4 Geography Scotland England Wales Northern Ireland Britain is divided into five separate countries, Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Their flags can be seen above. (NOTE: NORTHERN IRELAND HAS NO OFFICIAL FLAG, AND AT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS THEY FLY THE UNION FLAG. THE FLAG PICTURED ABOVE FOR IRELAND IS ST. PATRICK’S SALTIRE)
5 Geography of Scotland To the North of England Has approximately 790 islands off its coast, including the Shetland isles and the Orkney islandsIs comprised of the Highlands and the Lowlands, separated by the Highland Boundary Fault
17 Geography of EnglandIs bordered by Scotland to the North and Wales to the WestHas a number of small islands, the largest of which is the Isle of WightIs divided from France by the English ChannelIs generally lower and flatter than the rest of the UK
18 The Cotswolds are a series of rural English villages that are a stark contrast the large cities Traditional style thatched houses. This is the picturesque British countryside, comparable perhaps with Andong or Gyeongju in South Korea.
19 The Lake District is the largest and most visited National Park in the UK
20 ManchesterLiverpoolOther large cities in England include:Birmingham
21 London is the capital city of both England and the UK as a whole
22 History of Great Britain Each of the four British countries are considered separate and all have their own history
23 History of ScotlandPeople began to settle in Scotland around 9,500 years agoAn example of the kind of structures they would have built
24 The Scottish people, then known as Caledonians, resisted the Romans fiercely The Romans erected Hadrian’s Wall in order to try to control the Caledonian tribes
25 By the 13th century Scotland had assumed approximately its modern borders, due to it assuming ownership of Galloway and Caithness.Many areas of Scotland became English-speaking during this period, however most retained the Gaelic languageScotland was relatively at peace between the 12th to the 14th centuries
26 The Wars of Scottish independence, where Scotland resisted English rule, were waged from 1296 to 1328The leaders of the Scottish resistance for this period were Andrew Moray and William WallaceThe person on the left is Andrew Moray, on the right is William Wallace. William Wallace has been made famous by Hollywood in the movie ‘Braveheart.’
27 On the 22nd of July 1706, representatives from Scotland and England agreed to the Treaty of Union. The twin Acts of Union were passed on 1st of May 1707, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain was formedThis is the original union flag, formed from combining the English flag and the Scottish flag.This is the reason why the country is called the United Kingdom. It is a constitutional monarchy comprised of four countries united under one flag.
28 History of Northern Ireland The history of Northern Ireland begins in 1920, as that was when it was split from the Republic of Ireland by the Government of Ireland act of 1920Before the split, it was known as UlsterFlag of Ulster
29 The IRA, Irish Republican Army, were very opposed to the partition of Ireland and many died in political violence from 1920 to 1922There was much tension between Catholics and Protestants, and in 1935 nine people were killed after a Protestant parade marched through a Catholic area of Belfast
30 The Troubles were a period of violence between the Unionist/Protestant and the Nationalist/Catholic communities of Northern IrelandThey continued from the late 1960s for several decades and are considered to have officially ended with the Good Friday agreement of 1998
31 History of Wales Wales has been inhabited for at least 29,000 years Humans settled into farming life in Wales in about 6,000 years before presentPictured above: Neolithic burial tomb in Anglesey – Bryn celli ddu
32 Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and took 30 years to complete Roman rule lasted over 300 yearsAbove: Roman remains in Aberystwyth
33 Post-Roman Wales was divided into a number of principalities and was not united until 1057 Llewellyn the Great became the first Prince of Wales in 1216Llewellyn Ap Gryffudd – The grandson of Llewellyn the Great – Lost against the English in 1282 and the rule of Welsh princes ended
34 In 1536 the Act of Union was passed, and Wales legally became part of England – and later Great Britain
35 History of EnglandEngland’s first permanent settlements date to around 6000 years agoStonehenge was one of the monuments the earliest settlers erected during the Neolithic period
36 England was invaded by the Romans in AD 43 and was assimilated into the Roman empire as Britannia province – Many Latinate words from this period still survive in the English languageThe empire did not withdraw from Britain until around the year 410
37 In the 9th century the Vikings conquered parts of England This invasion had a major impact on the English language, as many new words and grammatical structures transferred from Norse to Anglo-SaxonThe Vikings were eventually pushed back by king Alfred the Great to a part of England that became known as Danelaw
38 In 1066 England was conquered by the Normans, and remained under Norman rule for over 300 years The Norman rule had a massive effect on the English language, and many French words made their way into English vocabularyEnglish from the period after the Norman invasion is referred to as Early Modern English
39 The English civil war was fought between 1642 and 1651 It was fought between supporters of Parliament and supporters of King Charles IThese two factions were known as Roundheads and CavaliersThese wars eventually gave rise to the Bill of Rights in 1689, which established that the King and Parliament would rule together but Parliament would have the real power
40 Traditional CultureEach of the four countries of the UK have their own separate traditional culture
42 Tha gaol agam ort The traditional language of Scotland is Scots Gaelic An example of written Scots Gaelic:Tha gaol agam ortTha gaol agam ort = I love you
43 Some of the most famous artefacts of Scottish traditional culture are the kilt and the bagpipes
44 Scottish people celebrate the last day of the old year and the first day of the new year as Hogmanay Pictured: hogmanay fireworks over EdinburghOther Scottish holidays include St Andrew's day and burns supper
45 It was written in early Scots, a dialect of English The earliest surviving Scottish text is the epic poem Brus written by John Barbour in the 14th centuryIt was written in early Scots, a dialect of EnglishPictured: the most famous quote from the poem
50 Rwy’n dy garu di The traditional language of Wales is Welsh An example of written Welsh:Rwy’n dy garu di
51 The Eisteddfod is a popular event in Wales where people compete in competitions of dancing, singing, poetry, writing, and many more.
