Background/Family Born to Richard Falley Cleveland and Ann Neal Cleveland @ New Jersey, March 18, 1837. One out of nine children. Richard Falley Cleveland (Father) was descended from English ancestors, having to be the 1st Cleveland emigrate to Massachusetts fron Northeastern England Ann Neal Cleveland (Mother) descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia Moses Cleveland, where the city of Cleveland Ohio's name was after, and Grover Cleveland were related When Cleveland moved to Clinton, Cleveland attended Clinton Liberal Academy. Age of 44, came to the political life which led him to the White House 3 years later, elected mayor of Buffalo in 1881, and later governor of New York
PIRATES P- 1884 Cleveland defeats Blaine for presidency - Vetoed many private pension bills for American Civil War veterans since he believes that if it were denied already by Pensions Bureau. Also vetoed granting pensions for disabilities - When US was craving Hawaii, treay of annexation was on the way when Harrison was in term but then Cleveland came in and withdrew the treaty. - Won presidency of both parties, Democrats and "Mugwumps" Republicans I- "...a man of principles, most of them safely orthodox by the standards of his day. " -"grover the good" R- Grover Cleveland is known to be a Presbyterian - Cleveland was the son of a Presbyterian minister, but religion didnt really do too much to create an impact on him. A- Only president ever reelected after defeat; reelected 1893
Election Cleveland lost to Benjamin Harrison. Harrison won in the Electoral College (233-168) making him the new president. However, many did vote for him in areas such as the far south which gave him 100,000 more votes than to Harrison. The McKinley Tariff and the "Billion- Dollar Congress" made Cleveland excited for another term. Cleveland was a man that did not campaign actively. He still won with the electoral vote being 277-145. Through him the Democrats won control of the houses of Congress.
Key Foreign Policy Issues Right before Cleveland became president a treaty was negotiated and sent to the senate concerning Hawaii's government annexation by the United States. Cleveland asked Senate for time to think about the matters. He decided to send a man named James H. Blount to check on the island. After Blunt returned and discussed that the people there did not like the government he quickly withdrew the treaty. There had been issues with the boundaries of Venezuela and a colony of British Guiana. When gold was found in Venezuela this problem soon caught everyone's attention.On July 1895, Grover decided that if Britain took and land that belonged to Venezuela it would be considered a Monroe Doctrine violation. He subtly also said that they may even declare war on Britain.
PIRATES cont. T -Signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first law attempting Federal regulation of the railroads. E - Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 created by G.C. to stop gold after dropping $100 million. - 1895, Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan in desperate need of $$. Turnout: Bankers agreed to lend the government $ 65 million in gold. S - First Democrat to take oath of presidential office since Buchnan - Favored the cause of the reformers, but eventuallycaved in to the carpings of Democratic bosses and fired many federal employees. - Cleveland lowered tariffs in 1887. Democrats were depressed, but Republicans were amused. - Caught w/ affair w/ Buffalo widow, Democrats told him to lie but refused and told the truth - Sent special message to Congress that if British would not accept this rightful boundary, the US would war. - When reelected in 1893 had to face issues of devastating depression of that year because of the overbuilding, labor disorders, and the ongoing agricultural depression. - Election of 1892, his leading opponent was David B. Hill who was senator of New York. Tried combining w/ Anti-Cleveland of the Democratic party, but didnt work too well.
Successful President Now? Even with his honesty and courage he failed to lift up the economic crisis that caused the country in 1893. Just like Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, and Harrison left the nation just as it is, unfixed. His lack of school limited his ideas of the nations future.Clevelands leadership wasnt enough to fullfill the presidential position, maybe only as a city mayor. But at the same time, if Grover Cleveland was president twice, why not again?
