Presentation on theme: "Medieval Europe 3 Key Themes Kingdoms and Christianity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Medieval Europe 3 Key Themes Kingdoms and Christianity The Early Middle Ages, 800 – 1215The High Middle Ages,Medieval Europe
2 Kingdoms and Christianity Christianity became a world religion in the centuries after the Roman Empire’s fall. The faith was central to the Byzantine culture for a thousand years. As missionaries brought Christianity to Europe & Russia, the faith had a deep impact on societies.After the fall of Rome, large and small kingdoms appeared in Europe.In most of these kingdoms, Christianity had a powerful influence on people’s lives.The Big Picture
4 The Dormition Cathedral Known at the spiritual heart of UkraineA monastery had been founded on this site in 1051Construction began on this site in 1073Is within the Russian Orthodox traditionReconstruction took place
5 What feature(s) indicate that this is a (Christian) church? How does this design differ from houses of worship in your region?
6 Analyzing VisualsThe distinction today between western & eastern Christianity began over 1000 years ago, when the eastern & western Christian churches began to disagree over certain theological matters.
7 One area of disagreement was over the use of icons, or religious pictures or representations. To this day, icons remain an important part of the Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition.The Russian Orthodox Church in this photo is a good example of the highly visual Eastern Orthodox style.
8 Medieval Europe: Starting Points Following the death of Jesus in Jerusalem, Christianity began in the region on the eastern edge of the Roman Empire.In the following centuries, the new religion gained a foothold in scattered locations.Then, through government support & missionaries, Christianity spread widely, becoming one of the world’s great religions.
9 The Byzantine EmpireThe Byzantine Empire, once the eastern half of the Roman Empire, was held together for centuries by strong leaders, profitable trade, and the influence of Christianity.
10 Byzantine Empire The Inside Story… The exotic sights, sounds, and smells of Constantinople were unlike those in any other city!Visitors from other countries in the 400s & 500s were impressed by the sheer size of the city on the Bosporus, which had at least 400,000 residents & was built on 7 hills.Its wide, bustling streets hummed with bazaars & food markets.What did visitors experience in the most spectacular city of the Byzantine Empire?
11 The Byzantine Empire: Constantinople… Its sprawling palaces & churches glittered with gilded domes & high towers.Surrounded by high walls with ramparts & watchtowers, Constantinople impressed visitors as a beautiful, imposing fortress, with many treasures worth protecting.
12 Inside its walls, Constantinople contained some of the most marvelous sights in the civilized world. Many of these reflected the Roman heritage that the Byzantines were carrying on: aqueducts, sewers, public baths, and street planning. Other sights, in particular some 100 churches, reminded one that Constantinople was a very Christian city. Still other sights reflected oriental influences: the bustling markets offering goods from all over the civilized world, the palace complex with its reception halls, mechanically levitating thrones, imperial gardens, and silk factories. Much of the Byzantines' success was due to their ability to dazzle visitors with such wonders.
13 Urbs Constantinopolitana Nova Roma, 1400s, a medieval manuscript, depicts the magnificent buildings of Constantinople.
15 Why start here? Sorry Western Europe BUT… When we study the Middle Ages, we tend to focus on Western Europe since it is the homeland of Western Civilization. However, this gives us a distorted view of medieval history, for Western Europe was little more than a backwoods frontier compared to the real centers of civilization further east. Byzantium, or Constantinople as it was known after its refounding by Constantine in 330 C.E.Byzantium = Constantinople
16 Emperors Rule in Constantinople Greek for “The City of Constantine”Became the capital of the Roman Empire under Emperor Constantine IWas the seat of the Eastern Roman Empire for more than a 1000 yearsFrom 395 – 1453Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire
17 Constantinople: “A New Rome” Remained the capital of the Eastern Empire long after Rome fellWas a larger, richer city than Rome (even before its fall)Located on the BosporusPositioned to control trade between Asia & EuropeAlso helped guard it from attack
18 Constantinople: a protected city Sea protected the city on two sidesBlack Sea to the NorthAegaen Sea to the SouthHeavily fortified walls protected the landward sideEmpire was able to thrive for centuries
19 Justinian I Byzantine Emperor Ruled from 527 – 565 Dreamed of restoring the original Roman EmpireReconquered territories in N.AfricaThese lands had been taken by a Germanic tribe called the VandalsBy 534, fleet had recaptured the region
20 Rebellion at home – Nika Revolt Justinian & his wife, Theodora, faced a threat from rebelsRebellion resulted with Constantinople in flamesTheodora refused to back down & convinced her husband to do the same!Troops attacked rioters assembled in a stadium, the Hippodrome, & slaughtered them by the thousands.
21 Achievements: Justinian & Theodora Emphasis on rebuilding parts of the city destroyed from the Nika RevoltMost important new building was a church: the Hagia SofiaJustinian’s Code
22 Hagia Sofia: (HAH-juh soh-FEE-uh One of the world’s most spectacular buildingsKey Factsabout 100,000 workers were hired to build itConstruction lasted from *only 5 yearsWas built as a church, became a mosque, and is now a museum
23 Hagia Sofia: Why is it important? Many Byzantine buildings & even mosques followed the same styleMosaics on the walls are exquisite examples of Byzantine artIts construction used an ingenious new technique, called pendentives, for supporting the dome
24 Justinian’s CodeEstablished a commission to codified (systematically arranged) laws of the empireThe resulting code is one of his best known achievementsReorganization & Simplification of Roman Law
25 After JustinianWhen he died in 565, he left the gov’t nearly bankrupt from the expense of taking back the empire’s territory.His expansion was beyond what the gov’t could effectively administerAfter his death, the western provinces once again fell to migrating tribes.
