Presentation on theme: "Q IN D YNASTY 221-206 BCE. R EVIEW : W ARRING S TATES P ERIOD Final End of Zhou Dynasty Lasts 450? BCE-221 All Feudal States Battle each other New weapons."— Presentation transcript:
Q IN D YNASTY BCE
R EVIEW : W ARRING S TATES P ERIOD Final End of Zhou Dynasty Lasts 450? BCE-221 All Feudal States Battle each other New weapons and strategies brutal war, breakdown of social values Smaller noble estates taken over by larger— 10/12 major states 6 Qin wins
W HY WERE THE Q IN THE M OST S UCCESSFUL ? Location—Western State far from Zhou capital always more independent Underrated—Seen as Western Savages Fertile land (food for troops), Mountains (protection) Military Practice experience fighting the nomadic tribes, influenced by nomadic tribes. Not a ‘gentleman’s sport’ Shang Yang’s reforms
W HO WAS S HANG Y ANG AND W HAT WERE HIS REFORMS ? Influential, legalist, advisor in the Qin State during the Warring states Period 3 basic beliefs Things should be standardized People should be treated the same Loyalty to the state was the most important thing
T HE D IVISION OF Q IN S TATE Learn from Zhou Mistakes Needs help with control because too big for 1 person to run but can’t have lords building their own little kingdoms The Fix? Divide state into administrative units, districts, counties, and units of 100 families Put competent people in charge—job, not friends and family All report to superiors, to Shang Yang, then to King Why does it work? Organized but without the loyalty and relationship ties of the feudal system
W HAT ELSE DID S HANG Y ANG DO ? Took land from nobles Wrongdoing slavery Farmers who didn’t meet quotas—lost land People who knew about crime, punished the same as if they committed the crime Gave land as reward to people Give slaves to loyal people Peasant immigrants from other states gained land People turned in criminals were rewarded PunishmentReward
W HAT IS THE RESULT OF HIS POLICIES ? The Qin had tight control over their state. While other states dealt with uprisings and lack of loyalty, the Qin didn’t permit it Qin focus was solely on defeating their enemies, total control by 221 BTW--Shang Yang is executed
W HO IS IN C HARGE ? Shihuangdi—”First Emperor”—brutal and very smart, very legalist Applies the successful system of Shang Yang to all newly conquered territory
H OW DID THE Q IN C ONSOLIDATE THEIR P OWER ? Broke down walls of cities they conquered Confiscated all weapons of people they conquered Set up Spy System—reward those who turned in disloyal people, punishments for others Punishments—usually hard labor somewhere for the empire Censorship of all dissenting ideas Result? Fearful, dis-unified, population with no ability to rebel
Joining defensive walls to protect from Nomads (The Great Wall) Built by forced labor Estimates— 100s of Thousands died in constructing it “A thousand may die so that a million may live” Dual purpose— punishment and protection Also canals, irrigation, and roads What was built with the punishment of Hard Labor?
Censorship: No ideas allowed that contradicted Qin policies Burning of Books— all philosophical texts burned All books unless key texts on medicine, war, or agriculture Anyone who discussed ideas, punished, anyone who didn’t turn others in--punished Burying of Scholars: buried 460 scholars alive
Q IN E FFICIENCY A CCOMPLISHMENTS Military Protection (Wall) Economy: In an attempt to unify the empire Shihuangdi standardizes: Coins Weights and measures Axle size—trade and transport Script and language Determined not to follow Zhou mistakes of many different ‘countries’ in one Truly Unifies China
P ROBLEMS FOR Q IN People in EVERY social class are unhappy Nobles have lost power and privilege Previous State Leaders are now under control of 1 Many peasants, farmers, commoners—hard labor Scholars/intellectuals—Harassed, silenced Community structure weakened by spy network Shihuangdi is paranoid and unfocused Convinced people will try to kill him, how can he live?
S HIHUANGDI ’ S P ARANOIA AND O BSESSION Multiple Assassination Attempts—slept in different place every night Searching for the Elixir of Life--immortality Terrified of death— never wanted to talk about it, refused to name an heir-- instability Built an elaborate tomb to protect himself in death
T ERRACOTTA W ARRIORS Found in Shihuangdi’s tomb by farmers in Clay Warriors Bronze weapons, horses, and chariots Mercury Rivers 700,000 men to build Workers killed to keep secrets UNESCO World Heritage Site
T HE END OF THE Q IN “Empire will last 10,000 years”, lasted 15 Shihuangdi dies in 211 after taking mercury pills—meant to give him eternal life Was on a trip to the east, 2 months away from the capital—assistants hide his death Back at the capital, conspiracy to put his second son on the throne Second Son Huhai—terrible ruler without the intelligence, charisma, or brutality of his father People immediately rebel, war begins By 206 Empire is defeated by Liu Bang—the first emperor of the Han Dynasty
L EGACY OF THE Q IN Qin terminology ‘China’ First truly unified state Centralized control—all power held by one but in an organized fashion=‘bureaucracy’ Unified economy, communication system, trade and transport Legalistic example for future leaders Chairman Mao? Current government? Other nations?