Presentation on theme: "Land of the Pharaohs About 31 B.C. two mighty kings met in battle. One king wore a white crown and ruled over a long stretch of the Nile River in Upper."— Presentation transcript:
About 31 B.C. two mighty kings met in battle. One king wore a white crown and ruled over a long stretch of the Nile River in Upper Egypt. The other king had a red crown and controlled a large area in Lower Egypt. The outcome of the Battle was of enormous importance. Whoever won it controlled the biggest Kingdom in the world
To show his victory Menes wore a double crown. The crown represented the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt. What does this Illustration show???
Who won this battle?? Upper Egypt King Menes (MEE nees) or Narmer King Menes Unified Upper and Lower Egypt Unification – is the joining of separate parts into one. Menes became the first pharaoh of Egypt Pharaoh – (FAY roh) the titles used by the rulers of Ancient Egypt
Did the Egyptians worship the Pharaoh? Yes and he was considered a God The Pharaoh owned everything in Egypt and this put him at the center of the economy. Economy – the way its people manage money and resources for the production of goods and services. What was Egypt’s economy based on? agriculture
Who was the undisputed head of Egypt??? hint The pharaoh Government under the pharaoh After unification the most powerful local leaders became governors for the local government These governors reported to the pharaoh’s headquarters in Memphis Memphis was Egypt’s capital city. These governors were responsible for collecting Taxes and serving as judges
Key word or idea Pharaoh ________ economy Notes- abbreviated (main idea) Menes-first pharaoh – unified Upper & Lower Egypt 31 B.C. Supreme government ruler (assigned governors of areas- collected taxes served as judges) Memphis- capital city ______________________________________ Way people manage money and resources agriculture Based on agriculture
Key word or idea Social classes _____________ Notes- abbreviated (main idea) Pharaoh, priests & nobles/ scribes traders artisans, shopkeepers/ and scribes Farmers & herders Unskilled laborers Slaves
Who kept the records for the pharaoh?? The scribe Scribes traveled throughout Egypt keeping records of great and small details. Only boys became scribes and they began their study around the age of 10. They chanted passages aloud to improve reading skills. Then they spent hours writing out lessons and stories over and over. If their attention wandered, they ran the risk of being beaten.
The pharaoh not only was a political leader but also had great religious powers as well. Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh was a child of the sun god Ra. Description: Ra was the almost universally-worshipped king of the gods and all-father of creation; the main god. A sun god, he was said to command the chariot that rode across the sky during the day. A king, he was the patron of the pharaoh. Ra is the most central god of the Egyptian pantheon.
Religious beliefs There will be resurrection after death Judgment in the afterlife is based on the lives people lived on earth If you led a good life you would receive eternal happiness If you led a bad life you would receive eternal punishment The divine presence is everywhere
We think Egyptians believed in the afterlife because they buried their food and treasures with the dead bodies and they built tombs for their pharaohs.
Religion _________ Pharaoh- Son of Ra- all power Eternal life- resurrection- put treasure & food in tomb- built tombs (pyramids) Judgment based on their lives on earth good- eternal rewards bad- eternal punishment divine presence is everywhere
Osiris In power, he was second only to his father, Ra, and was the leader of the gods on earth. He was the husband of Isis. After Osiris was killed, Isis, resurrected him with the Ritual of Life, which was later given to the Egyptians so that they could give eternal life to all their dead. In the underworld, Osiris sits on a great throne, where he is praised by the souls of the just. All those who pass the tests of the underworld become worthy to enter The Blessed Land, that part of the underworld that is like the land of the living, but without sorrow or pain.
What were the pyramids made of? Limestone blocks The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom. How much did each block weigh? Over 2 million blocks in the Great Pyramid Over 5,000 pounds
Pyramid complex at Giza The sphinx guards the pyramidsThe sphinx guards the pyramids A temple is found on a harbor at the edge of the Nile Valley.A temple is found on a harbor at the edge of the Nile Valley. From the temple, the king’s body was first brought by boat. From the temple, the king’s body was first brought by boat. A long, covered causeway connects all three pyramids to the templeA long, covered causeway connects all three pyramids to the temple Pyramid is found to the west of the temple.Pyramid is found to the west of the temple.
