 1892 Presidential Election

50 1892 Presidential Election
Cleveland (again) Harrison

51 Cleveland Loses Support Fast!
The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms Blamed for the 1893 Panic Defended the gold standard Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff in 1894 Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act

52 Check Point

53 The sequence of presidential terms of the “forgettable presidents” of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland’s two nonconsecutive terms) was Cleveland, Hayes, Harrison, Cleveland, Arthur, Garfield Garfield, Hayes, Harrison, Cleveland, Arthur, Cleveland Cleveland, Garfield, Arthur, Hayes, Harrison, Cleveland Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland Hayes, Garfield, Harrison, Cleveland, Arthur, Cleveland Correct Answer D

54 Which one of the following Gilded Age presidents had a different party affiliation from the other four? Ulysses S. Grant Rutherford Hayes Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison Chester Arthur Correct Answer C

55 supporting free and unlimited coinage of silver
Besides advocating a lower tariff, Grover Cleveland stirred political opposition by supporting free and unlimited coinage of silver advocating federal aid to farmers vetoing many veterans’ pension bills spending the federal budget surplus on public works bringing his mistress and illegitimate child to live in the White House Correct Answer C

56 providing subsidies to wheat, corn, & cotton farmers
The Billion-Dollar Congress quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by providing subsidies to wheat, corn, & cotton farmers building an expensive new steel navy expanding pensions for Civil War veterans cutting tariffs and other taxes increasing spending on railroads and other transportation projects Correct Answer C

57 The major campaign issue of the 1888 presidential election was
civil-service reform the big trust question the currency question foreign policy tariff policy Correct Answer E

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