26 Byzantine Culture: 2 key institutions Was a priest-kingConsidered the deputy of Jesus Christ on earth AND his co-rulerMost Byzantine art, architecture, and literature were based on religious themes.A large # of human subjects in Byzantine art were from the BibleMosaics – very common – floors, walls, & ceilingsThe EmperorChristianity
27 Byzantine Religious Art Mosaic of Jesus, glitters with goldAt the Hagia Sopha
28 Religious ConflictsIn the 700s, the use of art in churches became controversial.Debate over the use of icons: paintings or sculptures of sacred figuresSome churches contained beautiful iconsOther churches rejected them
29 Cons Pros The Icon Controversy Some Christians believed that the use of icons was too close to the non-Christian practice of worshipping idols.(golden calf)People who objectors were called iconoclasts – “icon breakers”Clergy found idols / icons helpful in teaching people who could not read.Art = Biblical Picture BooksConsPros
31 726: Byzantine Emperor Leo III issued a decree forbidding the use of holy images & ordered their destruction.
32 Rioting!!!!! Resistance in the Western Church Result…
33 Leo dies in 780… Strong reaction against iconoclasm had set in Movement waged on & off until a council in 843 settled the issue by accepting iconsHOWEVER, the dispute over iconoclasm played a crucial role in the growing divide between the emperor in Constantinople & the pope in Rome….
35 Key Differences Use of Greek Members of the clergy could marry Did not accept the Pope as the supreme authority over church matters – religious authority was in councilsUsed LatinMembers of the clergy could NOT marryPope was God’s representative on earth/ spoke for GodEastWest
36 The Great Schism: 1054 EAST WEST The Orthodox Church *word, “orthodox” comes from the Greek words that mean “right opinion”Today, more than 218 million people are included within the Orthodox Tradition.Roman Catholic ChurchThere are an estimated 1.2 billion Roman Catholics in the world, according to Vatican figures. More than 40% of the world's Catholics live in Latin America - but Africa has seen the biggest growth in Catholic congregations in recent years .Mar 14,WESTEAST
37 The Byzantine Empire Declines Invaders in the EmpireConstant attack on their northern borders by migrating tribes such as the Slavs and Bulgars600s: Byzantine provinces of Egypt & Syria fell to Muslim conquerors
38 Final Decline: The Seljuk Turks 1071: The Turks defeated the Byzantine army at ManzikertByzantines were permanently weakened1071: also lost their last outposts in ItalyThe Empire carried on BUT by 1391 it had been reduced to Constantinople & a few outlying districts.
39 1453: The End! The Ottoman Turks attacked Constantinople. It fell to the Muslims.Ottomans renamed it Istanbul.Hafia Sofia became a mosque.1453: The End!
41 Question Answer Identify Who was Justinian I, and what did he achieve regarding law?Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 527 – 565Reformed Roman law code - became known as “Justinian’s Code”QuestionAnswer
42 Question Answer Identify Theodora, Justinian’s wife, refused to back down/ give in.She convinced her husband to join her.Troops attacked rioters assembled in a stadium, the Hippodrome, & slaughtered them by the thousands.The Nika Revolt ended.How did the influence of Theodora affect the outcome of the Nika Revolt?QuestionAnswer
43 Recall Question Answer Pictures created with tiny pieces of glass (stones, gold, shells)Decorated many Byzantine buildingsWhat are mosaics, and what role did they play in Byzantine Art?QuestionAnswer
44 ExplainWhy did the iconoclasts respond as they did to sacred paintings or carvings that showed human images?They believed using icons resembled the non-Christian worship of idols.Icons = IdolsQuestionAnswer
45 Icons, Idols, Then & Now…In March 2001, Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers loaded their rocket launchers and set out to do battle at Baniyan Valley, 78 miles NW of Kabul.They were certain their adversary could not plan an ambush.Their enemy, it turns out was made in stone!
46 The Taliban aimed their artillery at 2 1,500 year old statues of the Buddha carved into Afghanistan’s majestic mountain cliffs.The larger of the 2, towering some 175 feet, was thought to be the tallest statue in the world.No matter. The Taliban’s leader, Mullah Muhammad Omar, would not compromise: “Not a single pagan idol must remain.”
47 Reaction! The Western press exploded…. “Cultural vandalism,” fumed the Wall Street Journal;“A shocking act,” blasted The New York Times, which were not the Taliban’s to destroy but belonged “to all humankind.”An attempt to “kill [an] ancient heritage” accused London’s The Daily Telegraph.Overall reaction: mixture of righteous indignation AND astonished disbelief.
48 BTW, March 2015: ISIS accused of similar acts in Iraq.
49 What kind of religion could condone such brazen behavior? Guesses?
50 Comparative History Let’s start with opening the Bible. Ideally, knowledge of history should help us understand our present.If this is true, where might we go to gain insight into the Taliban’s actions?Let’s start with opening the Bible.
51 Exodus 32: 20-21 Remember the Second “He took the calf that they had made, burned it with fire, ground it to a powder, scattered it on the water, and made the people of Israel drink it. And Moses said to Aaron, ‘What did this people do to you that you have brought so great a sin upon them,’”Remember the SecondCommandment’s prohibition against “graven images”?
