Chapter 19 Section 1 The Origins of Christianity
Anticipatory Set How did the life and teaching of Jesus lead to the rise of Christianity? Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus and the belief that he is the Messiah What monotheistic faith have we learned about in history? Judaism How might people like the Jews respond to the rule of a polytheistic empire like the Roman empire?
Standards S.S. 6.7.5 Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans’ restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem. S.S. 6.7.6 Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs
Objective Students will learn about Roman rule and about Jewish religious differences. They will also learn about the life life of Jesus and the origins of Christianity
Language of the Discipline Messiah Herod Baptism Resurrection Jesus Disciple Pontius Pilate Crucifixion
The Jews Under Roman Rule (Input) By 63 B.C., the Romans controlled the region that included Jerusalem. The people there were divided in many ways.
Political Divisions (Input) Many Jews resented Roman rule and saw them as foreign unbelievers occupying their land Some Jews believed that they should resist the Romans, but others hoped that God would send a messiah, or anointed leader The hoped the messiah would drive the Romans from their homeland Some Jews accepted Roman rule by king Herod, who was a non-Jew who took power in 37 B.C.
Religious Divisions (Input) Under Roman rule, the Jewish people were divided by religious differences Some priests focused on protecting the temple, even though the needed the Romans’ help, others moved into desert caves Many of these groups practiced baptism, or immersion in water, as a sign of spiritual cleansing One influential group was the Pharisees. They were educated people who respected the Torah and teachings of the rabbis.
The Pharisees believed in the resurrection, the idea that a godly person who dies will be raised from the dead and live with God forever Many poorer Jews respected the beliefs of the Pharisees, but it was hard for them to keep all od the rules that the Pharisees said they should Conflicts among these groups paved the way for further unrest
The Life and Teachings of Jesus (Input) During the years of conflict, a teacher began to attract a following He caused some to wonder whether the messiah had come The teacher was named after the ancient Jewish leader Joshua, who name meant “God helps” Most English speakers today call him Jesus
A Childhood in Galilee (Input) Most of what we know about Jesus comes from the early Christians (the Gospels) There are 4 early Christian writings that tell about events in the life of Jesus and record some of his teachings Jesus was a descendant of King David and was born in the town of Bethlehem Many historians believe that Jesus was born just before King Herod died and the Romans divided his kingdom into separate provinces One province was Galilee, several days journey north from Jerusalem His family moved from there to Nazareth
A Childhood in Galilee (Input) Joseph, the head of the household, was a carpenter, so it was likely Jesus learned carpentry also Jesus also learned to read Hebrew and study the scriptures, as many young Jewish boys did According to tradition, Jesus was about thirty years old when he left home to begin speaking to others abut God
A Childhood in Galilee (Input) According to the Gospels, Jesus first went to see a prophet, his cousin John John was baptizing people in the Jordan River as a sign that they wanted to start a new spiritual life Jesus asked John to baptize him Jesus then went several weeks in a desert praying When he returned he began teaching from the Hebrew scriptures
Jesus the Teacher (Input) Jesus traveled from town to town teaching for 3 years Jesus also believed in one God, the resurrection, and following God’s law as written in the Torah According to the gospels, Jesus criticized some Pharisees because they cared more about looking religious than showing compassion How they felt about other people in their heart was more important He encouraged them to show compassion towards their enemies
Jesus the Teacher (Input) Their were a lot of people who disagreed with Jesus, but were impressed by what he said The word then spread that he was healing sick people who came to him for help The crowds grew and many began to wonder if He was the messiah
Understanding Jesus’ Words (Input) Sometimes Jesus said things that were hard for people to understand According to the Gospels, Jesus called God his father and made statements such as “I and the Father are one” Many were shocked at such statements Sometimes Jesus shocked his disciples, who were his followers In the last few weeks of his life, he told them he would be killed, but that he would be resurrected His disciples thought he was going to lead an army and drive out the Romans They became upset when he talked about dying
Opposition to Jesus (Input) According to the Gospels, Jesus had many followers Some religious leaders even followed him Others began to be nervous about his popularity
Jesus Makes Enemies (Input) Leaders began to worry that Jesus and his followers would cause problems Jesus already angered religious leaders by saying they did not please God even though they appeared religious He also criticized the way money was being handled in the temple Jesus made people in the government nervous One was Anipas (one of King Herod’s sons) He was ruler of Galilee
Jesus Makes Enemies (Input) Antipas spent much of his time in Jerusalem He began to see Jesus as a threat Others thought Jesus and his followers would start a revolt against the Roman Empire (the city and temple) Finally Jesus made a last trip to Jerusalem to observe Passover feast He sat in the temple for a few days to talk to crowds and answer questions Some leaders began to look at Jesus as a prisoner without making the crowds angry
Arrest, Trial, and Death (Input) Finally the enemies of Jesus learned where he could be arrested away from the crowds According to the Gospels, he was sent to the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate for trial Pilate learned Jesus was from Galilee, so he sent Jesus to Anipas Antipas sent Jesus back to Pilate without ruling on his case Pilate sentenced Jesus to die by crucifixion
Arrest, Trial, and Death (Input) Crucifixion was a method of execution practiced by the Romans The victim was nailed or tied to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead This form of punishment was very painful and caused death by slow suffocation Usually crucifixion was reserved for the worst criminals After Jesus died, his body was taken down from the cross
A religious feast day was approaching, so there was no time to prepare his body for burial according to Jewish custom His body was instead wrapped in cloth and laid in a tomb A heavy stone was rolled into the doorway of the tomb and posted guards around it
The Resurrection (Input) According to the Gospels, some women who were disciples visited the tomb the following Sunday morning They were brining spices and ointments to anoint the body of Jesus for burial The guards were gone and the tomb was empty! They ran to tell other disciples The Gospels describe many instances where Jesus appeared to his followers as a living person
The Resurrection (Input) The last time they saw Jesus he told them to go into the world, share his teachings, and make disciples His disciples believed that Jesus had been resurrected and that he was the Messiah The Greek word messiah is “Christ” The disciples were eventually called Christians The religion that was based on the teachings of Jesus came to be called Christianity
Check for Understanding Please determine the BEST answer for the following question. Please write your answer on your white boards and wait for the teacher’s signal. On the teacher’s signal, hold up your white boards.
Checking for Understanding #1 Fill in the blank _______________ were the close followers of Jesus Disciples
Checking for Understanding #2 Answer the following question. Why did Jesus criticize the Pharisees? It seemed to him that they only cared about looking religious instead of showing compassion
Checking for Understanding #3 Answer the following question. After the death of Jesus, what event caused disciples to believe that he was the Messiah The disciples believed that Jesus was the Messiah because he was resurrected
Guided Practice/Independent Practice Guided Practice Complete questions 1 - 3 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Raise your hand and wait to get stamped. If you received an “R” go to the back table with Ms. Graham. Independent Practice Once you have been stamped moved to independent practice and complete numbers 4 and 5 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Homework Note-taking guide on the reverse side.