Khufu’s Pyramid Khufu ruled for about 23 yearsKhufu ruled for about 23 years Each block weighed 5,000 pounds-- had to be transported over 1/2 mileEach block weighed 5,000 pounds-- had to be transported over 1/2 mile Only Pyramid with passages inside and underneathOnly Pyramid with passages inside and underneath Once finished, the workers had to seal it and leave through the escape shaftOnce finished, the workers had to seal it and leave through the escape shaft
GREAT PYRAMID 480.6 ft tall Taller than a 40 story building Covers area greater than 10 football fields
Khufu’s solar barque 1,224 separate components: cedarwood planking 12 oars--10 along sides, 2 large at the stern ropes of halfa grass wooden dowels and battens copper staples 144-feet-long Timbers are 95 percent original
Pharaoh’s tomb Believed it was necessary to preserve a body to allow the soul to survive Pyramids used as the final resting places for their monarchs
pyramids _________ Built as tombs many different shapes and sizes Each side lines up precisely east-west or north- south Each side lines up precisely east-west or north- south Giza plateau; Giza plateau; ruled about 23 years 1.Pyramid of Khufu- ruled about 23 years * over 2 million blocks- e ach 5,000 pounds * over 2 million blocks- e ach 5,000 pounds (transported over ½ mile) (transported over ½ mile) * Only Pyramid with passages inside and underneath * Only Pyramid with passages inside and underneath * Sealed-left through escape shaft * Sealed-left through escape shaft 2. Khafre- Second 2. Khafre- Second in size 695 feet (side), 450 feet high (originally 473 feet). Built on higher ground at a steeper angle (about 53°) Appears taller guards the pyramids 3. Sphinx- guards the pyramids 4. temple- pyramids to the west of the temple 4. temple- pyramids to the west of the temple
Hatshepsut Wife of a pharaoh- became pharaoh after her husband’s death Expanded Egyptian trade. Took caravans of scribes, soldiers, artists across the Red Sea. *took jewelry, papyrus and bronze weapons * traded for gold, perfume, ivory, leopard skins, apes KNOWLEDGE!!!
Achievements of Ancient Egypt Warfare ChariotsChariots ShieldsShields SpearsSpears FormationFormation Medicine Doctors- priests Cure illnesses Stitch cuts Set broken bones Amputate limbs Measure the heart (too quickly or too slowly) Chamomile Moldy bread- on cuts (penicillin mold- Fleming 1928)
Mathematics-building pyramids & templesMathematics-building pyramids & temples Astronomy- five of our planets (stars that knew no rest)Astronomy- five of our planets (stars that knew no rest) Eclipses of sun and moon (meetings of sun and moon)Eclipses of sun and moon (meetings of sun and moon) CalendarCalendar ScaleScale Achievements of Ancient Egypt
Hieroglyphics found in pyramids Hieroglyphs, literally means “language of the gods” Used by priests to write down prayers, magical texts
Life after death Texts related to life after death and worshipping the gods were found in tombs
Book of the Dead Weighing the heart against a feather-- good deeds Anubis-god of mummification Thoth--god of wisdom Horus=god of the sky Osiris-God of the dead Weighing the heart
Writing of the gods Pharaoh’s autobiographies hieroglyphic guides of the afterworld written on tomb walls and the insides of coffins.
Map of the afterlife Believed that these texts helped guide the dead through the afterlife.
A mummy is the body of a person (or an animal) that has been preserved after death. Mummies are made naturally or by embalming, which is any process that people use to help preserve a dead body. The ancient Egyptians believed that mummifying a person's body after death was essential to ensure a safe passage to the afterlife. Preserving the bodies of dead royalty is called mummification.
