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3 Key Themes 1. Kingdoms and Christianity 2. The Early Middle Ages, 800 – 1215 3. The High Middle Ages, 1000 - 1500.

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Presentation on theme: "3 Key Themes 1. Kingdoms and Christianity 2. The Early Middle Ages, 800 – 1215 3. The High Middle Ages, 1000 - 1500."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 Key Themes 1. Kingdoms and Christianity 2. The Early Middle Ages, 800 – The High Middle Ages,

2 Kingdoms and Christianity The Big Picture Christianity became a world religion in the centuries after the Roman Empire’s fall. The faith was central to the Byzantine culture for a thousand years. As missionaries brought Christianity to Europe & Russia, the faith had a deep impact on societies.  After the fall of Rome, large and small kingdoms appeared in Europe.  In most of these kingdoms, Christianity had a powerful influence on people’s lives.

3 Recognize this?

4 The Dormition Cathedral  Known at the spiritual heart of Ukraine  A monastery had been founded on this site in 1051  Construction began on this site in 1073  Is within the Russian Orthodox tradition  Reconstruction took place

5  What feature(s) indicate that this is a (Christian) church?  How does this design differ from houses of worship in your region?

6 Analyzing Visuals  The distinction today between western & eastern Christianity began over 1000 years ago, when the eastern & western Christian churches began to disagree over certain theological matters.

7  One area of disagreement was over the use of icons, or religious pictures or representations.  To this day, icons remain an important part of the Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition.  The Russian Orthodox Church in this photo is a good example of the highly visual Eastern Orthodox style.

8 Medieval Europe: Starting Points  Following the death of Jesus in Jerusalem, Christianity began in the region on the eastern edge of the Roman Empire.  In the following centuries, the new religion gained a foothold in scattered locations.  Then, through government support & missionaries, Christianity spread widely, becoming one of the world’s great religions.

9 The Byzantine Empire  The Byzantine Empire, once the eastern half of the Roman Empire, was held together for centuries by strong leaders, profitable trade, and the influence of Christianity.

10 Byzantine Empire The Inside Story…  What did visitors experience in the most spectacular city of the Byzantine Empire?  The exotic sights, sounds, and smells of Constantinople were unlike those in any other city!  Visitors from other countries in the 400s & 500s were impressed by the sheer size of the city on the Bosporus, which had at least 400,000 residents & was built on 7 hills.  Its wide, bustling streets hummed with bazaars & food markets.

11 The Byzantine Empire: Constantinople…  Its sprawling palaces & churches glittered with gilded domes & high towers.  Surrounded by high walls with ramparts & watchtowers, Constantinople impressed visitors as a beautiful, imposing fortress, with many treasures worth protecting.

12  Inside its walls, Constantinople contained some of the most marvelous sights in the civilized world. Many of these reflected the Roman heritage that the Byzantines were carrying on: aqueducts, sewers, public baths, and street planning. Other sights, in particular some 100 churches, reminded one that Constantinople was a very Christian city. Still other sights reflected oriental influences: the bustling markets offering goods from all over the civilized world, the palace complex with its reception halls, mechanically levitating thrones, imperial gardens, and silk factories. Much of the Byzantines' success was due to their ability to dazzle visitors with such wonders.

13 Urbs Constantinopolitana Nova Roma, 1400s, a medieval manuscript, depicts the magnificent buildings of Constantinople.

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15 Why start here? Sorry Western Europe BUT…  When we study the Middle Ages, we tend to focus on Western Europe since it is the homeland of Western Civilization. However, this gives us a distorted view of medieval history, for Western Europe was little more than a backwoods frontier compared to the real centers of civilization further east.  Byzantium, or Constantinople as it was known after its refounding by Constantine in 330 C.E.  Byzantium = Constantinople

16 Emperors Rule in Constantinople  Constantinople Greek for “The City of Constantine” Became the capital of the Roman Empire under Emperor Constantine I Was the seat of the Eastern Roman Empire for more than a 1000 years From 395 – 1453 Eastern Roman Empire  Byzantine Empire

17 Constantinople: “A New Rome”  Remained the capital of the Eastern Empire long after Rome fell  Was a larger, richer city than Rome (even before its fall)  Located on the Bosporus Positioned to control trade between Asia & Europe Also helped guard it from attack

18 Constantinople: a protected city  Sea protected the city on two sides Black Sea to the North Aegaen Sea to the South  Heavily fortified walls protected the landward side  Empire was able to thrive for centuries

19 Justinian I  Byzantine Emperor  Ruled from 527 – 565  Dreamed of restoring the original Roman Empire  Reconquered territories in N.Africa These lands had been taken by a Germanic tribe called the Vandals By 534, fleet had recaptured the region

20 Rebellion at home – Nika Revolt  Justinian & his wife, Theodora, faced a threat from rebels  Rebellion resulted with Constantinople in flames  Theodora refused to back down & convinced her husband to do the same!  Troops attacked rioters assembled in a stadium, the Hippodrome, & slaughtered them by the thousands.

