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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 1CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures CSCI 1900 Discrete Structures Minimal Spanning Trees Reading: Kolman, Section 7.5

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 2CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise A small startup airline wants to provide service to the 5 cities in the table to the right. Allowing for multiple connecting flights, determine all of the direct flights that would be needed in order to service all five cities. City 1City 2Mileage ClevelandPhiladelphia400 ClevelandDetroit200 ClevelandChicago350 ClevelandPittsburg150 PhiladelphiaDetroit600 PhiladelphiaChicago700 PhiladelphiaPittsburg300 DetroitChicago300 DetroitPittsburg300 ChicagoPittsburg450 Source: http://www.usembassymalaysia.org.my/distance.html

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 3CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Undirected Graph If you recall from our discussion on types of relations, a symmetric relation is one that for every relation (a,b) that is contained in R, the relation (b,a) is also in R. If the relation is represented with a matrix, this means that the matrix is symmetric across the main diagonal. In the digraph of a symmetric relation, every edge is bidirectional, i.e., there is no defined direction.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 4CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Connected Relation A relation is connected if for every a and b in R, there is a path from a to b. It is easier to see a connected relation using a digraph than it is to describe in using words. A B D C E Connected A B D C E Not Connected

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 5CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Spanning Tree Textbook definition: “If R is a symmetric, connected relation on a set A, we say that a tree T on A is a spanning tree for R if T is a tree with exactly the same vertices as R and which can be obtained from R by deleting some edges of R.” p. 275 Basically, a undirected spanning tree is one that connects all n elements of A with n-1 edges. To make a cycle connecting n elements, more than n-1 edges will be needed. Therefore, there are no cycles.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 6CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Weighted Graph In the past, we have represented a undirected graph with unlabeled edges. It can also be represented with a symmetric binary matrix. 01101010110100100110101011010010 M T = A B D C

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 7CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Weighted Graph (continued) By giving the edges a numeric value indicating some parameter in the relation between two vertices, we have created a weighted tree. A B D C 5 3 4 7

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 8CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Weighted Graph (continued) We can still use matrix notation to represent a weighted graph. Replace the 1’s used to represent an edge with the edge’s weight. A 0 indicates no edge. 05305040340700700530504034070070 M T =

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 9CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Back to In-Class Exercise (Not drawn to scale) Philadelphia Pittsburg Chicago Cleveland Detroit 400 200 350 150 600 700 300 450

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 10CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Minimal Spanning Tree Assume T represents a spanning tree for an undirected graph. The total weight of the spanning tree T is the sum of all of the weights of all of the edges of T. The one(s) with the minimum total weight are called the minimal spanning tree(s). As suggested by the “(s)” in the above definition, there may be a number of minimal spanning trees for a particular undirected graph with the same total weight.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 11CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Algorithms for Determining the Minimal Spanning Tree There are two algorithms presented in our textbook for determining the minimal spanning tree of an undirected graph that is connected and weighted. –Prim’s Algorithm: process of stepping from vertex to vertex –Kruskal’s Algoritm: searching through edges for minimum weights

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 12CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Prim’s Algorithm From textbook, p. 281 Let R be a symmetric, connected relation with n vertices. 1.Choose a vertex v 1 of R. Let V = {v 1 } and E = { }. 2.Choose a nearest neighbor v i of V that is adjacent to v j, v j V, and for which the edge (v i, v j ) does not form a cycle with members of E. Add v i to V and add (v i, v j ) to E. 3.Repeat Step 2 until |E| = n – 1. Then V contains all n vertices of R, and E contains the edges of a minimal spanning tree for R.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 13CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Prim’s Algorithm in English The goal is to one at a time include a new vertex by adding a new edge without creating a cycle Pick any vertex to start. From it, pick the edge with the lowest weight. As you add vertices, you will add possible edges to follow to new vertices. Pick the edge with the lowest weight to go to a new vertex without creating a cycle.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 14CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (1 st edge) Pick any starting point: Detroit. Pick edge with lowest weight: 200 (Cleveland) Cleveland Detroit 200

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 15CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (2 nd edge) Pick any edge connected to Cleveland or Detroit that doesn’t create a cycle: 150 (Pittsburg) Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 16CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (3 rd edge) Pick any edge connected to Cleveland, Detroit, or Pittsburg that doesn’t create a cycle: 300 (Philadelphia) Philadelphia Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150 300

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 17CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (4 th edge) Pick any edge connected to Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburg, or Philadelphia that doesn’t create a cycle: 300 (Chicago) This gives us 4 edges! Chicago 300 Philadelphia Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150 300

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 18CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Kruskal’s Algorithm From textbook, p. 284 Let R be a symmetric, connected relation with n vertices and let S = {e 1, e 2, e 3, …e k } be the set of all weighted edges of R. 1.Choose an edge e 1 in S of least weight. Let E = {e 1 }. Replace S with S – {e 1 }. 2.Select an edge e i in S of least weight that will not make a cycle with members of E. Replace E with E {e i } and S with S – {e i }. 3.Repeat Step 2 until |E| = n – 1.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 19CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures Kruskal’s Algorithm in English The goal is to one at a time include a new edge without creating a cycle. Start by picking the edge with the lowest weight. Continue to pick new edges without creating a cycle. Edges do not necessarily have to be connected. Stop when you have n-1 edges.

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 20CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (1 st edge) First edge picked is lowest value of 150 (Cleveland to Pittsburg) Pittsburg Cleveland 150

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 21CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (2 nd edge) Next lowest edge is 200 (Cleveland to Detroit) Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 22CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (3 rd edge) There are a few edges of 300, but Detroit to Pittsburg cannot be selected because it would create a cycle. We go with Pittsburg to Philadelphia. Philadelphia Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150 300

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Minimal Spanning Trees – Page 23CSCI 1900 – Discrete Structures In-Class Exercise (4 th edge) The next lowest edge that doesn’t create a cycle is 300 edge from Detroit to Chicago. This is the 4 th edge! Philadelphia Pittsburg Cleveland Detroit 200 150 300 Chicago 300

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