52 Christianity…What started in Rome – depictions of Emperors, various representations of Jesus, Mary, & the Saints appeared.Tensions reached a climax under Byzantine Leo III (717 – 741)Patron of the “iconoclasts” – those who advocated smashing icons730: Leo signed an official edict forbidding ALL icons
53 Hmm…Comparative history helps us render what is initially foreign & incomprehensible a bit more familiar. What at first glance appears to be a mutant strain in a distant culture turns out, under examination, to be present in our very own.
54 One last example: NBC campus, the flag salute, and Jehovah’s Witnesses….
56 Christianity in Western Europe The spread of Christianity, largely through the work of missionaries and monks, helped unify western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
57 After the fall of Rome…In the East, the Byzantine Empire grew out of the former Roman Empire AND flourished.In the West, NO single empire rose up from Rome’s ashes..Instead, the Germanic groups who had invaded Rome established many small kingdoms.
58 Anglo-Saxon EnglandAmong the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms in Europe were the Angles and the Saxons.Both groups had once lived in what is now Germany.Had migrated to England in the 400sEstablished (in England) 7 small independent kingdomsTogether, they are known as the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
59 Anglo Saxon England Initially NOT Christian In the late 500s: a group of monks led by Augustine of Canterbury arrived in the small kingdom of Kent.Many convertedAugustine named Archbishop of CanterburyFrom Kent, Christianity slowly spread throughout England.
60 Anglo – Saxon EnglandKingdoms remained independent for several centuriesForced to band together when the Danes invaded northern England & began to march southUnited under Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, one of the 7 kingdomsUnder Alfred, Anglo Saxons pushed the Danes back!
61 King Alfred Aka “Alfred the Great” Military successes = Alfred named ruler of ALL of EnglandReorganized the armyIssued his own code of lawsImproved the financial situationEstablished a system of schools that educated adults AND kids!
62 Interesting story… King or Peasant In the 800s the Christians of southern England were locked in a long struggle against the Danes who ruled the north.Among the leaders of the English Christians was King Alfred, ruler of the small kingdom of Wessex
63 According to legend…Alfred got separated from his troops after a battle.Was wandering along through the countryside.Came across a small cottage – asked for shelterDid not reveal his identity
64 One day, peasant’s wife asked him to keep an eye on some cakes she was baking Alfred agreed but soon forgotCakes burned!Woman scolded Alfred harshly for his negligence, not realizing he was the kingAlfred felt bad & took the scolding.Legend reveals Alfred’s reputation for humility and sense of fairness
65 From the Angles to The Franks… Another Germanic kingdom established in the former Roman province of Gaul –now France - in the late 400sLed by Clovis (their king)Had built a powerful kingdom
66 A legend about Clovis…During an especially tough battle, Clovis vowed to become a Christian if he won.Franks won.Clovis became a Christian.496: Clovis AND 3,000 Franks were baptized in a public ceremony.
67 Clovis Charlemagne Clovis & The Franks… Became a major Western European power800s: height of Frankish power under Charlemagne ClovisCharlemagne
68 Check it out! Article Videos Check it out!ArticleVideos
69 Christian European Society When Rome fell in the late 400s, Christianity was mostly confined to southern Europe.By 600, it had spread northward into other parts of the continent*Conversion of peoples like the Anglo-Saxons and Franks helped make western Europe into a largely Christian society.
70 Appeal of Christianity Why? What do you think?Let’s see…Medieval life was hard: doubt, hard work, suffering, sickness, hardshipSense of community – love thy neighbor, forgivenessHope/ promise of eternal lifeGreat Commission
71 Great Commission Missionaries…. Europe became a missionary fieldAugustine of Canterbury and others go to new lands to spread the faith
72 Patrick aka St. Patrick Among the most famous missionaries “Apostle of Ireland”Went from Britain to Ireland in the 400sPreached despite opposition & hostilityDied c with most of Ireland ChristianIt is said he used the shamrock as a tool for exploring the trinity
73 Christendom is born!Through the works of Augustine, Patrick, and others, Christendom is born.A Christian society in Western Europe whose people saw themselves as a community of believers.Spread of Christianity by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity up to AD 325)
74 Medieval Europe = Christendom What about the papacy?Medieval Europe = Christendom
76 The Pope of the early Middle Ages – different from today!
77 As the Bishop of Rome, it might seem that the pope was in a position of great influence/ power throughout Christendom. NOT!!!
