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The Science of Marine Biology

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1 The Science of Marine Biology
Marine Biology is a general science applied to the sea Study of Marine Life Nearly all disciplines of Biology is represented

2 Oceanography – Scientific study of the physical and chemical properties of the ocean.
Geological Oceanography: Study of the Sea Floor Chemical Oceanography – Study of waves , tides, currents, etc.

3 History of Marine Biology
Stone Age – Evidence of clam bakes , ancient Harpoons and simple fish hook have been found

4 Marine animals are used for food - evidence found in an Egyptian tomb where a puffer fish is depicted as poisonous but were not maritime people

5 Phoenicians First accomplished Western navigators. Sailed around the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Black Sea, and Indian Ocean. Established colonies and commerce

6 Minoans of Crete and Myocenean Greeks
They made voyages within the Mediternean Sea.

7 Homer The Homeric poems describe events around 1200 BC and involve fairly extensive sea voyages References to the sea and its mysteries abound in Greek mythology, particularly the Homeric poems "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey". However, these two sources of ancient history mostly refer to the sea as a means of transportation and food source. 

8 Homer Greek Born around 8th century B.C.

9 Aristotle Aristotle - First marine biologist. Described marine life forms and recognized fish breath by gills.

10 Writings of Aristotle From BC that specific references to marine life were recorded. Aristotle identified a variety of species including crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks, and fish. He also recognized that cetaceans are mammals, and that marine vertebrates are either oviparous (producing eggs that hatch outside the body) or viviparous (producing eggs that hatch within the body).

11 DARK AGES · Vikings explored then northern Atlantic.
· Leif Eriksson - discovered “Vinland” (North America)

12 What were the Dark Ages? Causes:
Barbarian invasion brought down the Roman Empire Roman Empire was already in decline militarily, economically, socially, politically 476 A.D. to 800 A.D. ( Accession of Charlemagne as a the First Holy Roman Emperor Time of constant warfare, despotic chiefs and minor kings, migrations of entire nations.

13 Darks Ages Cont. Much of the learning by the Romans built up
Destroyed with the libraries.

14 Erickson Voyage

15 Leif Erickson (Son of Erik the Red)
Father found the first European settlement On Greenland Born in Iceland He was on a return trip from Norway after being converted to Christianity and sailed off of course or searched for Vinland from an Iceland trader story of seeing the shore. He landed 500 years before Columbus. Never returned after spending the winter there,. Died in Green Land Established a Norse Settlement in Canada at the tip of New Foundland.

16 Other Travels of the Vikings

17 Leif’s Travels He landed in Vinland by mistake, Leif was blown off course to Greenland to introduce Christianity.

18 Vikings The Vikings Origins Came from Scandinavia
Present day Norway, Sweden, and Denmark Terrorized Europe Attacked from the sea Their ships had high prows, so they were good in heavy seas had shallow drafts, so they could quickly and easily pull onto shore for attack, then push back into water to get away Typically carrying warriors Some Capable of holding 300 warriors Fearsome fighters, often killing even unarmed churchmen Settlers throughout the Atlantic Explored far into the North Atlantic

19 Viking s Continued Settlers throughout the Atlantic
Explored far into the North Atlantic Established settlements on Iceland and Greenland Explored as far as Newfoundland (Leai Ericson) At one time, controlled part of ireland, nearly all of England, Northern France (Normandy) Pattern typically was raid and terrorize first, settle later End of the Viking age Europe learned to respond quickly to Viking raids Adoption of Christianity by the Vikings made them less hostile toward fellow Christians Global warming about this time made Viking settlements especially prosperous

20 Arab Traders · Arab Traders - voyaged to East Africa, South East Asia and India ·  



23 Christopher Columbus Rediscovered the New World 1492 European Voyage

24 Columbus continued…. Born: Cristo Colombo
He Convinced that traveling west will open new route to Asia. Most European Rulers did not support him. Finally Ferndinand and Isabella of Spain financed him. He was a cheapskate. He promised gold to the person that first sighted land.

25 Columbus continued….. Oct 12, Rodrigo De Triana sighted the island s of the Brahamas. Chris took the sighting and claim he saw a glimpse of it at nite. Sailor did not get the reward. Named the Island San Salvador

26 Columbus Voyages a Disaster!
Santa Maria ran aground, left 39 men stranded Returned to Spain without a new route to Asia , no spices/ valuable goods 4th voyage ship rotted out below him and was stranded for a year in Jamaica.

27 Columbus Reward King of Spain made him governor of Santo Domingo
Ruled like a ruthless King He was replaced and arrested in Spain.

28 Ferdinand Magellan First to sail around the world

29 Magellan Born in Portugal Studied Mapmaking and navigation
Financed (1590 ) King Charles V of Spain to circle the globe to prove that the earth was round. Studied the mistakes and discoveries of Christopher Columbus with North America and Balboa with Pacific Ocean and Panamanian Isthmus

30 Magellan cont…. Fleet of five ships
Oct 1520 entered the Strait of Magellan March 1522 anchored in Guam Killed in a local war in the Philipines Remaining crew completed the circumnavigation of the globe . Returned to Spain Sept 1522 under the guidance of Del cano.