21 Achievements: Justinian & Theodora  Emphasis on rebuilding parts of the city destroyed from the Nika Revolt  Most important new building was a church: the Hagia Sofia  Justinian’s Code

22 Hagia Sofia: (HAH-juh soh-FEE-uh  One of the world’s most spectacular buildings  Key Facts about 100,000 workers were hired to build it Construction lasted from *only 5 years Was built as a church, became a mosque, and is now a museum

23 Hagia Sofia: Why is it important?  Many Byzantine buildings & even mosques followed the same style  Mosaics on the walls are exquisite examples of Byzantine art  Its construction used an ingenious new technique, called pendentives, for supporting the dome

24 Justinian’s Code  Established a commission to codified (systematically arranged) laws of the empire  The resulting code is one of his best known achievements  Reorganization & Simplification of Roman Law

25 After Justinian  When he died in 565, he left the gov’t nearly bankrupt from the expense of taking back the empire’s territory.  His expansion was beyond what the gov’t could effectively administer  After his death, the western provinces once again fell to migrating tribes.

26 Byzantine Culture: 2 key institutions The EmperorChristianity  Was a priest-king  Considered the deputy of Jesus Christ on earth AND his co-ruler  Most Byzantine art, architecture, and literature were based on religious themes.  A large # of human subjects in Byzantine art were from the Bible  Mosaics – very common – floors, walls, & ceilings

27 Byzantine Religious Art Mosaic of Jesus, glitters with gold At the Hagia Sopha

28 Religious Conflicts  In the 700s, the use of art in churches became controversial.  Debate over the use of icons: paintings or sculptures of sacred figures  Some churches contained beautiful icons  Other churches rejected them

29 The Icon Controversy ConsPros  Some Christians believed that the use of icons was too close to the non-Christian practice of worshipping idols.  (golden calf)  People who objectors were called iconoclasts – “icon breakers”  Clergy found idols / icons helpful in teaching people who could not read.  Art = Biblical Picture Books

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32 Rioting!!!!! Resistance in the Western Church

33 Leo dies in 780…  Strong reaction against iconoclasm had set in  Movement waged on & off until a council in 843 settled the issue by accepting icons  HOWEVER, the dispute over iconoclasm played a crucial role in the growing divide between the emperor in Constantinople & the pope in Rome….

34 The Church Splits

35 Key Differences EastWest  Use of Greek  Members of the clergy could marry  Did not accept the Pope as the supreme authority over church matters – religious authority was in councils  Used Latin  Members of the clergy could NOT marry  Pope was God’s representative on earth/ spoke for God

36 The Great Schism: 1054 EAST WEST  The Orthodox Church *word, “orthodox” comes from the Greek words that mean “right opinion” Today, more than 218 million people are included within the Orthodox Tradition.  Roman Catholic Church  There are an estimated 1.2 billion Roman Catholics in the world, according to Vatican figures. More than 40% of the world's Catholics live in Latin America - but Africa has seen the biggest growth in Catholic congregations in recent years.Mar 14, ld

37 The Byzantine Empire Declines  Invaders in the Empire  Constant attack on their northern borders by migrating tribes such as the Slavs and Bulgars  600s: Byzantine provinces of Egypt & Syria fell to Muslim conquerors

38 Final Decline: The Seljuk Turks  1071: The Turks defeated the Byzantine army at Manzikert  Byzantines were permanently weakened  1071: also lost their last outposts in Italy  The Empire carried on BUT by 1391 it had been reduced to Constantinople & a few outlying districts.

39 The Ottoman Turks attacked Constantinople. It fell to the Muslims. Ottomans renamed it Istanbul. Hafia Sofia became a mosque.

40 Time out: Checking for Understanding

41 Identify QuestionAnswer  Who was Justinian I, and what did he achieve regarding law?  Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 527 – 565  Reformed Roman law code - became known as “Justinian’s Code”

42 Identify QuestionAnswer  How did the influence of Theodora affect the outcome of the Nika Revolt?  Theodora, Justinian’s wife, refused to back down/ give in.  She convinced her husband to join her.  Troops attacked rioters assembled in a stadium, the Hippodrome, & slaughtered them by the thousands.  The Nika Revolt ended.

43 Recall QuestionAnswer  What are mosaics, and what role did they play in Byzantine Art?  Pictures created with tiny pieces of glass (stones, gold, shells)  Decorated many Byzantine buildings

44 Explain QuestionAnswer  Why did the iconoclasts respond as they did to sacred paintings or carvings that showed human images?  They believed using icons resembled the non-Christian worship of idols.  Icons = Idols

45 Icons, Idols, Then & Now…  In March 2001, Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers loaded their rocket launchers and set out to do battle at Baniyan Valley, 78 miles NW of Kabul.  They were certain their adversary could not plan an ambush.  Their enemy, it turns out was made in stone!

46  The Taliban aimed their artillery at 2 1,500 year old statues of the Buddha carved into Afghanistan’s majestic mountain cliffs.  The larger of the 2, towering some 175 feet, was thought to be the tallest statue in the world.  No matter. The Taliban’s leader, Mullah Muhammad Omar, would not compromise: “Not a single pagan idol must remain.”

47 Reaction! The Western press exploded….  “Cultural vandalism,” fumed the Wall Street Journal;  “A shocking act,” blasted The New York Times, which were not the Taliban’s to destroy but belonged “to all humankind.”  An attempt to “kill [an] ancient heritage” accused London’s The Daily Telegraph.  Overall reaction: mixture of righteous indignation AND astonished disbelief.

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49 Guesses?

50 Comparative History  Ideally, knowledge of history should help us understand our present.  If this is true, where might we go to gain insight into the Taliban’s actions? Let’s start with opening the Bible.