1892 Campaign Political Cartoon by Gorman and sugar trust
Cleveland's Domestic Policy Issues Grover Cleveland pushed for tariff reduction, however he was blocked by Congress. During his second term, he authorizes the use of the federal troops to break up the PULLMAN workers' strike in Chicago. However, his actions alienated the union. Faced with the depression, he still refused to grant government aid. Instead he decided to put the government's financial house in order. He re appeals the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and returns to gold standard for the U.S. currency, their only requirement was that the government borrows money from J.P Morgan.
Political Rise into Presidency Political Rise into Presidency: Cleveland was a democrat, who was not at all that eager to become apart of the office, however he responded to the call because he wanted to perform his civic duty. He was easily elected. Upon his election, he shared the same desire for bettering the state. He was a former "Veto Mayor" for New York City. He held his title very well for quite a while. Cleveland also became Governor, although he was not doing so well he still managed to be nominated for President. He was most popular for his honesty nd his political courage. Cleveland ran a close match by Blaine,however Cleveland carried the states with fewer than 1,200 votes on his side.This resulted in his achievement of the Presidential position. Cabinet Members: First Lady: Rose Cleveland, Frances Cleveland Vice President:Thomas A. Hendericks (1885) Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-1897) Secretary of State: Thomas F. Bayard (1885-1889) Walter Q. Gresham (!893-1895) Richard Olney (1895-1897) Secretary of War: William C. Endicott (1885-1889) Daniel S. Lamont ( 1893-1897) Postermaster General: William F. Vilas (1885-1888) Donald M. Dickinson (1888-1889) Wilson S. Bissell (1893-1895) William L. Wilson (1895-1897) Secretary of the Interior: Lucius Q.C. Lamar (1885-1888) William F. Vilas (1888-1889) Hoke Smith (1893-1896) David R. Francis (1896-1897) Secretary of Treasury: Daniel Manning (1888-1889) Charles S. Fairchild (1887-1889) Attorney General: Augustus H. Garland (1889-1885) Richard Olney (1893-1895) Judson Harmon (1895-1897) Secretary of Agriculture: Norman J. Coleman (1889-1889) Julius S. Morton (1895-1897) Secretary of Navy: William C. Whitney (1885-1889) Hilary A. Herbert (1893-1897)
Grover Cleveland Said.... -" It is a plain dictate of honesty and good government that public expenditures should be limited by public necessity..."- March 4, 1893 -"This impressive ceremony adds little to the solemn sense of responsibility with which I contemplate the duty I owe to all the people of the land. Nothing can relieve me from anxiety lest by any act of mine their interests may suffer, and nothing is needed to strengthen my resolution to engage every faculty and effort in the promotion of their welfare. " -First Inaugural Address
Grover's Successes & Failures Success: Cleveland restores honesty and impartially to the government. He planted deep in the American mind the idea that the evils of the Protective Tariff System ought to be abolished. He saves the nation from abandonment of the gold standard at a time when abandonment might have produced economic chaos. He also taught the Americans to become the more dominant force when it came to foreign policy affairs. Failures: Grover Cleveland, like any other president, failed to gain the cooperation of congress or the Democratic Party.Cleveland demonstrates his accomplishments and failures as a political leader were attributableto an authoritarian temperament that saw compromise as a surrender.
One Word:Honest One word that would describe Grover Cleveland would be honest. He chose not to lie about his affair.He was determined to tell the truth even though the Democrats were encouraging him to do otherwise. Also, when Democrats were for, and voted, a bill providing never ending coinage of silver in 1891, he argued and expressed how much he was against that. Through his frankness he won people. Even through the most controversial issues, Cleveland expressed how he felt no matter what.
Bibliography Wikipedia. 26 Jan. 2010. . "Profiles of U.S. Presidents". January 28,2010. "Wikianswers". January 28,2010. Welch, Richard E.. "University Press of Kansas". January 28,2010. "The Presidents". Pbs. January 28,2010 John A. Garraty:"Grover Cleveland" 27 January 2010
Team Members: Krizelle Magdirila Genesis M. Garcia Fatima BailonSantomin Period 1 APUSH