78 NOTE: during the early Middle Ages, most popes had little authority outside Rome - “just another bishop”
79 Pope Gregory strengthens the Papacy! This medieval lack of authority ends with Gregory the Great!Worked hard to change views of the papacy
80 Gregory the GreatBelieved that as the successor of Peter – one of Jesus’ Apostles & considered the first bishop of Rome, the Pope was the supreme patriarch of the church
81 Quick Bio: Pope Gregory I commonly known as Saint Gregory the Greatwas Pope from 3 September 590 to his death in 604.well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessorsBorn: 540 AD, Rome, ItalyDied: March 12, 604 AD, Rome ItalyQuick MathBecame Pope at age 50Died at age 64Served as Pope for 14 years
82 Gregory the Great Won respect for the Papacy Made the Pope one of the most influential figures in EuropeEncouraged missionary work and monasticism (voluntary separation from society to dedicate one’s life to God)Encouraged people to care for the poor and less fortunate
83 Monks & MonasteriesGrew in popularity due during the Middle Ages (Pope Gregory)NOT newFirst Christian monks had lived in Egypt in the 200s.Usu. lived alone or as hermitsDuring the Middle Ages….Small groups of monks lived in monasteriesFollowed strict code of rulesCommunal life based on labor, worship, and scholarship
84 2 types of Monasteries Benedictines Celtic Most common form in Medieval EuropeBased on a rule written by Benedict of NursiaCeltic(KEL-tik)Developed in IrelandMore ascetic (severe)Long fasts & days of solitary contemplation
85 2 Medieval style monasteries Monasteries often built on islandsLed by abbots*In mainland Europe, bishops were the most important religious officials – each city church had a bishop.Because Ireland, had no large cities, people went to abbots for spiritual guidance.Celtic monasteries built in France & GermanyBenedict of Nursia – a monkLived in Italy in the early 500sHis collection of Guidelines: Benedictine RuleEstablished a monastery, Monte Cassino with Benedict as abbot (leader)BenedictineCeltic
86 Benedictine Order: A closer look Monks had to take vows of poverty and obedienceBenedictine Rule:Based on prayer & laborOutlined a monk’s day – including 9 distinct prayer services & periods of work (ranging from farm labor to copying manuscripts)Each monastery run by an abbot picked by the monks or a local noble
87 Primary Source Excerpt: Benedictine Rule “Idleness is the enemy of the soul. And therefore, at fixed times, the brothers ought to be occupied in manual labour; and again, at fixed times, in sacred reading…There shall certainly be appointed one or two elders, who shall go round the monastery at the hours in which the brothers are engaged in reading, and see to it that no troublesome brother chance to be found who is open to idleness…and is not intent on his reading; being not only of no use to himself, but also stirring up others….
88 Benedictine Rule: excerpt… Vestments [clothing] shall be given to the brothers according to the quality of the places where they dwell, or the temperature of the air. For in cold regions more is required; but in warm, less.This, therefore, is a matter for the abbot to decide. We nevertheless consider that for ordinary places there suffices for the monks a cowl and a gown apiece – the cowl, in winter hairy, in summer, plain or old – and a working garment, on account of their labors. As clothing for the feet, shoes and boots.”
89 Contributions of Benedictine Monasteries TREMENDOUS IN EUROPERan schools – training some of the finest medieval mindsHelped preserve the ancient writings of Greece & Rome by copying ancient manuscriptsBecame centers of wealth & power as kings & nobles donated money or gifts for prayers on their behalf!*many monks became advisers to political leaders….
90 Sooo… the faith spreads EuropeEastern MediterraneanNorthern AfricaPeople interpreted the faith differentlyConflicts ariseKey example: Jesus’ humanity vs divinity
91 Soo… to prevent / resolve conflict Influential theologians wrote explanations / established official church positionMost influential medieval theologian:Augustine of Hippo
92 AugustineUsed ideas of the Greek philosopher, Plato to support Christian teachingsHis greatest writing: the City of GodArgued that people should pay less attention to the material world than they do to God’s plan for the worldWritten shortly after the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410, it was an attempt to convince the Romans that God had NOT abandoned them
93 Augustine still studied today…. Featured in sermons worldwide
94 Time out! Checking for understanding Question: Who was Alfred the Great And for what is he best known?Sample Answer:Ruler of EnglandUnited the Anglo-Saxons
95 ExplainWhat led to the conversion of the Franks to Christianity?Model Answer:The king’s vow to convert if victorious in battle
96 Converted the Irish to Christianity RecallWhat did Patrick achieve in Ireland?Converted the Irish to Christianity
97 Created a sense of community ExtendHow do you think the idea of Christendom affected life in medieval Europe?Created a sense of community
99 In the 800s, 1 major Christian kingdom, the Frankish Empire, ruled a huge portion of Western Europe. This empire reached great heights under the rule of Charlemagne.
100 By 1215, many kingdoms in Europe had divided, others had become unified, & even more had become Christian.
101 Charlemagne’s EmpireThrough conquest and social change, Charlemagne brought much of western Europe together into a single empire.
102 Could one man restore the lost glory of the Roman Empire? Cheers & excitement shattered the silence of Christmas morning in Rome in the year 800.From St. Peter’s Basilica- the city’s most powerful church – word spread quickly.For the first time in more than 3 centuries, Rome had a a new emperor.The new emperor was Charlemagne, the king of the Franks.
103 Charlemagne Crowned by Pope Leo III during Christmas mass Addressed as Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo IIIHailed as the heir of ancient rulers
104 Charlemagne People rejoiced throughout Europe. Emperor crowned the Pope – whom they saw as God’s representativeCoronation seen as a sign from God that Charlemagne was chosen to restore the glory of their ancient empire.
105 The Franks Ruled much of Europe by 800 Key family: the Carolingians Charlemagne was a Carolingian
106 Early Carolingians: Charles Martel Charles Martel = Charles the HammerCharlemagne’s grandfatherWas not a kingWas a political adviser & war leader for the Frankish kingLed many crushing defeats of opponents, esp. Muslims from SpainEarned the nickname “Martel” which means “hammer”
107 Pippin III – 1st king of the Carolingian Dynasty Charles Martel’s sonAlso a skilled leaderWon many battles & captured new lands for the FranksUnlike his father, he became kingDied in 768, passed his kingdom to his son, Charles aka Charlemagne
108 Charlemagne’s Rise to Power Charlemagne - Old French for Charles the GreatConsidered one of the most important leaders in European societySuccess was his military power *see sword
109 Charlemagne: Rise to Power Assembled an army yearly to battle one of his foesIncorporated lands of the defeatedRecognized by Pope Leo III for his warrior skillsSought by Pope to help with Lombards attacked the Papal States in 774Papal States: region in central Italy that was under the Pope’s controlCharlemagne responds: defeats the Lombards!Charlemagne: King of the Lombards & King of the FranksPope was GRATEFUL!