51 Exodus 32:  “He took the calf that they had made, burned it with fire, ground it to a powder, scattered it on the water, and made the people of Israel drink it. And Moses said to Aaron, ‘What did this people do to you that you have brought so great a sin upon them,’” Remember the Second Commandment’s prohibition against “graven images”?

52 Christianity…  What started in Rome – depictions of Emperors, various representations of Jesus, Mary, & the Saints appeared.  Tensions reached a climax under Byzantine Leo III (717 – 741) Patron of the “iconoclasts” – those who advocated smashing icons 730: Leo signed an official edict forbidding ALL icons

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56 Christianity in Western Europe  The spread of Christianity, largely through the work of missionaries and monks, helped unify western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

57 After the fall of Rome…  In the East, the Byzantine Empire grew out of the former Roman Empire AND flourished.  In the West, NO single empire rose up from Rome’s ashes..  Instead, the Germanic groups who had invaded Rome established many small kingdoms.

58 Anglo-Saxon England  Among the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms in Europe were the Angles and the Saxons. Both groups had once lived in what is now Germany. Had migrated to England in the 400s Established (in England) 7 small independent kingdoms Together, they are known as the Anglo- Saxon kingdoms

59 Anglo Saxon England  Initially NOT Christian  In the late 500s: a group of monks led by Augustine of Canterbury arrived in the small kingdom of Kent.  Many converted  Augustine named Archbishop of Canterbury  From Kent, Christianity slowly spread throughout England.

60 Anglo – Saxon England  Kingdoms remained independent for several centuries  Forced to band together when the Danes invaded northern England & began to march south  United under Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, one of the 7 kingdoms  Under Alfred, Anglo Saxons pushed the Danes back!

61 King Alfred  Aka “Alfred the Great”  Military successes = Alfred named ruler of ALL of England Reorganized the army Issued his own code of laws Improved the financial situation Established a system of schools that educated adults AND kids!

62 Interesting story… King or Peasant  In the 800s the Christians of southern England were locked in a long struggle against the Danes who ruled the north.  Among the leaders of the English Christians was King Alfred, ruler of the small kingdom of Wessex

63 According to legend…  Alfred got separated from his troops after a battle.  Was wandering along through the countryside.  Came across a small cottage – asked for shelter  Did not reveal his identity

64  One day, peasant’s wife asked him to keep an eye on some cakes she was baking  Alfred agreed but soon forgot  Cakes burned!  Woman scolded Alfred harshly for his negligence, not realizing he was the king  Alfred felt bad & took the scolding.  Legend reveals Alfred’s reputation for humility and sense of fairness

65 From the Angles to The Franks…  Another Germanic kingdom established in the former Roman province of Gaul – now France - in the late 400s  Led by Clovis (their king)  Had built a powerful kingdom

66 A legend about Clovis…  During an especially tough battle, Clovis vowed to become a Christian if he won.  Franks won.  Clovis became a Christian.  496: Clovis AND 3,000 Franks were baptized in a public ceremony.

67 Clovis & The Franks… ClovisCharlemagne  Became a major Western European power  800s: height of Frankish power under Charlemagne 

68 Check it out! Article Videos ne/videos/the-reign-of-charlemagne

69 Christian European Society  When Rome fell in the late 400s, Christianity was mostly confined to southern Europe.  By 600, it had spread northward into other parts of the continent  *Conversion of peoples like the Anglo- Saxons and Franks helped make western Europe into a largely Christian society.

70 Appeal of Christianity WWhy? What do you think? LLet’s see… MMedieval life was hard: doubt, hard work, suffering, sickness, hardship SSense of community – love thy neighbor, forgiveness HHope/ promise of eternal life GGreat Commission

71 Great Commission  Missionaries….  Europe became a missionary field  Augustine of Canterbury and others go to new lands to spread the faith

72 Patrick aka St. Patrick  Among the most famous missionaries  “Apostle of Ireland”  Went from Britain to Ireland in the 400s  Preached despite opposition & hostility  Died c. 460 with most of Ireland Christian It is said he used the shamrock as a tool for exploring the trinity

73 Christendom is born!  Through the works of Augustine, Patrick, and others, Christendom is born.  A Christian society in Western Europe whose people saw themselves as a community of believers. Spread of Christianity by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity up to AD 325) Early Christianity

74 What about the papacy?

75 The Papacy in the Middle Ages

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79 Pope Gregory strengthens the Papacy!  This medieval lack of authority ends with Gregory the Great!  Worked hard to change views of the papacy

80 Gregory the Great  Believed that as the successor of Peter – one of Jesus’ Apostles & considered the first bishop of Rome, the Pope was the supreme patriarch of the church

81 Quick Bio: Pope Gregory I  commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great  was Pope from 3 September 590 to his death in 604.  well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors  Born: 540 AD, Rome, Italy  Died: March 12, 604 AD, Rome Italy  Quick Math Became Pope at age 50 Died at age 64 Served as Pope for 14 years

82 Gregory the Great  Encouraged missionary work and monasticism (voluntary separation from society to dedicate one’s life to God)  Encouraged people to care for the poor and less fortunate  Won respect for the Papacy  Made the Pope one of the most influential figures in Europe

