To determine possible spatial differences in air quality within the Jiangsu province. 空间分析 空气污染在江苏 Basic understanding of how land use change may affect air quality. 土地使用变化影响空气质量 Access the ecological service forests provide to produce high air quality.
PM 2.5 air quality has begun to degrade worldwide to increasing pressures of urbanization, posing serious concerns and implications for health, climate, visibility, and hydrology (Gupta and Christopher 2007). Air pollution, if in high enough concentrations can directly or indirectly affect plants, animals, ecosystems, structures, human health, and regional climate (Monks et al. 2009).
Economic stimulus has lead to emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. Megacity= city with a population of 10 million or more This urbanization trend is likely to continue into the future Air quality in most Chinese cities has improved BUT Particulate concentrations such as PM2.5 in most Chinese cities are still far above the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines >70% of energy comes from coal combustion, creating SO 2 emmissons 2.55107 tons in 2005
Complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets, characterized by size of particulate: PM 2.5 : Fine Particles PM 10 : Coarse Particles The accumulation of these particles sometimes causes high pollution episodes and low visibility. Sources combustion, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, and some industrial processes
Negative ions in the air indicate fresh, natural, “feel good” air. EnvironmentConcentration (ions/cc) Waterfalls95,000 – 450,000 Mountains, seashores, breezy forest50,000 – 100,000 Breezy country meadow5,000 – 50,000 Cities100 – 2000 Rooms and offices40 – 100 Rooms with Air Conditioner0 – 20
Aerosol (Particulate Matter) o City of Nanjing o NFU Negative Ion Counts o Nanjing City o NFU o Urban Forest: Changshu o University Farm: Broadleaf and Bamboo Forest o Poplar Plantation: Coastal o Yixing Bamboo Forest Daily Dynamics of PM 2.5 : Nanjing
University Farm: Bamboo/Broadleaf Forest Urban Forest: Changshu
PM 2.5 and PM 10 were shown to have a positive correlation in occurrence. With a high concentration of PM 10, we should also be aware of the presence of fine PM and their associated health concerns. PM increase dramatically from 10:00-14:00 (mid-day). Possible Causes: traffic, temperature, humidity, agricultural burning summer season PM 1.0 shows uniformity throughout the city and is not correlated to PM 2.5 and PM 10 PM 2.5 and PM 10 have show random distribution throughout the city with higher concentrations associated with the center of the city and lower values along the mountain and to the west, but few extreme values.
Negative Ion Mean Concentrations: Yixing Bamboo Forest>University Farm>NFU>Urban Forest> Poplar Plantation>Nanjing City Negative Ion Concentrations follow a clear pattern of occurrence from most forested areas to less forested areas. After interpolation, negative ion concentration seemed to be relatively uniform throughout the city with slightly higher values located in suburban areas west of Nanjing. We expected more negative ions near the mountainous area, but since it is exposed to pollution from the city due to transport, there was not a significant difference within those sites. (Sampling was performed at base of mountain).