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“Napoleon’s Empire Collapses” 23-4. The European Response Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed almost as rapidly as it had been formed Two major reasons.

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Presentation on theme: "“Napoleon’s Empire Collapses” 23-4. The European Response Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed almost as rapidly as it had been formed Two major reasons."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Napoleon’s Empire Collapses” 23-4

2 The European Response Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed almost as rapidly as it had been formed Two major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon’s Grand Empire are: the survival of Great Britain & the force of nationalism

3 Britain's Survival Britain’s survival was due primarily to its naval power The British navy’s decisive defeat of a combined French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805 destroyed any thought of an invasion of Britain

4 Britain's Survival The aim of the Continental System was to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there It failed, Allied States resented being told not to trade with Britain, others began to cheat, others resisted

5 Nationalism Nationalism is the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion & national symbols Indirectly help spread nationalism to other European countries

6 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes The Continental System Napoleon strikes Britain through blockade-forced closing of ports Continental System-economic plan to strengthen Europe, weaken Britain Smugglers and uncooperative allies make France’s blockade fail Britain responds with blockade of its own, led by stronger navy

7 The Continental System

8 The Peninsular War (Iberian) Napoleon sends troops across Spain to Portugal, causing protest Napoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them He proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain This makes things worse

9 The Peninsular War (Iberian) Spanish fight as guerillas-small groups that attacked then disappear British aid Spanish guerillas He stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. On May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion Fr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo]

10 “Third of May, 1808” by Goya (1810)

11 The Invasion of Russia Czar of Russia had agreed not to trade with Britain, but due to poor economic conditions he continued the trade in timber Russians refused to remain in the Continental System leaving Napoleon with little choice but to invade Russia

12 Scorched Earth Policy June, Napoleon’s army marches into Russia with 420,000 men The Russians refused to give battle and simply retreated As they retreated they burned their own villages and countryside to prevent Napoleon’s army from finding food

13 Moscow September Russians retreat from Moscow after Battle of Borodino Napoleon finds Moscow abandoned and burning The day after Napoleon took Moscow it went up in flames Napoleon waits 8 weeks for the Czar to surrender. He refuses. Napoleon abandoned Moscow late in October 1812 and began the “Great Retreat”

14 Moscow

15 Conditions on the Journey Home Men and horses both starved because there was no food and no time to gather any Horses died in the thousands from overwork and starvation – no time to graze Men were seen quenching their thirst with horse urine, because water was unobtainable or polluted

16 Conditions on the Journey Home Temperatures plummeted to 40 degrees below zero. Napoleon lost 25,000 troops just crossing the Berezina River Russians burned the only two bridges to cross the river trapping thousands on the wrong side of the river to be captured by the Cossacks who drove them naked back into Russia

17 Heavy Losses Less than 40,000 out of the 600,000 made it back alive Napoleon himself abandoned his army and rode back to France to organize another army Men were easy to get, but horses lost in the battle would cost Napoleon a victory in the next battle

18 Napoleon Abdicates Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, Austria join forces against France Napoleon raises another army, but meets quick defeat by allied powers Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814 Napoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. Napoléon abdicated again on April 11 Treaty of Fontainebleau  exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs

19 Napoleon in Exile on Elba

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21 Monarchy Restored After Napoleon’s defeat the Bourbon monarchy had been restored. Louis XVII had died in prison from tuberculosis. The newly enthroned monarch Louis XVIII fled to Belgium as Napoleon made his way towards Paris.

22 The Hundred Days Louis XVIII, new king, is soon overthrown and Napoleon returns from exile Waterloo-British, Prussian forces defeat Napoleon’s army This defeat ends The Hundred Days-Napoleon’s last attempt at power Napoleon exiled to island of St. Helena, in South Atlantic Dies six years later

23 On the Way to St. Helena

24 Napoleon’s Residence on St. Helena

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26 Napoleon’s Tomb

27 Hitler Visits Napoleon’s Tomb June 28, 1940


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