83 Monks & Monasteries  Grew in popularity due during the Middle Ages (Pope Gregory)  NOT new First Christian monks had lived in Egypt in the 200s. Usu. lived alone or as hermits  During the Middle Ages…. Small groups of monks lived in monasteries Followed strict code of rules Communal life based on labor, worship, and scholarship

84 2 types of Monasteries  Benedictines Most common form in Medieval Europe Based on a rule written by Benedict of Nursia  Celtic (KEL-tik) Developed in Ireland More ascetic (severe) Long fasts & days of solitary contemplation

85 2 Medieval style monasteries BenedictineCeltic  Benedict of Nursia – a monk  Lived in Italy in the early 500s  His collection of Guidelines: Benedictine Rule  Established a monastery, Monte Cassino with Benedict as abbot (leader)  Monasteries often built on islands  Led by abbots  *In mainland Europe, bishops were the most important religious officials – each city church had a bishop.  Because Ireland, had no large cities, people went to abbots for spiritual guidance.  Celtic monasteries built in France & Germany

86 Benedictine Order: A closer look  Monks had to take vows of poverty and obedience  Benedictine Rule: Based on prayer & labor Outlined a monk’s day – including 9 distinct prayer services & periods of work (ranging from farm labor to copying manuscripts) Each monastery run by an abbot picked by the monks or a local noble

87 Primary Source Excerpt: Benedictine Rule  “Idleness is the enemy of the soul. And therefore, at fixed times, the brothers ought to be occupied in manual labour; and again, at fixed times, in sacred reading…  There shall certainly be appointed one or two elders, who shall go round the monastery at the hours in which the brothers are engaged in reading, and see to it that no troublesome brother chance to be found who is open to idleness…and is not intent on his reading; being not only of no use to himself, but also stirring up others….

88 Benedictine Rule: excerpt…  Vestments [clothing] shall be given to the brothers according to the quality of the places where they dwell, or the temperature of the air. For in cold regions more is required; but in warm, less.  This, therefore, is a matter for the abbot to decide. We nevertheless consider that for ordinary places there suffices for the monks a cowl and a gown apiece – the cowl, in winter hairy, in summer, plain or old – and a working garment, on account of their labors. As clothing for the feet, shoes and boots.”

89 Contributions of Benedictine Monasteries  TREMENDOUS IN EUROPE  Ran schools – training some of the finest medieval minds  Helped preserve the ancient writings of Greece & Rome by copying ancient manuscripts  Became centers of wealth & power as kings & nobles donated money or gifts for prayers on their behalf! *many monks became advisers to political leaders….

90 Sooo… the faith spreads Europe Eastern Mediterranean Northern Africa  People interpreted the faith differently   Conflicts arise Key example: Jesus’ humanity vs divinity

91 Soo… to prevent / resolve conflict  Influential theologians wrote explanations / established official church position  Most influential medieval theologian: Augustine of Hippo

92 Augustine  Used ideas of the Greek philosopher, Plato to support Christian teachings  His greatest writing: the City of God Argued that people should pay less attention to the material world than they do to God’s plan for the world Written shortly after the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410, it was an attempt to convince the Romans that God had NOT abandoned them

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94 Time out! Checking for understanding  Question: Who was Alfred the Great And for what is he best known?  Sample Answer:  Ruler of England  United the Anglo-Saxons

95 Explain  What led to the conversion of the Franks to Christianity?  Model Answer:  The king’s vow to convert if victorious in battle

96 Recall  What did Patrick achieve in Ireland?  Converted the Irish to Christianity

97 Extend  How do you think the idea of Christendom affected life in medieval Europe?  Created a sense of community

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99 In the 800s, 1 major Christian kingdom, the Frankish Empire, ruled a huge portion of Western Europe. This empire reached great heights under the rule of Charlemagne.

100 By 1215, many kingdoms in Europe had divided, others had become unified, & even more had become Christian.

101 Charlemagne’s Empire  Through conquest and social change, Charlemagne brought much of western Europe together into a single empire.

102 Could one man restore the lost glory of the Roman Empire?  Cheers & excitement shattered the silence of Christmas morning in Rome in the year 800.  From St. Peter’s Basilica- the city’s most powerful church – word spread quickly.  For the first time in more than 3 centuries, Rome had a a new emperor.  The new emperor was Charlemagne, the king of the Franks.

103 Charlemagne  Crowned by Pope Leo III during Christmas mass  Addressed as Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III  Hailed as the heir of ancient rulers

104 Charlemagne  People rejoiced throughout Europe.  Emperor crowned the Pope – whom they saw as God’s representative  Coronation seen as a sign from God that Charlemagne was chosen to restore the glory of their ancient empire.

105 The Franks  Ruled much of Europe by 800  Key family: the Carolingians  Charlemagne was a Carolingian

106 Early Carolingians: Charles Martel  Charles Martel = Charles the Hammer Charlemagne’s grandfather Was not a king Was a political adviser & war leader for the Frankish king Led many crushing defeats of opponents, esp. Muslims from Spain Earned the nickname “Martel” which means “hammer”

107 Pippin III – 1st king of the Carolingian Dynasty  Charles Martel’s son  Also a skilled leader  Won many battles & captured new lands for the Franks  Unlike his father, he became king  Died in 768, passed his kingdom to his son, Charles aka Charlemagne

108 Charlemagne’s Rise to Power  Charlemagne - Old French for Charles the Great  Considered one of the most important leaders in European society  Success was his military power *see sword

109 Charlemagne: Rise to Power  Assembled an army yearly to battle one of his foes  Incorporated lands of the defeated  Recognized by Pope Leo III for his warrior skills  Sought by Pope to help with Lombards attacked the Papal States in 774  Papal States: region in central Italy that was under the Pope’s control  Charlemagne responds: defeats the Lombards!  Charlemagne: King of the Lombards & King of the Franks  Pope was GRATEFUL!