31 James Cook

32 James Cook English First to make scientific observations
A full time Naturalist was on board the ships 3 voyages explored all the oceans. First to see the Antarctic Ice Field.. He Landed in Hawaii, New Zealand, Tahiti and other Pacific Islands.

33 Other Firsts Use a chronometer ( time piece) to determine his longitude and prepare accurate charts. Reshaped the European conception of the world. Collected Samples of organisms and plants Killed in a fight in Hawaii with some natives

34 Charles Darwin

35 Darwin Continued…. Englishmen
He h ad extensive interest in the study of Barnacles Sailed on the HMS Beagle for five years. Proposed the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection and Adaptation In 1859 , he published “On the Origin of Species” His College Professor Henslow recommended him as a Naturalist position on the Beagle. Explain how Atolls were formed.

36 Darwin Continue…. He collected a variety o f specimens ( birds, plants and fossils.) He did experimentation and research experiencing botany, geology, and zoology. The Galapagos islands were of prime interest. As was South America. On his return , he began to develop his theory of evolution from his writings.

37 United States Exploration Voyages
United States Exploring Expedition of also known as the “Wilkes Expedition Naturalists and Artists ( Clam diggers) The Voyage was more of projecting American influence than scientific discovery. Leader Charles Wilkes

38 Wilke’s Accomplishments
Charted 1,500 miles of the coast of Antarctica Confirms Antarctica is a continent. Mapped the coast of the Pacific Northwest of North America Explored 280 Islands in the South Pacific Collected 2000 unknown species First international survey sponsored by the U.S. Laid the foundation for gov’t funding for scientific research

39 Edward Forbes Carried out extensive dredging of the ocean floor.
He dredged around Britain ,in the Aegean sea and the Mediterranean Sea Accomplishments: discovered unknown organisms. Realized that the ocean varied in depths

40 Forbes Continued….. Britain, Germany, Scandinavia and France continued the study of the ocean floor. This lead to the funding of the Challenger Expedition

41 Forbes He Published two books based on his interest in the littoral zone of the oceans. The British History of Starfishes and The British History of Mollusca.

42 Challenger Expedition

43 H.M. S. Challenger Financially supported by the British Government.
Leader: Charles Wyville Thompson

44 Crew of the Challenger

45 Modern Oceanography began…..
years Originally organized specially to gather data on a wide range of ocean features: temperature marine life chemistry geology of ocean floor currents

46 Ship Construction….. British Navy provided the war ship.
Converted it to a lab ship with microscopes and other scientific equipment. Naturalist : John Murray Expedition left Portsmouth England Dec. 1872

47 Instrument and Sampling Platform

48 Challenger Laboratory

49 Lab work Salinity and other chemical variable were measured.
James Buchanan determined that the white slime was a precipitate of calcium sulfate which is formed in alcohol . It was a white slime that came up in bottom deposits.

50 Gas analysis equipment

51 Gas analysis …… Evaporating Gases could be trapped as was carbonic acid and analyzed by chemical titration. Allowed for the mapping of the ocean ‘s chemistry through out the world Carbonic acid has to be analyzed soon after the sample was collected.

52 Buchanan Water Sampler

53 Bottom Samplers

54 Customs of the people in the Azores

55 Diatoms

56 Antarctica Enchinoderms

57 Foraminiferas

58 Results Reported 50 volumes of Information 23 years to compile
The two summary Volume devoted to the people , costumes and scenery Some of the people encountered were cannibals such as King Thacker of the Fiji Islands

59 Travel Map of the Challenger

60 Travels of the Challenger
From England traveled to the South Atlantic Then around Cap e Good Hope of Africa Then cross the Indian Ocean. Crossed the Antarctic Circle On to Australia and New Zealand North to Hawaii and around the tip of South America. To England.

61 Discoveries The Marianas Trench – deepest part of the ocean in the Western Pacific Deepest sounding taken (Challenger Deep) 37,800 feet deep First broad outline of the shape of the ocean basin including the rise in the Atlantic Ocean Mapping of the currents, and temperature 4,700 new species

62 Marine Labs Henri Milne Edwards and Victor Andourn - Studied the seashore at the seashore. Laid the foundation of Marine Labs. Stazione Zoological - First lab founded in Naples, Italy. 1872 Founded by Anton Dohn as a private concern 1st, directory, German Descend, field of Biology, Darwinist 1982 –under control of the ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research as a National Institute, Introduced the “bench’ system– space rented out to universities and governments for them to send one scientists to research with everything provided. This system established international collaboration was invented,

63 Marine Biological Society of the United Kingdom founded in Plymouth, England.
Marine Biological Lab at Woodshole, Massachusetts: (WHOI) · First major American marine lab. Initiated by U.S. Fish Commission. It closed! Cape Cod, Mass · Center for the world's expert in cell division. · Using polarizing light microscopy and video imagining clarifying the events of mitosis and discovering the spindle fibers . · 1980’s the first class of proteins (cyclin) that regulated the cycle of cell division · Cornerstone Institution in the Encylopedia of Life (EOL) project a global initiative to electronically document all 1.8 million named species on Earth. 2nd lab opened up after another lab moved to same location from Cape Cod. Largest Independent