The actual process of embalming as practiced in ancient Egypt was governed by definite religious ritual. The art of Egyptian mummification consisted of many steps. First, the body was washed and ritually purified. The next step was to remove the deceased person's inner organs
Mummification in ancient Egypt was a very long and expensive process. From start to finish, it took about 70 days to embalm a body. Since the Egyptians believed that mummification was essential for passage to the afterlife, people were mummified and buried as well as they could possibly afford. Were the pharaoh the only Egyptians mummified? No Anyone that could afford to could be mummified
A slit was cut into the left side of the body so that the embalmers could remove the intestines, the liver, the stomach and the lungs. The organs were then individually wrapped using long strips of linen and placed in canopic jars.
the falcon- headed god looks after the intestines.
After the removal of the inner organs, the body cavity was stuffed with natron.
The brain was then removed through the nose using long hooks. Since the ancient Egyptians considered the brain unimportant, it was probably thrown away
Once the mummy was finally prepared, it was time for the funeral. The mummy and its canopic jars were transported by sled from the embalming tent to the tomb. People were hired to demonstrate their grief by crying and throwing dust on their hair. At the site of the tomb, religious ceremonies were held to prepare the dead for the afterlife. In particular, the Opening of the Mouth ceremony was believed to allow the mummy to see, hear, eat and drink in the spirit world.
What are hieroglyphics? Individual pictures-signs, about 800 in all, that stood for objects and sounds Why? They needed a written language so that records could be kept Hieroglyphics are the number one reason we know so much about the lives of Egyptians
When was the Rosetta Stone made? The Rosetta Stone was carved in 196 B.C.. Who found the Rosetta Stone? The Rosetta Stone was found by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in Egypt What does the Rosetta Stone say? The Rosetta Stone is a text written by a group of priests in Egypt to honor the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh has done that are good for the priests and the people of Egypt. What is the Rosetta Stone? The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it The Rosetta Stone was the key that unlocked the mysteries of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The first mummies were just dried out in the desert. The ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.
Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert..
Steps 1. Announcement of Death 2. Embalming the Body 3. Removal of Brain 4. Removal of Internal organs 5. Drying Out Process 6. Wrapping of the Body 7. Charms, amulets placed on body 8. Final Procession
Step 1 Announcement of Death This first step was to let the people know that someone had died. A messenger was sent out to the streets to announce the death. This allowed people to get themselves ready for mourning period and ceremony.
Materials Used in Mummification 1. Linen 6. Natron 2. Sawdust 7. Onion 3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud 4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads 5. Resin 10. Frankincense
Step 2 Embalming the Body The second step was taking the body to be embalmed. The embalmers were located in special tents or buildings. These buildings were called embalming workshops, and were maintained by teams of priests. Oftentimes during the embalming, the priests would have to step outside to get away from the horrible smell.
Step 3 Removal of Brain The first part of the body to be removed was the brain. Egyptians did not know the purpose of the brain, so they thought it was a waste of space. To extract the brain, a hook was inserted through the nose. The embalmers pulled out as much as they could, then put it in water to dissolve. Some people think the water was then thrown out, but others think it was taken with the mummy to the burial chamber.
Step 4 Removal of Internal Organs Next to be removed were the internal organs: the liver, the lungs, the stomach, and the intestines. A small slit was made on the left side of the abdomen, then the embalmers reached in and pulled out the organs. Each of the organs were individually mummified, then stored in little coffins called canopic jars. There were four canopic jars, one for each of the organs. These jars were protected by the four sons of Horus.
Imset protected the liver. He had the head of a human. Ha'py watched over the lungs. He had the head of a baboon. Duamutef looked after the stomach. He had the head of a jackal. Qebehsenuef looked over the intestines. He had the head of a falcon.
Once the internal organs were removed, the inside of the body was washed out with palm oil, lotions, and preserving fluids. Next the body was stuffed with linen, straw, or other packing material to keep the general shape of the person. Sometimes the embalmers were careless and either stuffed too much or too little. This caused the mummy to look puffy or disfigured.