110 Charlemagne: to the rescue….again  Angry supporters of the previous Pope attacked Leo & ran him out of Rome  Leo calls for help!  Charlemagne escorts Leo back to Rome & power  Status of emperor = a pope’s way of saying thanks!

111 Charlemagne’s Rule  Had TREMENDOUS power as emperor  Empire was so large, it was NOT easy to rule!  Changes will be made!

112 Charlemagne’s Changes…  Established a permanent capital at Aachen What is now Germany Built a huge palace & cathedral  Lived in Achen Unable to personally oversee entire area Appointed “counts” to rule parts of the empire in his name ○ Were bound by oath to obey Charlemagne ○ In return counts got land & influence

113 Aachen Cathedral in Germany – a UNESCO site!

114 Sent inspectors throughout the empire to check on counts. Good counts = rewards Bad counts - punished

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116 A New Society: Education  Loved to learn  Spent much of his time studying  Wanted leaders to be literate!  Ordered churches & monasteries to start schools Studied religion, music, grammar, and other subjects

117 Charlemagne & Education  Invited noted scholars from all over Europe to Aachen When not teaching, they copied ancient texts ○ Ancient writings preserved – otherwise might have been lost forever

118 Charlemagne & Religion  Wanted to preserve & spread Christianity  His friend & biographer, Einhard, wrote in The Life of Charlemagne  “Charlemagne practised [sic] the Christian religion with great devotion and piety… As long as his health lasted, he went to church morning and evening with great regularity, and also for early- morning Mass, and the late-night hours.”

119 Charlemagne: Christianity & the Military Factor  Charlemagne ordered those conquered to covert for die  Sent monks to live among those conquered to help Christianity grow

120 Charlemagne & the law  Established a written law code/ Wrote down laws previously known via word of mouth  Issued many new laws that enforced Christian teachings

121 814: Charlemagne dies  Grandsons fought among themselves for control of the crown  843:grandsons divide empire into 3 kingdoms  Invaders challenge from ALL sides

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123 Main Idea  Invasions and migrations changed the political and cultural landscapes of western Europe during the early Middle Ages.

124 New Invaders: Where did they come from?  June 28 th, 793  Monks had started their day – doing their normal business: tending crops, praying, and copying manuscripts.  Then  many lay dead by swords and spears of raiders.  Those left alive watched as the monastery was looted and its treasures were loaded up on ships  Dazed, the monks wondered what was going on…

125  Raiders : Vikings, from what is now Denmark  This attack (793) began a 200 year period of raids on northern Europe, a period sometimes called the Age of Vikings.

126 The Vikings: Origins  aka Norsemen or Northmen  Came from Northern Europe, Scandinavia Modern day Norway, Denmark, & Sweden

127 Viking Homelands  Society was rural & agricultural  Most worked as fishers or famers Plentiful fish Infertile soil ○ Food shortages – common problem ○ Sought new sources of food & wealth via raids

128 Vikings  Excellent shipbuilders & sailors  Skilled at navigation  Ships Could withstand heavy waves Carried crews of 100 warriors

129 Viking Raids  First targets: England & northern France  Eventually, went further from the homland: Kiev Constantinople  Fear pervaded Europe  Writings of the time are filled with haunting descriptions of fierce raids

130 Primary Source  “The number of ships grows: the endless stream of Vikings never ceases to increase. Everywhere the Christians are victims of massacres, burnings, plunderings: the Vikings conquer all in their path, and no one resists them.” A monk of Noirmoutier, quoted in The Viking World by James Graham-Campbell.

131 Medieval Europe: Fear of the Vikings  People constantly afraid – NO warnings Fast moving ships Weapons: plentiful & brutal ○ Swords ○ Axes ○ Spears ○ Shields Resisters were killed Those captured – sold into slavery

132 Monasteries: the favorite targets of Vikings  Easy to plunder (monks NOT warriors)  Had fine treasures Jeweled crosses Gold and or silver candlesticks  Vikings were NOT Christians  Had no problems with stealing these items

133 Viking Settlements  Not all Vikings were raiders  Some were explorers Iceland became settled by Vikings, arriving late 700s

134 Sagas – Icelandic stories about great heroes & events  Greenland reached in 982  About 100 yrs later, Leif Eriksson reached North America (Canada)  Hmmm…  1082 vs 1492?!?  Is there a Leif Eriksson day?!

135 The Magyars  While the Vikings were terrorizing northern and western Europe, the Magyars were invading from the east.  Originally from central Asia  Were nomads settled in what is now Hungary  Fierce warriors (like the Vikings)  Unlike, the Vikings they were expert horsemen, NOT sailors

136 Magyar Targets  Eastern France  Germany  Northern Italy  Western Byzantine Empire

137 Magyars in decline….  Eventually, Magyars gave up their nomadic ways.  As a result, they lost their edge.  Once they had a permanent home, they could NOT easily run away!!!!