64 Woodshole

65 Woods Hole MA Tour

66 Woods Hole studies Penguins

67 Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, CA.,

68 Ariel View of Hopkins

69 Seals on the Beach at Hopkins

70 Hopkins in the early Days

71 Hopkins and Monterey Bay Aquarium

72 Steinbeck Books

73 John Steinbeck and Ed Ricketts
Stein beck author of Grapes of Wrath, Of Mice and Men and East of Eden Steinbeck had an interest in Marine Biology Met Ed Ricketts owned Pacific Grove Biological laboratory

74 Steinbeck/Ricketts cont….
Lab was located near the Hopkins Marine Station and the present site of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Ricketts collected marine specimens and sold them to museum and universities.

75 Steinbeck gave Ricketts credit for his views on humanity and the world.
Ed Rciketts was a character in six books . The most famous was” Doc” in Cannery Row

76 Steinbeck gave Ricketts credit for his views on humanity and the world.
Ed Ricketts was a character in six books . The most famous was” Doc” in Cannery Row

77 Hoveden Cannery 1934

78 Cannery Row 1947

79 Light house Ave 1930

80 Monterey Bay Aquarium the Monterey Bay Aquarium opened on
Oct 20, 1984 on the site of a former sardine cannery Hovden on Cannery Row of the Pacific Ocean shoreline in Monterey Ca, ( ) It was the last cannery to close with the collapse of sardine industry 1st in the world to grow Gaint California Kelp Sponsored by David Packard cofounder of Hewitt and Packard The aquarium was built to honor the work of Ed Ricketts

81 Entrance to the Aquarium

82 Main Lobby of Monterey Aquarium

83 Facing the Bay ! See the Seals in their natural habitat

84 Self Contained Giant Kelp Forest

85 Black footed Penguin

86 View down the street of Cannery Row

87 Sand Dollars

88 Corals

89 Sea Otters habitat

90 Steinbeck gave Ricketts credit for his views on humanity and the world.
Ed Rciketts was a character in six books . The most famous was” Doc” in Cannery Row

91 Ed Ricketts Published 1939 Publication Between Pacific Tides
Comprehensive guide to sea life along the Pacific coast of North America It was he most enduring contribution to marine biology,

92 Ricketts Book A handbook to the rocky shores and tide pools of the Pacific Coast of the United States, first published in 1939 and now in its fifth edition. After 50 years this standard reference still reflects Ed Ricketts' considerable personality and enthusiasm for tidepooling and marine biology. Each intertidal zone is discussed in depth, augmented by black-and-white photographs and diagrams. Much revised, this edition includes the original forward by John Steinbeck and a tribute to Ed Ricketts.

93 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (SIO) Largest center for ocean and earth science research  

94 Scripps Dock Area

95 Part of the U. S. D. San Diego, CA. Operates the R/P F. L. I. P
Part of the U.S.D. San Diego, CA. Operates the R/P F.L.I.P. - open research vessel owned by Naval research Manages the Deep Sea Drilling Program. Founded Marine Biological Association of San Diego.    

96 Friday Harbor Marine Lab - Friday Harbour, Washington
Restricted to educational use, 500 acres campus, They do give periodic tours but some people drive through to get a feel for the lab.

97 Washington Marine Lab

98 Friday Harbor Dock area

99 Back in The Day at Friday Harbour

100 World War II - Effects on Marine Biology Sound Navigation Ranging - used in submarine warfare - based on underwater echoes   Sonar                  

101 Scuba - Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus - engineered by Emile Gagne and Jacque Cousteau. It allows breathing underwater with compressed air. Dives are only limited to 165 feet. If you are going to go deeper than 165 feet, you must take an ROV.

102 ROV - Remotely Operated Vehicle - controlled from surface
AUV - Autonomous Underwater Vehicle - preprogrammed to their jobs independently of direct human control Automated Instrument Buoys - collect data while drifting with the current

103 Autonomous Samplers - animals with date packages on them that collect live data, i.e., temperature, currents

104 R/V FLIP - Floating Instrument Platform - provides a stable platform for Research at sea
Satellites - capture the big picture where hurricanes are, how big they are, where they are going, where the eye is

105 Floating Instrument Platform

106 Method - observations - 5 senses: Taste, Smell,
Hearing, Sight Touch Goal - Decision of facts about the natural world and principles to explore those facts. Scientific Method Scientific Method - observations senses: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Sight Touch Goal - Decision of facts about the natural world and principles to explore those facts. Tools - M Microscope - extend our senses. Macroscopic - observation - visible to the naked eye Microscopic - observation - invisible to the naked eye Observe the part of the ocean (environment) and the organisms living there.

107 Two Ways of Thinking · Induction - one uses separate observations to arrive to general principles. · Deduction - Reasoning from general principles to specific conclusions. Hypothes : IF “then” statement. Educated guess of what might happen. Experiment - stepwise process. Data - make tables/graphs Analyze - comparisons etc. Compare to our control experiment under standard conditions.

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