Step 5 Drying Out Process The body was placed on a slab and covered with either nacron or natron salt. The slab was tilted so that the water would run off into a basin. This removed moisture and prevented rotting. The body was taken outside and let dry for about forty days. After the body was completely dried out, the wrapping of the body began. Step 5 Drying Out Process The body was placed on a slab and covered with either nacron or natron salt. The slab was tilted so that the water would run off into a basin. This removed moisture and prevented rotting. The body was taken outside and let dry for about forty days. After the body was completely dried out, the wrapping of the body began.
These are the mummified remains of a pharaoh named Ramses II.
Wrapping the body was a painstaking process. It was anointed with oils, and a gold piece with the Eye of Horus was placed over the slit in the abdomen. The Eye of Horus
Hundreds of yards of linen were used to wrap the body. Each toe and finger was wrapped separately. Charms, amulets, and inscribed pieces of papyrus were placed between each layer of bandage. Egyptians believed that these charms had magical properties that would protect the body. The Eye of Horus, the symbol of protection, was used often. The wrapping process would be stopped once in a while so that the priests could say prayers and write on the linen. A final shroud was placed on the mummy to keep all the wrappings together. Mummia was added to the shroud to "glue" it all together. (That's where the word "mummy" comes from.) Sometimes false eyes were inserted and make-up applied. Then a painted portrait mask was placed over the mummy's head so that dead person's soul (Ka) could recognize its owner. The mummy was then placed into a painted, decorated coffin.
Journey to the Underworld A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb. The dead travel on the “Solar Barque.”
Step 7 Final Procession The last step of mummification was the final procession, where the family and friends of the deceased walked through the town on their way to the burial place. Mourners were paid to cry so that the gods of the other world would see that the person was well loved. The more people who cried, the more he was loved, and the better chance he had of going to the after world. Before the mummy was taken inside the tomb, a ceremony called "Opening of the Mouth" took place.
The Opening of the Mouth was performed by priests outside the burial chamber. Opening of the Mouth
The family of the mummy recited spells while priests used special instruments to touch different parts of the mummy's face. The Egyptians believed that the mummy could not eat, see, hear, or move in the afterlife if the ceremony did not take place. After the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, the dead would be able to eat, breathe, see, hear, etc. in the afterlife. The mummy was then laid in the burial chamber along with his belongings, the canopic jars, and the Book of the Dead. The Book of the Dead was not actually a book, but a collection of over 200 magic spells written on papyrus. This book contained instructions on how to achieve eternal life. Then the tomb was sealed.
Weighing of the Heart The most important task came after death. This was called "The Weighing of the Heart." Egyptians believed that the most powerful part of a person was his heart. The heart was never removed from the body - it was considered the center of the being. In this ceremony, the gods of the underworld judged the mummy's heart, or how well he behaved during his natural life. Maat, the goddess of truth, brought out her scale; on one side was the mummy's heart, and on the other was the Feather of Truth.
Anubis, the god of the underworld, made the final judgment, and Thoth, the scribe god, recorded it. If the heart balanced the feather, the soul of the mummy was granted immortality. If the heart was heavier than the feather (if the sins outweighed the virtues), the soul was doomed to a horrible fate. The heart was thrown to a monster called Ammit, or Devourer of the Dead.
Burial Chamber Walls made of gilded wood and inlaid blue porcelain and painted with funerary scenes.
The Coffin of a Pharaoh Wooden coffin, human shaped, 7 feet 4 inches long. Third coffin made entirely of gold A royal Egyptian mummy had been found untouched.
THE CURSE “They who enter this sacred tomb shall swift be visited by the wings of death.” Lord Carnarvon died 7 weeks after entering the burial chamber giving rise to the theory of the "Curse" of King Tut.
1. The process of mummification was not very elaborate in the beginning. How did the ancient Egyptians mummify bodies at first? 2. Describe the seven steps in the processes of mummification. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 3. What does the ceremony called the Opening of the Mouth do for the dead body? 4. Describe the role of the heart and the feather in the ceremony called the Weighing of the Heart. 5. Do you believe in the curse of King Tut?