110 Charlemagne: to the rescue….again Angry supporters of the previous Pope attacked Leo & ran him out of RomeLeo calls for help!Charlemagne escorts Leo back to Rome & powerStatus of emperor = a pope’s way of saying thanks!
111 Charlemagne’s Rule Had TREMENDOUS power as emperor Empire was so large, it was NOT easy to rule!Changes will be made!
112 Charlemagne’s Changes… Established a permanent capital at AachenWhat is now GermanyBuilt a huge palace & cathedralLived in AchenUnable to personally oversee entire areaAppointed “counts” to rule parts of the empire in his nameWere bound by oath to obey CharlemagneIn return counts got land & influence
116 A New Society: Education Loved to learnSpent much of his time studyingWanted leaders to be literate!Ordered churches & monasteries to start schoolsStudied religion, music, grammar, and other subjects
117 Charlemagne & Education Invited noted scholars from all over Europe to AachenWhen not teaching, they copied ancient textsAncient writings preserved – otherwise might have been lost forever
118 Charlemagne & Religion Wanted to preserve & spread ChristianityHis friend & biographer, Einhard, wrote in The Life of Charlemagne“Charlemagne practised [sic] the Christian religion with great devotion and piety… As long as his health lasted, he went to church morning and evening with great regularity, and also for early-morning Mass, and the late-night hours.”
119 Charlemagne: Christianity & the Military Factor Charlemagne ordered those conquered to covert for dieSent monks to live among those conquered to help Christianity grow
120 Charlemagne & the lawEstablished a written law code/ Wrote down laws previously known via word of mouthIssued many new laws that enforced Christian teachings
121 814: Charlemagne diesGrandsons fought among themselves for control of the crown843:grandsons divide empire into 3 kingdomsInvaders challenge from ALL sides
123 Main IdeaInvasions and migrations changed the political and cultural landscapes of western Europe during the early Middle Ages.
124 New Invaders: Where did they come from? June 28th, 793Monks had started their day – doing their normal business: tending crops, praying, and copying manuscripts.Then many lay dead by swords and spears of raiders.Those left alive watched as the monastery was looted and its treasures were loaded up on shipsDazed, the monks wondered what was going on…
125 Raiders : Vikings, from what is now Denmark This attack (793) began a 200 year period of raids on northern Europe, a period sometimes called the Age of Vikings.
126 The Vikings: Origins aka Norsemen or Northmen Came from Northern Europe, ScandinaviaModern day Norway, Denmark, & Sweden
127 Viking Homelands Society was rural & agricultural Most worked as fishers or famersPlentiful fishInfertile soilFood shortages – common problemSought new sources of food & wealth via raids
128 Vikings Excellent shipbuilders & sailors Skilled at navigation Ships Could withstand heavy wavesCarried crews of 100 warriors
129 Viking Raids First targets: England & northern France Eventually, went further from the homland:KievConstantinopleFear pervaded EuropeWritings of the time are filled with haunting descriptions of fierce raids
130 Primary Source“The number of ships grows: the endless stream of Vikings never ceases to increase. Everywhere the Christians are victims of massacres, burnings, plunderings: the Vikings conquer all in their path, and no one resists them.”A monk of Noirmoutier, quoted in The Viking World by James Graham-Campbell.
131 Medieval Europe: Fear of the Vikings People constantly afraid – NO warningsFast moving shipsWeapons: plentiful & brutalSwordsAxesSpearsShieldsResisters were killedThose captured – sold into slavery
132 Monasteries: the favorite targets of Vikings Easy to plunder (monks NOT warriors)Had fine treasuresJeweled crossesGold and or silver candlesticksVikings were NOT ChristiansHad no problems with stealing these items
133 Viking Settlements Not all Vikings were raiders Some were explorers Iceland became settled by Vikings, arriving late 700s
134 Sagas – Icelandic stories about great heroes & events Greenland reached in 982About 100 yrs later, Leif Eriksson reached North America (Canada)Hmmm…1082 vs 1492?!?Is there a Leif Eriksson day?!
135 The Magyars Originally from central Asia Were nomads settled in what is now HungaryFierce warriors (like the Vikings)Unlike, the Vikings they were expert horsemen, NOT sailorsWhile the Vikings were terrorizing northern and western Europe, the Magyars were invading from the east.
136 Magyar Targets Eastern France Germany Northern Italy Western Byzantine Empire
137 Magyars in decline…. Eventually, Magyars gave up their nomadic ways. As a result, they lost their edge.Once they had a permanent home, they could NOT easily run away!!!!