138 Magyars defeated: mid 900s  King Otto the Great of Germany crushed a huge Magyar army  Magyar raids ended

139 New Invaders: Muslims  First came to Europe as conquerors  711: Muslim army from Northern Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar & quickly conquered Spain!  Would rule the Iberian Peninsula for more than 700 years

140 Muslim Spain  Mostly a land of tolerance, Muslims, Christians, & Jews lived in peace.  Capital at Cordoba One of the wealthiest & most culturally advanced cities of the medieval world

141 Muslims on the move…  Don’t stop at Spain  732: swept across the Pyrenees into France  Blocked at the Battle of Tours by Charles Mantel (“the hammer” & Charlemagne’s grandpop)

142 Muslims: change strategy 800s – 900s In the West In the East  Instead of full-scale invasions, they ordered small, fast raids against cities & towns in southern France & Italy.  Raided Rome  Destroyed ancient churches, including St. Peter’s Basilica  Muslim fleets blocked Byzantine trade in the Mediterranean  Muslim Pirates looted ships & sold their crews into slavery  Cut off trade routes between Italy and its eastern allies

143 Now what?!  Popes had little choice but to turn to the Franks for protection!  Balance of power shifts in Western Europe!!!  Franks to the rescue!

144 Medieval Europe: Invaders

145 Reviewing Ideas, Terms, & People

146 Vikings, Magyars, & Muslims  What skills allowed the Vikings to conduct raids in locations far from their homeland?  Shipbuilding  Sailing  Navigation skills

147 Draw Conclusions  Why do you think the period between 800 – 1000 in western Europe is sometimes called the Age of Vikings?  Vikings conducted raids throughout Europe  Were the fiercest/ most feared

148 Evaluate  Do stories like Viking sagas make good sources for historical information?  Why or why not?  Sagas may provide some useful information BUT generally they are historically inaccurate, exaggerated stories.

149 Identify  Who were the Magyars?  What parts of Europe did they invade?  Nomadic people from central Asia  Eastern France & Germany  Northern Italy  Western Byzantine Empire

150 Explain.  How did the Magyars’ decision to settle down in a permanent location help bring an end to their raids?  Could no longer run with opponents  No hit and run option  More vulnerable

151 Describe  Where did the Muslim raiders who attacked Europe in the 800s and 900s come from?  Spain and Northern Africa.

152 Historical Imagination… Write a description of a Viking, Magyar, or Muslim raid as though you are an inhabitant of the town being raided. Bring your description to life by choosing vivid adjectives to describe the sights, sounds, and emotions that surround you.

153

154 Feudal & Manorial Systems  In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations.

155 Getting Started  Shout it out!  What comes to mind when you hear Middle Ages?

156

157 Okay, a bit of background…  Did you know?  At the beginning of the Middle Ages, soldiers fought mostly on foot, NOT on horseback, and were part of large armies headed by kings.  As the Middle Ages progressed, however, knights began to emerge as key figures in Europe.  Let’s find out why!

158 Knights were part of the feudal system.

159 Origins of European Feudalism  Originated, in part, as a result of the Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasions  European Kings found themselves unable to defend their lands & the lands of their nobles under attack  Nobles could not depend on kings for protection….

160 Nobles built castles On hilltops defensive position height advantage Simply a place for the noble & his family to take shelter in case of attack NOT as elaborate structures as shown in movies and books usually built of wood, not stone

161 In defense of the castles: Knights  Highly skilled soldiers  Fought on horseback  Was expensive  Demanded payment for their services Needed weapons, armor, horses Payment = land

162 Key terms: Key Terms Fief – land given to a knight for his service Vassal – anyone who accepted a fief Lord – the person who gives a fief *Historians call this system of exchanging land for service the feudal system Feudal system = feudalism

163 Feudal Obligations: give & take  Example: a knights chief duty as a vassal is to provide military service to his lord. Had financial obligations: if his lord was captured, he was expected to help pay the ransom; also other special occassions To promise to remain loyal and faithful ○ Aka promise was called an oath of fealty, or loyalty

164 From The Manner of Doing Homage and Fealty  “Hear you my Lord [ ] that I, [ ] shall be to you both faithful and true, and shall owe my Fidelity unto you, for the Land that I that hold of you, and lawfully shall do such Customs and Services, as my Duty is to you, at the times assigned. So help me God and all his saints.”

165 What did it mean to be a knight? An Inside Look…  For William Marshal, knighthood did not convey the same image of dashing heroes in shining armor that we imagine today.  For William, knighthood meant a lifetime of military and political service.  As a young knight, he gained fame and wealth by besting other knights in tournaments all over France and England.

166 Medieval Knight: William Marshal  William went on to serve the four English kings  He fought in dozens of battles, risking his life to protect the British crown.  William was handsomely rewarded for his service.  Kings and Queens respected William  Was named Earl of Pembroke

167 NOT an easy life….  Despite his skill as a warrior, William was badly wounded many times.  He spent considerable time as a prisoner.  For his sacrifices and successes, many consider him, William Marshal, the greatest knight who ever lived.

168

169 Who’s Who: starting at the bottom Serfs- Serfs are the poor people or the slaves that had to do all the work for the higher people and classes. The Serfs work for the knights.

170 Next to bottom…. Knights- Knights were given land by the Barons (lords) in favor for military service when demanded, and to protect the manor.

