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Ancient and modern traditions By Minatullah Abbas, Ingy Nazif and Abdel Rahman Salah Retrieved from:

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1 Ancient and modern traditions By Minatullah Abbas, Ingy Nazif and Abdel Rahman Salah Retrieved from:

2 So what has changed? Retrieved from: dynastic-period/1st-dynasty/horus-narmer/biography-of-horus- narmer.html Retrieved from: 22/2/

3 The themes we chose to discuss Funerary beliefs Food Religion

4 Funerary beliefs Sources: El-Shohoumi, Nadia. "Burying the Dead-Vivifying the Past: Reflections on Ancient Egyptian Funerary Rites and Their Parallels in Modern Egypt." Moving Matters : Ethnoarcheology in the near East. Cairo: Nederlands-vlaams Institute in Cairo, Print.

5 Summary The different organizations of necropolises during different times throughout the history of Egypt:  Modern Egypt. 1.Ptolemaic Period. 2.Ancient Egypt.

6 Analysis Ancient EgyptPtolemaic PeriodModern Egypt 1.-Embalmer -Lector priest 2.Mortuary Priest 1.Embalmer 2.-Libation Priest -Mortuary Priest 1.-Grave digger -Reciter of Quran 2.-Grave digger and assistant -Guardian of tomb -Undertaker is cairo

7 Questions  Are these beliefs only related to egypt or is there any other Ancient civilizations who had the same ?  Are the modern Egyptian funerary beliefs only related to Egypt or are they common among other nations ?

8 Isis and Sayyeda Zeinab Sources: Abu-zahra, Nadia. "Isis and Al-sayyida: Links to Ancient Egypt." Moving Matters: Ethnoarcheology in the near East. Cairo: Nederlands-vlaams Institution, Print. Haeri Bilgrami, Muna. The Victory of Truth: The Life of Zaynab Bint Ali. Pakistan: Zahra Publications, Print.

9 Summary This Chapter of the book mainly presents the two main characters : Isis and El- Sayyida Zeinab. Then compares the cults associated to each one.

10 Analysis Introduction, The ancient cult of Isis and the development of the Egyptian tradition of al-Sayyida zaynab, The belief that Al-Sayyida is buried in Cairo is the cornerstone of her Egyptian tradition, Al-Sayyida zaynab the most beautiful mother and patron saint of women, The assimilation of Indigenous beliefs into Islamic practices, and The mawlid

11 Food

12 How do we know? Texts Reliefs Funerary context

13 Manners & essential food  Bread and beer.  Old Kingdom text addressed to Kagemni (vizier).  Instructions to King Merikare (first Intermediate period).  Hunting.  Social classes had an impact on the diet.

14 What did they eat?  We do not have many examples of recipes  Main meals at noon and in the evening with a light meal in the afternoon.  A lot of import of new plants and species in the Middle and New Kingdom  Sugar, lemon, tomatoes, chili, chicken.

15 Varied food  Meat: mice, beef,  Fish: bulti, catfish, Nile barb….  Fruits: figs, dates, grapes, watermelons, pomegranate.  Vegetables: beans, lupine beans, lentils…  White barley and red barley

16 Spices ThymeCuminCinnamon FennelFenugreek

17 What stayed?  Shamsi bread, roqaq  Yeasting techniques in Upper Egypt  Barley porridge  Bread in shapes in the Delta (1 st Dynasty)  Kahk?  Eggs cooked the same but not the same eggs.  Salted fish for the Harvest Festival (shmow)  Pumpkin in savory dishes  Weeka (New Kingdom papyrus)

18 Weeka ShamsiRoqaq

19 Sources Ikram, Salima. "Diet." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald B. Redford. Oxford: Oxford UP, Print. Mehdawy, Magda, and Amr Hussein. The Pharaoh's Kitchen: Recipes from Ancient Egypt's Enduring Food Traditions. N.p.: I.B.Tauris, EBL. Web. 23 Apr

20 Bibliography Abu-zahra, Nadia. "Isis and Al-sayyida: Links to Ancient Egypt." Moving Matters: Ethnoarcheology in the near East. Cairo: Nederlands-vlaams Institution, Print. El-Shohoumi, Nadia. "Burying the Dead-Vivifying the Past: Reflections on Ancient Egyptian Funerary Rites and Their Parallels in Modern Egypt." Moving Matters : Ethnoarcheology in the near East. Cairo: Nederlands-vlaams Institute in Cairo, Print. Haeri Bilgrami, Muna. The Victory of Truth: The Life of Zaynab Bint Ali. Pakistan: Zahra Publications, Print. Ikram, Salima. "Diet." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald B.Redford. Oxford: Oxford UP, Print. Mehdawy, Magda, and Amr Hussein. The Pharaoh's Kitchen: Recipes from Ancient Egypt's Enduring Food Traditions. N.p.: I.B.Tauris, EBL. Web. 23 Apr

21 Illustrations  egyptian-food.html egyptian-food.html   ypt+and+Nubia ypt+and+Nubia  Egyptian-Myth-Isis-and-the-Sun-Gods-Secret-Name Egyptian-Myth-Isis-and-the-Sun-Gods-Secret-Name   afterlife-diet/ afterlife-diet/   week-okra/ week-okra/

22 Illustrations    cumin/d052e975-5fdf-440f eaede2ab519 cumin/d052e975-5fdf-440f eaede2ab519  slices/ /-/ slices/ /-/  of-cinnamon.html of-cinnamon.html     cookbook.blogspot.com/2011/04/mouloukhia-and- rice.html cookbook.blogspot.com/2011/04/mouloukhia-and- rice.html

23 Thank you for your attention


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