Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 ANCIENT EGYPT THE GIFT OF THE NILE. MODERN EGYPT Geography/Climate Temperature can be 100+ in desert and high 80s elsewhere Hot dry summers."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 4 ANCIENT EGYPT THE GIFT OF THE NILE
MODERN EGYPT Geography/Climate Temperature can be 100+ in desert and high 80s elsewhere Hot dry summers 3% arable land Suez Canal 84 million 36% of population in under 15 years old Most cities by Nile River
MODERN EGYPT Culture/Religion 94% Muslim Arabic is language Muslim Holy day is Friday Family is valued
MODERN EGYPT History British protectorate 1953 become republic Close to other Arab countries 7 Day War Suez Canal Anwar Sadat assassinated Violence from extremist Recently are struggling with democracy Military is in charge of country
MODERN EGYPT 1 in 5 poor Hosni Mubarak – 30 year ruler – military replaced and arrested him Most Sunni Muslims Was a monarchy in the past U.S. kept from becoming communist
MODERN EGYPT 27.3 M unemployed 82% of unemployed have HS diploma Produce – petroleum and related products Industry along the Nile
ANCIENT EGYPT Geography played a huge role in shaping every aspect of Egyptian culture. 97% of Egypt is bleak uninhabitable desert. 56597, m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x c35c36 e9:0x2c45a00925c4c444?hl=en
ANCIENT EGYPT Would be an empty wasteland if the Nile River did not cut it in half. Flows north and ends in channels forming a delta It is the world’s longest river.
ANCIENT EGYPT Gradual flood occurs each June and returns to normal level by October. Allows life because receding water leaves rich soil. Kemet = “the black land” Perfect for farming Could grow 2 successive crops before next flood
ANCIENT EGYPT Flood plain is 3% of Egypt A few mile strip of paradise several 100 miles long Most of population lives near Nile (80.72M) Boundary between rich farmland and desert is absolute.
Life, birth and rebirth is essential to Egyptian religion Egyptians were aware of the river cycles Prayed to the river Sun dominates Egyptian life. Sun is born in the east and dies in the west. Egyptian gods in the east and people buried in the west.
ANCIENT EGYPT Believed that people were reborn like the sun and the river. Reason for mummification was for the next life.
ANCIENT EGYPT Isolated deserts to the east and west Mediterranean Sea to the north Difficult to travel from south to north due to cataracts (?) Physical isolation lets Egyptians dwell unbothered unlike Mesopotamia Egypt is eventually invaded
ANCIENT EGYPT Divided into separate districts called nomes that are similar to counties Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt Narmer 3100 BC unites Upper Egypt and defeats Lower Egypt uniting the region Egypt becomes a unified country within it’s natural borders with Memphis as the capital
ANCIENT EGYPT Saqqara Land of the Dead in West Imhotep builds 1 st pyramid (tomb or mestaba) out of stone instead of mud Shape represents steps to heaven 500 feet tall with 2 ton blocks 2 million pieces Tallest structures until the Eiffel Tower 4000 years later
ANCIENT EGYPT Built pyramids during the flood months when they couldn’t farm Honored pharaohs – not slave labor Others want their bodies preserved for life after death so other tombs surround pyramids
138 pyramids Saqara and Giza 10s of thousands of workers Most pyramids destroyed by desert sand
Aristocrats gain power and economy becomes strained Old kingdom ends and it goes back to the nomes 1 st Intermediate Period 2181 to 2141 BC – chaotic with criminals, thieves and robbers
ANCIENT EGYPT Mentuhotep unites Egyptians again in 2040 BC to 1782 BC which is known as the Middle Kingdom Middle Kingdom’s kings are tested by aristocrats 1782 to 1570 BC – 2 nd Intermediate period as kingdom falls apart Hyksos invades and conquers Lower Egypt uniting kingdom once again
THE HYKSOS INVASION & REUNIFICATION Hyksos invaded from Ancient Near East Debate over whether they invaded or just migrated Introduced metallurgy and chariots so they dominated Egyptians Chariots then became a central part of Egypt Thebes and nomes unite and chase Hyksos to Palestine
THE HYKSOS INVASION & REUNIFICATION The New Kingdom – Egyptian Empire (over 500 years) Sent armies beyond their borders to seek wealth Gold flows in from south Trade and fought outside empires Pharaohs became very wealthy Fought Hittites Pharaohs wanted life after death with all their possessions
THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS Old tombs robbed Mummies destroyed losing chance at eternal life New tombs were a secret and were underground in desert valleys Tombs were sealed and magnificent Small rooms with multiple levels and treasures Pharaohs spent most of their reign constructing tombs
THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS All tombs found and eventually robbed King Tut died young and had a small 4 room tomb put together quickly Was a nobody whose tomb was forgotten 1924 Howard Carter found tomb – Tutunkhamen Coffin was gold, in gold encased gold box
THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS
Akhenaten – monotheism Rameses II – great builder
LATER EGYPTIAN RELIGION Kingdom fragments again – 3 rd Intermediate Period Assyrians and Persians conquer at times Isis and Osiris – married brother and sister (common then) Set is jealous evil brother who throw Osiris in a box in the Nile Isis searches and finds him
LATER EGYPTIAN RELIGION Set then chops him into 14 pieces and Isis goes searching again Finds 13 of 14 pieces and puts him back together Signifies the long journey of life for immortality 14 th piece was replaced with a piece of wood!
MA’AT & THE AFTERLIFE Ma’at = morality, justice, order and universal equilibrium that lets you gain entrance to the afterlife Soul had to go on a journey before becoming immortal Believed you had to live a good life (today?) Soul was located in your heart If you were bad a monster ate your heart
MA’AT & THE AFTERLIFE Next step was to meet with 42 gods and take an oath in order to go to eternal paradise Mesopotamians had an unstable view of the universe compared to predictable view of the Egyptians Mesopotamians went to the underworld and stumbled through constant desert and darkness forever with no water and eating dust.