171 Lords aka Barons aka Nobles - allowed to establish their own system of justice - minted their own money - set their own taxes.

172 At the top! Kings:  Controlled everything  Owned everyone

173 It’s COMPLICATED!!!!  A person could both be a lord AND a vassal at the same time!  How?  Some knights who were given large fiefs subdivided their fiefs into smaller parts  They gave small pieces of their land to other knights in exchange for their loyalty – so on and so forth Many levels of obligations

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175 Medieval Europe FeudalismManorialism  Essentially a political and social system  An economic system  Built around large estates called manors

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177 Lords, Peasants, Serfs  Lords  Owned manors  Too busy to farm their own lands Peasants Lords gave peasants protection in exchange for farming the fields/ do labor/ other services Also got some plots to cultivate for themselves

178 Lords, Peasants, Serfs  Serfs  Mostly peasants that were legally bound to the manor on which they worked  WERE NOT SLAVES (could not be sold)  Could not leave the manor OR marry without their lord’s permission  Was hereditary

179

180 Manor  The entire Feudal system revolved around the Manor. An agricultural estate operated by a lord and worked by peasants.  The Feudal System, new farming tools, and new farming techniques helped pull Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the Middle Ages!!  The Feudal System, new farming tools (Heavy Plow, Horseshoe, and the Yolk), and new farming techniques (Crop Rotation) helped pull Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the Middle Ages!!

181

182 A typical manor…  Most of the manor’s land was occupied by fields for crops and pastures for animals (3 crop rotation)  Had a fortified manor house for the noble family  Had a village where peasants and serfs lived  Goal: was to be self-sufficient!!!! ○ Church, mill to grind grain, blacksmith

183 Other Must haves…  Castle  Church  Mill  An oven for baking  A pond for fishing  Orchard for fruit  Vegetable garden  Sheep for wool  Bees for honey

184

185

186 The Grimness of Daily Life  People during the early Middle Ages were smelly and dirty. Their hair was long, matted, and filled with lice. Their teeth broken and decayed. Their breath as funky as a sudden outburst of sewer gas. Body odor was compared to old cheese.

187 Appearance  People looked very old despite often being very young. ○ An average girl of seventeen had been married for three years and would have had three children. She’d be lucky to reach 25.

188 Women in the Middle Ages  Being a women in the middle ages was not easy.  Civil law both permitted and encouraged wife beating. A great advance for feminism was made in the thirteenth century by the laws and customs which stated that a man should beat his wife only “for a good reason.”

189 Living Conditions  Living conditions were appalling  The first castles, constructed at the end of the ninth century, were built to defend the people of the manor from barbarians. The castles were cold, dark, and devoid of any comforts. Everything was covered with filth and grime. And the beds were swarming with bedbugs (that really bites).

190 Food  The meat was undercooked, rancid, and indigestible.  The bread is covered with mold. The favorite feast is boiled eel, with a helping of frogs, toads, and snails. Pigs ate garbage and people eat pigs.  Great sausages stuffed with blood was also a delight.

191 Widespread Ignorance  The people were woefully ignorant.  Anything that contradicted the teachings of Christ was heresy! Thus science was all but outlawed!  There are no books so no one read!  They knew nothing of art, science, or the outside world!

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193 English Monarchy: one of the first strong monarchies in Europe  Anglo-Saxon England Descendents of the Angles & Saxons who invaded the island in the 400s Divided into 7 small kingdoms Faced Viking invasions in the 800s Vikings conquered some areas but never all of England due to Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, in Southern England

194 Norman Conquest  Alfred’s descendents rule England for the next 2 centuries  1066: king died without an heir – 2 men claimed the crown

195 1066: Who will rule England HaroldWilliam  An Anglo-Saxon nobleman from England  Supported by the English nobility  Was named the new king  The Duke of Normandy in France  Distant relative of the dead king  Angry that he was not named king  Decided to take the crown by force!

196 The Norman Conquest  William sails to England  Beats Harold in the Battle of Hastings    Becomes King William I of England  Also known as William the Conqueror  King William Claimed all the land in England as his own Divided the land into fiefs & gave it to his soldiers Created a new nobility Introduced French culture into England

197 Magna Carta  1215  Crisis erupts between English nobles and King John King raised taxes & nobles refuse to pay Took up arms against the king  King forced to sign

198 Magna Carta:  Imposed on the king (King John) by his barons  Guaranteed the nobility certain rights & privileges – restricted King’s powers. King John signing the Magna Carta at Runnymede on June 15, 1215

199 Magna Carta  King had to obtain the consent of the nobles before raising taxes  King could not arrest/ punish without cause  Suggested rule by law  2015 The Magna Carta’s 800 birthday

200 Hundred Year’s War  1337 – 1453  Conflict over England & France’s competing claims over French territory  Was the last & most important  Coincided with social unrest & the Black Death  English had the upper hand at first; however, French ultimately won – thanks to Joan of Arc

201 Hundred Years War: Joan of Arc  French victory due to Joan of Arc - heroine  She rallied the French troops  Claimed the saints told her to lead  Was captured, tried, & killed by the English – burned at the stake!  Burned for heresy  Considered a Roman Catholic Saint

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203 Chartres Cathedral Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over 26 years., Known for its magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece. UNESCO List