138 Magyars defeated: mid 900s King Otto the Great of Germany crushed a huge Magyar armyMagyar raids ended
139 New Invaders: Muslims First came to Europe as conquerors 711: Muslim army from Northern Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar & quickly conquered Spain!Would rule the Iberian Peninsula for more than 700 years
140 Muslim SpainMostly a land of tolerance, Muslims, Christians, & Jews lived in peace.Capital at CordobaOne of the wealthiest & most culturally advanced cities of the medieval world
141 Muslims on the move… Don’t stop at Spain 732: swept across the Pyrenees into FranceBlocked at the Battle of Tours by Charles Mantel (“the hammer” & Charlemagne’s grandpop)
142 Muslims: change strategy 800s – 900s Instead of full-scale invasions, they ordered small, fast raids against cities & towns in southern France & Italy.Raided RomeDestroyed ancient churches, including St. Peter’s BasilicaMuslim fleets blocked Byzantine trade in the MediterraneanMuslim Pirates looted ships & sold their crews into slaveryCut off trade routes between Italy and its eastern alliesIn the WestIn the East
143 Now what?!Popes had little choice but to turn to the Franks for protection!Balance of power shifts in Western Europe!!!Franks to the rescue!
145 Medieval Europe: New Invasions Ideas, Terms, & PeopleReviewingMedieval Europe: New Invasions
146 Vikings, Magyars, & Muslims What skills allowed the Vikings to conduct raids in locations far from their homeland?ShipbuildingSailingNavigation skills
147 Draw Conclusions Vikings conducted raids throughout Europe Why do you think the period between 800 – 1000 in western Europe is sometimes called the Age of Vikings?Vikings conducted raids throughout EuropeWere the fiercest/ most feared
148 EvaluateSagas may provide some useful information BUT generally they are historically inaccurate, exaggerated stories.Do stories like Viking sagas make good sources for historical information?Why or why not?
149 Identify Who were the Magyars? What parts of Europe did they invade? Nomadic people from central AsiaEastern France & GermanyNorthern ItalyWestern Byzantine Empire
150 Explain.How did the Magyars’ decision to settle down in a permanent location help bring an end to their raids?Could no longer run with opponentsNo hit and run optionMore vulnerable
151 Spain and Northern Africa. DescribeWhere did the Muslim raiders who attacked Europe in the 800s and 900s come from?Spain and Northern Africa.
152 Historical Imagination… Write a description of a Viking, Magyar, orMuslim raid as though you are an inhabitant of the town being raided. Bring your description to life by choosing vivid adjectives to describe the sights, sounds, and emotions that surround you.
153 Medieval Europe: The Feudal & manorial Systems
154 Feudal & Manorial Systems In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations.
155 Getting Started Shout it out! What comes to mind when you hear Middle Ages?
157 Okay, a bit of background… Did you know?At the beginning of the Middle Ages, soldiers fought mostly on foot, NOT on horseback, and were part of large armies headed by kings.As the Middle Ages progressed, however, knights began to emerge as key figures in Europe.Let’s find out why!
159 Origins of European Feudalism Originated, in part, as a result of the Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasionsEuropean Kings found themselves unable to defend their lands & the lands of their nobles under attackNobles could not depend on kings for protection….
160 Nobles built castlesOn hilltops defensive position height advantage Simply a place for the noble & his family to take shelter in case of attack NOT as elaborate structures as shown in movies and books usually built of wood, not stone
161 In defense of the castles: Knights Highly skilled soldiersFought on horsebackWas expensiveDemanded payment for their servicesNeeded weapons, armor, horsesPayment = land
162 Key terms: Feudal system = feudalism Fief – land given to a knight for his serviceKey TermsVassal – anyone who accepted a fiefLord – the person who gives a fief*Historians call this system of exchanging land for service the feudal systemKey terms:Feudal system = feudalism
163 Feudal Obligations: give & take Example: a knights chief dutyas a vassal is to provide military service to his lord.Had financial obligations: if his lord was captured, he was expected to help pay the ransom; also other special occassionsTo promise to remain loyal and faithfulAka promise was called an oath of fealty, or loyalty
164 From The Manner of Doing Homage and Fealty “Hear you my Lord [ ] that I, [ ] shall be to you both faithful and true, and shall owe my Fidelity unto you, for the Land that I that hold of you, and lawfully shall do such Customs and Services, as my Duty is to you, at the times assigned. So help me God and all his saints.”
165 What did it mean to be a knight? An Inside Look… For William Marshal, knighthood did not convey the same image of dashing heroes in shining armor that we imagine today.For William, knighthood meant a lifetime of military and political service.As a young knight, he gained fame and wealth by besting other knights in tournaments all over France and England.
166 Medieval Knight: William Marshal William went on to serve the four English kingsHe fought in dozens of battles, risking his life to protect the British crown.William was handsomely rewarded for his service.Kings and Queens respected WilliamWas named Earl of Pembroke
167 NOT an easy life….Despite his skill as a warrior, William was badly wounded many times.He spent considerable time as a prisoner.For his sacrifices and successes, many consider him, William Marshal, the greatest knight who ever lived.
169 Who’s Who: starting at the bottom Serfs- Serfs are the poor people or the slaves that had to do all the work for the higher people and classes. The Serfs work for the knights.Who’s Who: starting at the bottom
170 Knights- Knights were given land by the Barons (lords) in favor for military service when demanded, and to protect the manor.Next to bottom….
171 Lords aka Barons aka Nobles - allowed to establish their own system of justiceminted their own moneyset their own taxes.