52 It is from this poem that the legend of King Arthur originally came The earliest written Welsh text is the epic poem Y Gododdin, which was written in the 6th centuryIt is from this poem that the legend of King Arthur originally cameAnother famous Welsh text isY Mabinogi, which was a seriesof Welsh myths and legendsIncluded y mabinogi because there’s a Korean videogame called mabinogi 마비노기
53 These are traditional Welsh outfits, which are mostly worn by schoolchildren on St David’s Day
62 Drinking is a large part of modern British culture The government has been taking steps, such as raising the tax on alcohol, to cut down on binge drinking
63 British AchievementsBritain was once the richest and most powerful country in the worldDue to the influence of the British empire, English is now one of the most international languages and is spoken in many countries
64 Britain created many inventions, including the Television, RADAR, the steam engine, and the postage stampIndustrial revolution.First programmable Computer (Babbage) World wide web (not to be confused with internet) telephone, steam locomotive (train)
66 The British EmpireThe British empire was established between the 16th and 18th centuriesAt its height, the British empire ruled a fifth of the world’s population and a quarter of the earth’s land massCountries in red are countries once owned by Britain
67 Weather in BritainBritain has a maritime temperate climate, and gets a lot of rain
68 British people will often start conversations by commenting on the weather, whether it’s been good or badBritish people can be sensitive about their weather, and unless you yourself are British it is generally best to avoid saying anything negative about it
69 The temperature varies within different parts of Britain The more northern, the colder it is, and so Scotland gets the coldest weatherWales gets the most rain as it is very mountainous, and Swansea is the rainiest place in the UK
71 The most iconic British dish is probably fish and chips Most British people buy their fish and chips from shops known commonly as ‘chippys’
72 A traditional Scottish food is the Haggis A traditional Scottish food is the Haggis. It is a savoury pudding containing sheep's heart, liver and lungs; minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally encased in the animal's stomach.
73 Welshcakes are cakes sold all over Wales Welshcakes are cakes sold all over Wales. They are flat cakes cooked on a grill pan containing spices and dried fruit, topped with sugar.
74 Irish Stew is a traditional Irish dish made from mutton or lamb, carrots, potatoes and parsley Wales also has its own kind of stew, cawl cennyn (leek stew) that includes leeks
75 Modern British cuisine is heavily influenced by the food of other countries due to the influence of the empire, and curry is one of the most popular British foods
77 London has many tourist attractions, including the London Eye and Buckingham Palace
78 Places of rural beauty, such as the Lake District, the Scottish Highlands or the Brecon Beacons are also popular tourist destinations
79 Famous British peopleBeatles, David Beckham, Winston Churchill, Charles Darwin, Shakespeare, Sir Isaac Newton, Queen Elizabeth I and II, Rooney, Bale, J K Rowling, Jude Law, Daniel Craig, Daniel Radcliffe, Keira Knightley, Mick Jagger, Stephen Hawking, Hugh Grant, Queen Victoria, Henry VIII, Lady Gaga (!) Adele, Muse (band) Kate Winslet, Emma Watson, Thom Yorke (radiohead) Kelly Jones (stereophonics)
80 Britain has many famous actors and actresses, including: Daniel Craig, Daniel Radcliffe, Robert Pattinson, Dame Judi Dench, Orlando Bloom and Emma Watson
81 Britain also has many famous authors, including: Shakespeare, J. R. R Britain also has many famous authors, including: Shakespeare, J.R.R. Tolkien, J.K.Rowling, Charles Dickens and Lewis Carroll
82 Britain has many famous musicians and bands, including: Oasis, Elton John, Arctic Monkeys, The Cure, Pink Floyd, Queen, and, of course, The Beatles
83 Britain also has many famous sports personalities, including: David Beckham, Andy Murray, Lewis Hamilton, and Sir Chris Hoy
85 Sports invented in Britain include: badminton, rugby, cricket, snooker, darts, football, table tennis, and bowls
86 ConclusionGreat British Culture has influenced the world immensely, from Hong Kong to the United States, the spread of empire meant the spread of the English language.Britain consists of four separate countries which are now united and share a common culture, as well as their own unique identities.Britain is known for being rainy. British people don’t care about the rain. They go out without umbrellas in many cases.
87 Conclusion 2The capital cities of the UK and England is London, whereas Cardiff is the capital of Wales, Edinburgh- Scotland and Belfast- Northern Ireland.Britain has a long history, owned the largest empire in world history, and spread the English language.Britain has contributed many inventions to the world.