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CHAPTER 4 ANCIENT EGYPT THE GIFT OF THE NILE. MODERN EGYPT  Geography/Climate Temperature can be 100+ in desert and high 80s elsewhere Hot dry summers.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 ANCIENT EGYPT THE GIFT OF THE NILE. MODERN EGYPT  Geography/Climate Temperature can be 100+ in desert and high 80s elsewhere Hot dry summers."— Presentation transcript:


2 MODERN EGYPT  Geography/Climate Temperature can be 100+ in desert and high 80s elsewhere Hot dry summers 3% arable land Suez Canal 84 million 36% of population in under 15 years old Most cities by Nile River

3 MODERN EGYPT  Culture/Religion 94% Muslim Arabic is language Muslim Holy day is Friday Family is valued

4 MODERN EGYPT  History British protectorate 1953 become republic Close to other Arab countries 7 Day War Suez Canal Anwar Sadat assassinated Violence from extremist Recently are struggling with democracy Military is in charge of country

5 MODERN EGYPT  1 in 5 poor  Hosni Mubarak – 30 year ruler – military replaced and arrested him  Most Sunni Muslims  Was a monarchy in the past  U.S. kept from becoming communist

6 MODERN EGYPT  27.3 M unemployed  82% of unemployed have HS diploma  Produce – petroleum and related products  Industry along the Nile

7 ANCIENT EGYPT  Geography played a huge role in shaping every aspect of Egyptian culture.  97% of Egypt is bleak uninhabitable desert. ,30.79 56597,1401820m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x14368976c35c36 e9:0x2c45a00925c4c444?hl=en

8 ANCIENT EGYPT  Would be an empty wasteland if the Nile River did not cut it in half.  Flows north and ends in channels forming a delta  It is the world’s longest river.

9 ANCIENT EGYPT  Gradual flood occurs each June and returns to normal level by October.  Allows life because receding water leaves rich soil.  Kemet = “the black land”  Perfect for farming  Could grow 2 successive crops before next flood

10 ANCIENT EGYPT  Flood plain is 3% of Egypt  A few mile strip of paradise several 100 miles long  Most of population lives near Nile (80.72M)  Boundary between rich farmland and desert is absolute.


12  Life, birth and rebirth is essential to Egyptian religion  Egyptians were aware of the river cycles  Prayed to the river  Sun dominates Egyptian life.  Sun is born in the east and dies in the west.  Egyptian gods in the east and people buried in the west.

13 ANCIENT EGYPT  Believed that people were reborn like the sun and the river.  Reason for mummification was for the next life.

14 ANCIENT EGYPT  Isolated deserts to the east and west  Mediterranean Sea to the north  Difficult to travel from south to north due to cataracts (?)  Physical isolation lets Egyptians dwell unbothered unlike Mesopotamia  Egypt is eventually invaded

15 ANCIENT EGYPT  Divided into separate districts called nomes that are similar to counties  Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt  Narmer 3100 BC unites Upper Egypt and defeats Lower Egypt uniting the region  Egypt becomes a unified country within it’s natural borders with Memphis as the capital

16 ANCIENT EGYPT  Saqqara Land of the Dead in West  Imhotep builds 1 st pyramid (tomb or mestaba) out of stone instead of mud  Shape represents steps to heaven  500 feet tall with 2 ton blocks  2 million pieces  Tallest structures until the Eiffel Tower 4000 years later

17 ANCIENT EGYPT  Built pyramids during the flood months when they couldn’t farm  Honored pharaohs – not slave labor  Others want their bodies preserved for life after death so other tombs surround pyramids





22  138 pyramids  Saqara and Giza  10s of thousands of workers  Most pyramids destroyed by desert sand



25  Aristocrats gain power and economy becomes strained  Old kingdom ends and it goes back to the nomes  1 st Intermediate Period 2181 to 2141 BC – chaotic with criminals, thieves and robbers

26 ANCIENT EGYPT  Mentuhotep unites Egyptians again in 2040 BC to 1782 BC which is known as the Middle Kingdom  Middle Kingdom’s kings are tested by aristocrats  1782 to 1570 BC – 2 nd Intermediate period as kingdom falls apart  Hyksos invades and conquers Lower Egypt uniting kingdom once again

27 THE HYKSOS INVASION & REUNIFICATION  Hyksos invaded from Ancient Near East  Debate over whether they invaded or just migrated  Introduced metallurgy and chariots so they dominated Egyptians  Chariots then became a central part of Egypt  Thebes and nomes unite and chase Hyksos to Palestine

28 THE HYKSOS INVASION & REUNIFICATION  The New Kingdom 1570-1075 – Egyptian Empire (over 500 years)  Sent armies beyond their borders to seek wealth  Gold flows in from south  Trade and fought outside empires  Pharaohs became very wealthy  Fought Hittites  Pharaohs wanted life after death with all their possessions

29 THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS  Old tombs robbed  Mummies destroyed losing chance at eternal life  New tombs were a secret and were underground in desert valleys  Tombs were sealed and magnificent  Small rooms with multiple levels and treasures  Pharaohs spent most of their reign constructing tombs

30 THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS  All tombs found and eventually robbed  King Tut died young and had a small 4 room tomb put together quickly  Was a nobody whose tomb was forgotten  1924 Howard Carter found tomb – Tutunkhamen  Coffin was gold, in gold encased gold box







37  Akhenaten – monotheism  Rameses II – great builder

38 LATER EGYPTIAN RELIGION  Kingdom fragments again – 3 rd Intermediate Period  Assyrians and Persians conquer at times  Isis and Osiris – married brother and sister (common then)  Set is jealous evil brother who throw Osiris in a box in the Nile  Isis searches and finds him

39 LATER EGYPTIAN RELIGION  Set then chops him into 14 pieces and Isis goes searching again  Finds 13 of 14 pieces and puts him back together  Signifies the long journey of life for immortality  14 th piece was replaced with a piece of wood!

40 MA’AT & THE AFTERLIFE  Ma’at = morality, justice, order and universal equilibrium that lets you gain entrance to the afterlife  Soul had to go on a journey before becoming immortal  Believed you had to live a good life (today?)  Soul was located in your heart  If you were bad a monster ate your heart

41 MA’AT & THE AFTERLIFE  Next step was to meet with 42 gods and take an oath in order to go to eternal paradise  Mesopotamians had an unstable view of the universe compared to predictable view of the Egyptians  Mesopotamians went to the underworld and stumbled through constant desert and darkness forever with no water and eating dust.

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