172 At the top!Kings:Controlled everythingOwned everyone
173 It’s COMPLICATED!!!!A person could both be a lord AND a vassal at the same time!How?Some knights who were given large fiefs subdivided their fiefs into smaller partsThey gave small pieces of their land to other knights in exchange for their loyalty – so on and so forthMany levels of obligations
174 Feudalism: started in the 700s bUT starts to decline due to popluation shifts/ devastation of the black death of the 1300s 700s – 1300s
175 Feudalism Manorialism Medieval Europe Essentially a political and social systemAn economic systemBuilt around large estates called manorsFeudalismManorialism
176 Manors were owned by wealthy lords or knights.
177 Peasants Lords Lords, Peasants, Serfs Owned manors Lords gave peasants protection in exchange for farming the fields/ do labor/ other servicesAlso got some plots to cultivate for themselvesLordsOwned manorsToo busy to farm their own lands
178 Serfs Lords, Peasants, Serfs Mostly peasants that were legally bound to the manor on which they workedWERE NOT SLAVES (could not be sold)Could not leave the manor OR marry without their lord’s permissionWas hereditary
180 ManorThe entire Feudal system revolved around the Manor.An agricultural estate operated by a lord and worked by peasants.The Feudal System, new farming tools (Heavy Plow, Horseshoe, and the Yolk), and new farming techniques (Crop Rotation) helped pull Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the Middle Ages!!
181 Manors had some free people who rented land from the lord.
182 A typical manor…Most of the manor’s land was occupied by fields for crops and pastures for animals (3 crop rotation)Had a fortified manor house for the noble familyHad a village where peasants and serfs livedGoal: was to be self-sufficient!!!!Church, mill to grind grain, blacksmith
183 Other Must haves… Castle Church Mill An oven for baking A pond for fishingOrchard for fruitVegetable gardenSheep for woolBees for honey
186 The Grimness of Daily Life People during the early Middle Ages were smelly and dirty.Their hair was long, matted, and filled with lice.Their teeth broken and decayed.Their breath as funky as a sudden outburst of sewer gas.Body odor was compared to old cheese.
187 Appearance People looked very old despite often being very young. An average girl of seventeen had been married for three years and would have had three children.She’d be lucky to reach 25.
188 Women in the Middle Ages Being a women in the middle ages was not easy.Civil law both permitted and encouraged wife beating.A great advance for feminism was made in the thirteenth century by the laws and customs which stated that a man should beat his wife only “for a good reason.”
189 Living Conditions Living conditions were appalling The first castles, constructed at the end of the ninth century, were built to defend the people of the manor from barbarians.The castles were cold, dark, and devoid of any comforts.Everything was covered with filth and grime.And the beds were swarming with bedbugs (that really bites).
190 Food The bread is covered with mold. The meat was undercooked, rancid, and indigestible.The bread is covered with mold.The favorite feast is boiled eel, with a helping of frogs, toads, and snails.Pigs ate garbage and people eat pigs.Great sausages stuffed with blood was also a delight.
191 Widespread Ignorance The people were woefully ignorant. Anything that contradicted the teachings of Christ was heresy! Thus science was all but outlawed!There are no books so no one read!They knew nothing of art, science, or the outside world!
193 English Monarchy: one of the first strong monarchies in Europe Anglo-Saxon EnglandDescendents of the Angles & Saxons who invaded the island in the 400sDivided into 7 small kingdomsFaced Viking invasions in the 800sVikings conquered some areas but never all of England due to Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, in Southern England
194 Norman ConquestAlfred’s descendents rule England for the next 2 centuries1066: king died without an heir – 2 men claimed the crown
195 Harold William 1066: Who will rule England An Anglo-Saxon nobleman from EnglandSupported by the English nobilityWas named the new kingThe Duke of Normandy in FranceDistant relative of the dead kingAngry that he was not named kingDecided to take the crown by force!HaroldWilliam
196 The Norman Conquest William sails to England Beats Harold in the Battle of Hastings Becomes King William I of EnglandAlso known as William the ConquerorKing WilliamClaimed all the land in England as his ownDivided the land into fiefs & gave it to his soldiersCreated a new nobilityIntroduced French culture into England
197 Magna Carta 1215 Crisis erupts between English nobles and King John King raised taxes & nobles refuse to payTook up arms against the kingKing forced to sign
198 Magna Carta: Imposed on the king (King John) by his barons King John signing the Magna Carta at Runnymede on June 15, 1215Magna Carta:Imposed on the king (King John) by his barons Guaranteed the nobility certain rights & privileges – restricted King’s powers.
199 Magna CartaKing had to obtain the consent of the nobles before raising taxesKing could not arrest/ punish without causeSuggested rule by law2015The Magna Carta’s 800 birthday
200 Hundred Year’s War1337 – 1453Conflict over England & France’s competing claims over French territoryWas the last & most importantCoincided with social unrest & the Black DeathEnglish had the upper hand at first; however, French ultimately won – thanks to Joan of Arc
201 Hundred Years War: Joan of Arc French victory due to Joan of Arc - heroineShe rallied the French troopsClaimed the saints told her to leadWas captured, tried, & killed by the English – burned at the stake!Burned for heresyConsidered a Roman Catholic Saint
203 Medieval Europe: The High Middle Ages 1000 - 1500 Chartres CathedralPartly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over 26 years., Known for its magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece.UNESCO ListMedieval Europe: The High Middle Ages
204 High Middle Ages: 1000 - 1500 Many changes Growth of trade ONE CONSTANT: Religion
206 What were the Crusades? A series of “holy wars” Began in 1095 Captured the imagination of Western Christendom for centuriesWhat were the Crusades?