204 High Middle Ages:  Many changes  Growth of trade  ONE CONSTANT: Religion

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206 What were the Crusades?  A series of “holy wars”  Began in 1095  Captured the imagination of Western Christendom for centuries

207 Background  Wars undertaken at God’s command  Authorized by the Pope  Required participants to swear a vow  Benefits offered an indulgence, which removed the penalties for any confessed sins Immunity from lawsuits A moratorium on the repayment of debts

208 The target  Aimed at wrestling Jerusalem and the holy places associated with the life of Jesus from Islamic control & returning them to Christendom.  Beginning in 1095: wave after wave of Crusaders Demonstrated a growing European capacity for organization, finance, transportation, and recruitment Also demonstrated: extreme cruelty

209 1 st Crusade In Pope Urban II presided over a church council to address a series of pressing issues. Major Issue - An appeal from the Eastern empire for military assistance against the Muslims. Seeing this as an opportunity to increase his own power, Pope Urban II launched the 1st crusade in 1095 ** Granted Indulgences = Forgiveness of sin in repayment of military service Three great armies, tens of thousands of crusaders, gathered from France, Germany, and Italy converged on the Middle East.

210 Christian seizure of Jerusalem: 1099  Accompanied by the slaughter of many Muslims and Jews  Crusaders made their way, according to perhaps exaggerated reports, through streets littered with corpses and ankle deep in blood to the tomb of Christ.

211 1 st Crusade Thousands of knights and “barbarian” soldiers united under Christianity attacked Muslims and Jews in Turkey and Jerusalem to gain the land for Christians. Crusaders marched to Constantinople killing and looting along the way. Lycea Antioch Crusaders took Jerusalem in 1099! There were a total of 9 Crusades. First Crusade began in 1096; the 9 th last one ends in 1272.

212 Following the 1 st Crusade  The Crusaders captured the Holy City of Jerusalem.  To protect the Holy Land, the Crusaders established ‘Crusader Kingdoms’. Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa. Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa.

213  1144 A.D. the Muslim’s captured the Crusader kingdom of Edessa! The capture of Edessa threatened the safety of Jerusalem and led to the 2 nd crusade.  The crusaders fail to recapture their lost lands and are annihilated!! Jerusalem fell to the Muslims in 1187 A.D. It was a failed crusade!

214  Launched in In response to the fall of Jerusalem in 1187

215 3 rd Crusad e  Launched by the three greatest rulers of Europe: ○ King Richard 1 st of England ○ King Philip Augustus of France ○ German Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa Barbarossa drowned in a swollen stream He was nearly 70 years old Germans leave after his death In 1191, the French and the English capture a Muslim city of Acre! The French and English were constantly bickering so the French eventually went home.

216 King Richard vs. Saladin  For nearly two years Richard is fighting daily combats with Saladin’s troops.  Saladin played Psychological warfare on Richard! Sending him the finest fruits when he fell ill. Saladin sent Richard the finest steed in Arabia when his personal horse was killed in battle.  After years of fighting, King Richard became frustrated with the slow pace of negotiations. In order to rush the peace negotiations, he had three thousand Muslim prisoners lined up and had their throats slit one at a time.

217 Peace Achieved  Finally in 1192 Richard and Saladin made peace. Richard never conquered Jerusalem But the peace treaty gave access to Christians to Jerusalem and the holy sites. Christians did not have to pay tribute.

218 Crusades 4 – 9  4 th Crusade ( began 1201 C.E.) Attacked Constantinople - FAILED  5 th Crusade (1215 C.E.) Attacked Egypt - FAILED  6 th – 9 th Crusades All failed

219 Crusades: What happened?  European power was not strong enough to last the test of time.  European gains had come under Muslim control by 1300.

220 What were the long term effects of the Crusades? *How would Europe be impacted? Take 5 minutes for “Table Talk”

221  How did the Crusades affect Europe? Talking it over

222 Impact of the Crusades  Persecution of Jews and Muslims.  Economic development via trade.  Kings and popes, gained power as a result.  Islamic culture was introduced to small portions of Europe

223 Crusades: Long term consequences  Spain, Sicily, and the Baltic region were brought permanently into Western Christendom.  Declining Byzantium, weakened by the Crusader sacking of Constantinople in 1204, was left even more vulnerable to Muslim Turkish conquest.  Popes strengthened their position of influence.  Tens of thousands of Europeans came into personal contact with the Islamic world Gaining a taste for luxury goods Stimulating a demand for Asian goods

224 Challenges of the Middle Ages  Following the Crusades, wars swept across Europe as a result of the new power granted to kings and Pope’s! Hundred Year’s War War of the Roses  The Hundred Year’s War ( ) and the War of the Roses ( ) tore the continent apart!  In 1347, the Black Death Swept across Europe!  Estimates range from 1/3 to ½ the population of Europe died!!  Anti-clericalism began to rise as people blamed God for the plague.

225 End of the Middle Ages  Due to the great loss in population from the wars and the plague, the manor system collapsed as more people moved to cities! Decrease in population allowed farmers to buy more land and produce more food! This drove down food prices and gave people money to spend on luxuries. The demand for more luxuries and the migration to cities ushered an era of trade and urbanization not seen in Europe since Rome!  In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople sending many Greeks fleeing to Italy. They brought with them ancient writings that were thought to be lost! A renewed interest in the classics was founded!


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