207 Background Wars undertaken at God’s command Authorized by the Pope Required participants to swear a vowBenefitsoffered an indulgence, which removed the penalties for any confessed sinsImmunity from lawsuitsA moratorium on the repayment of debts
208 The targetAimed at wrestling Jerusalem and the holy places associated with the life of Jesus from Islamic control & returning them to Christendom.Beginning in 1095: wave after wave of CrusadersDemonstrated a growing European capacity for organization, finance, transportation, and recruitmentAlso demonstrated: extreme cruelty
209 1st CrusadeIn Pope Urban II presided over a church council to address a series of pressing issues.Major Issue - An appeal from the Eastern empire for military assistance against the Muslims.Seeing this as an opportunity to increase his own power, Pope Urban II launched the 1st crusade in 1095 **Granted Indulgences = Forgiveness of sin in repayment of military serviceThree great armies, tens of thousands of crusaders, gathered from France, Germany, and Italy converged on the Middle East.Peasants CrusadeBefore the Crusaders set out for the Holy Land there was Peter the HermitA preacher who went on a ‘pilgrimage’ to Jerusalem.Attracted several thousands adherents; “all of the common people, the chaste, thieves, sinful, adulterers, etc…”All Jews they found on the way to the Holy Land were killed!Army marched 3,000 miles before being slaughtered by the Muslims!
210 Christian seizure of Jerusalem: 1099 Accompanied by the slaughter of many Muslims and JewsCrusaders made their way, according to perhaps exaggerated reports, through streets littered with corpses and ankle deep in blood to the tomb of Christ.
211 1st CrusadeThousands of knights and “barbarian” soldiers united under Christianity attacked Muslims and Jews in Turkey and Jerusalem to gain the land for Christians.Crusaders marched to Constantinople killing and looting along the way.LyceaAntiochCrusaders took Jerusalem in !There were a total of 9 Crusades.First Crusade began in 1096; the 9th last one ends in 1272.Lyceas was captured and looted.babies cut to piecesold people were torturedUnfortunately, most of the inhabitants of Lycea were actually Christians…
212 Following the 1st Crusade The Crusaders captured the Holy City of Jerusalem.To protect the Holy Land, the Crusaders established ‘Crusader Kingdoms’.Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa.
213 2nd Crusade It was a failed crusade! 1144 A.D. the Muslim’s captured the Crusader kingdom of Edessa!The capture of Edessa threatened the safety of Jerusalem and led to the 2nd crusade.The crusaders fail to recapture their lost lands and are annihilated!!Jerusalem fell to the Muslims in 1187 A.D.It was a failed crusade!
214 3rd CrusadeLaunched in 1189.In response to the fall of Jerusalem in 1187
215 3rd CrusadeLaunched by the three greatest rulers of Europe:King Richard 1st of EnglandKing Philip Augustus of FranceGerman Emperor Fredrick BarbarossaBarbarossa drowned in a swollen streamHe was nearly 70 years oldGermans leave after his deathIn 1191, the French and the English capture a Muslim city of Acre!The French and English were constantly bickering so the French eventually went home.
216 King Richard vs. Saladin For nearly two years Richard is fighting daily combats with Saladin’s troops.Saladin played Psychological warfare on Richard!Sending him the finest fruits when he fell ill.Saladin sent Richard the finest steed in Arabia when his personal horse was killed in battle.After years of fighting, King Richard became frustrated with the slow pace of negotiations. In order to rush the peace negotiations, he had three thousand Muslim prisoners lined up and had their throats slit one at a time.They were negotiating for peace and for the ‘True Cross’!
217 Peace Achieved Richard never conquered Jerusalem Finally in 1192 Richard and Saladin made peace.Richard never conquered JerusalemBut the peace treaty gave access to Christians to Jerusalem and the holy sites.Christians did not have to pay tribute.Richard received word that his brother, Prince John was trying to take his throne!! Plus he became fearful that he might fail!
219 Crusades: What happened? European power was not strong enough to last the test of time.European gains had come under Muslim control by 1300.
220 Think about this! What were the long term effects of the Crusades? *How would Europe be impacted?Take 5 minutes for “Table Talk”
221 How did the Crusades affect Europe? Talking it overHow did the Crusades affect Europe?
222 Impact of the Crusades Persecution of Jews and Muslims. Economic development via trade.Kings and popes, gained power as a result.Islamic culture was introduced to small portions of Europe
223 Crusades: Long term consequences Spain, Sicily, and the Baltic region were brought permanently into Western Christendom.Declining Byzantium, weakened by the Crusader sacking of Constantinople in 1204, was left even more vulnerable to Muslim Turkish conquest.Popes strengthened their position of influence.Tens of thousands of Europeans came into personal contact with the Islamic worldGaining a taste for luxury goodsStimulating a demand for Asian goods
224 Challenges of the Middle Ages Following the Crusades, wars swept across Europe as a result of the new power granted to kings and Pope’s!The Hundred Year’s War ( ) and the War of the Roses ( ) tore the continent apart!In 1347, the Black Death Swept across Europe!Estimates range from 1/3 to ½ the population of Europe died!!Anti-clericalism began to rise as people blamed God for the plague.
225 End of the Middle AgesDue to the great loss in population from the wars and the plague, the manor system collapsed as more people moved to cities!Decrease in population allowed farmers to buy more land and produce more food! This drove down food prices and gave people money to spend on luxuries.The demand for more luxuries and the migration to cities ushered an era of trade and urbanization not seen in Europe since Rome!In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople sending many Greeks fleeing to Italy.They brought with them ancient writings that were thought to be lost! A renewed interest in the classics was founded!