2Geography Egypt is a hot, dry land in Africa. Bounded on the south, east and west by an impenetrable desert, and on the north by the Mediterranean sea, Ancient Egypt was protected from outside influences, which allowed it to evolve in its own unique way.
3The Nile RiverEgypt has been called "the gift of the Nile." This is because the Nile River prevented Egypt from being a huge desert.Without the Nile, people in ancient Egypt would not have been able to grow crops.The Nile made it possible for the civilization of ancient Egypt to last thousands of years.The Nile River, the longest river in the world (4,150 miles), flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.The Nile begins in the Highlands of Ethiopia with two branches:The White Nile and the Blue NileThese rivers unite and flow northwhere they empty into theMediterranean Sea
4The most important thing to the Egyptians about The Nile was the yearly flooding. The Nile would flood each year in the spring. With the flood it would deposit a rich later of silt, or soil on either side of the river.Mediterranean SeaThe rich soil around the Nile was called the Black land. The desert was called the Red Land.Western DesertEgypt had several natural barriers which helped to protect it from invasionRed SeaThese barriers gave Egyptians a sense of security that was lacking in much of the ancient world.
6The Opet FestivalEach year, when the Nile River flooded its banks, all of Egypt celebrated the Opet Festival. Work in the fields stopped while people at all levels of Egyptian society joined in a great festival honoring the pharaoh and his patron, the god Amon-Re (AH-muhn-RAY).Almost everyone in Egyptian society took part in the Opet Festival.The Opet Festival brought all these groups together. But in everyday life, they belonged to verydifferent social classes. These classesmade up a social pyramid, with thepharaoh at the top and peasants at thebottom. In between were governmentofficials,priests, scribes, and artisans.
7Upper and Lower EgyptAncient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt.Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River’s delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean.Upper (southern) Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.
8Two Kingdoms (3,500 B.C.)Egypt was divided into two kingdoms: upper and lower Egyptsame culturesame languagesame godsMenes (Namar) United upper Egypt and Lower Egypt establishing the first Egyptian Dynasty and becoming the first pharaohreigned for 62 yearskilled by a hippopotamus
9Egypian History Egyptian History is divided into three main periods: The Old KingdomThe Middle KingdomThe New Kingdom
11The Old Kingdom ( B.C.)The Old Kingdom was a period of great prosperity.It is also called the pyramid age, because the great pyramids were built during this time.
12The Pyramids and the Sphinx They were designed to be tombs for the PharaohToday there are 35 major pyramids still standing in Egypt. The oldest pyramids are almost 5,000 years old.Originally there were step pyramids, then the pyramids evolved into the ones we see at Giza.
13The Pharaohs Egyptian kings came to be known as Pharaohs. The Pharaoh was seen as divine, or godlike. The people believed that the Pharaoh controlled many things including the flooding of the Nile itself.The Pharaoh wielded absolute power, but used advisors to help them.The Chief advisor to the Pharaoh was the Vizier.
14The Middle Kingdom (2050-1652 B.C) After the fall of the Old Kingdom there was a period of chaos for about 150 yearsA new dynasty took over in Egypt, bringing a period of stability.Egypt expanded into Nubia to its south.The government also sent troops into Palestine and Syria and sent traders to Kush, Syria, Mesopotamia, and CreteDuring this period kingdom the Pharaoh took new interest in the common people. The Pharaoh also implemented many public works projects.
15The New Kingdom ( B.C.)The Middle Kingdom ended with the invasion of a people called the HyksosThe Hyksos had Chariots and superior weapons to the Egyptians. The Egyptians were easily defeated.Eventually the Egyptians overthrew the Hyksos and established the New KingdomThe Pharaohs of the New Kingdom took a more aggressive ruling styleEgypt became the most powerfulstate in Southwest Asia
16HatshepsutHatshepsut was one of the few women to rule ancient Egypt. Many people believe she was one of the greatest pharaohs.Hatshepsut ruled Egypt for 21 years.Although it was a custom that pharaohs be male, Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh. She sometimes wore men clothing and sometimes wore a fake beard.Hatshepsut brought peace to Egypt. She is best known for her interests in trading and building.Many buildings were made during Hatshepsut's rule. One huge temple was built for Hatshepsut to be used as her tomb.Hatshepsut's temple is still standing. It is considered one of the greatest buildings in Egypt.
17AkhenatonAkhenaton wanted Egypt to worship the god of the sun, Aton, as the only god.He closed all of the temples to the other gods and caused major social and political problems. He and his wife, Nefertiti, become unpopular rulers.After his death Tutankhamen (King Tut) restored the old ways of worship.
18King Tut: Tutankhamen Became Pharaoh after the death of Akhenaton. Restored the old religious practicesLived to be 18.His tomb was not in a pyramid. It was cut deep into rockHas the only tomb to be found intact.
19Ramses II Considered Egypt’s founding father. He reigned for 67 years between BC and is believed tohave lived for more than 80 years.Ramses II was known as a builder and warrior.He had five main wives and it is believed he had more than 100 children.Ramses was originally buried in the Valley of the Kings.
21Egypt had a hierarchical Daily LifeThe people had a positive attitude toward life.Women had more rights in Ancient Egypt than the rest of the Ancient world.Women could own property, business, and request a divorce.Egyptian SocietyEgypt had a hierarchicalsocial structure
22Social Hierarchy Pharaoh Egyptian kings of a centralized state Claimed to be gods living on earth in human formBureaucratsBecause the pharaoh was an absolute ruler there was little room for a noble class as in MesopotamiaInstead professional military forces and an elaborate bureaucracy of administrators and tax collectors served the central governmentPatriarchalVested authority over public and private affairs in menHowever, more opportunities for women than in Mesopotamia as evidenced by Queen Hatshepsut reigning as pharaohPeasants and slavesSupplied the hard labor that made complex agricultural society possibleAmong the slaves were the Hebrews
23Gender Role Men and women had different roles within the family. Men were the heads of their households. They worked to support the family. Fathers often began to train their sons at a young age to take on their line of work.Women typically managed the home and raised the children. Upper-class women had servants or slaves to help them. Lower-class women did the work themselves.Men were in charge of Egyptian society, but women enjoyed more freedom and rights than most women in the ancient world.They could own land and run businesses.They could also ask for divorces and represent themselves in legal matters.Some women in the middle and upper classes worked as doctors, government officials, or priestesses.The Egyptians believed that their class system created a stable, well-ordered society. Each group had its own role to play.
24PriestsLike government officials, priests were powerful and highly respected in society. A large network of priests served under the pharaoh, who was considered the highest-ranked priest of all.The Duties of Priests .The High Priest advised the pharaoh and oversaw all religious ceremonies.Temple priests were in charge of the temples scattered throughout Egypt.Other priests handled more common concerns and requests. They gave advice and performed healings.Women were allowed to be priestesses in Egypt. They were generally regarded as equal to male priests. Their main duty was to oversee temples that were devoted to music and dancing.Every temple was home to one or more Egyptian gods. A temple priest’s primary job was to take care of his temple’s special god in a variety of ways.
25The Rosetta StoneIn 1799 a stone was found at Rosetta in Northern Egypt.There were three kinds of writing on it. At the bottom the writing was in Greek, in the middle Demotic and at the top hieroglyphics.Demotic and Greek people could read Greek and Demotic and the stone told the same story in both languages. So the same story must be told in hieroglyphics too.Unfortunately the people still couldn't work out what each hieroglyph meant.In 1822, a Frenchman, Jean-Francois Champollion, managed to solve the code. He discovered that many of the hieroglyphs stood for a single sound. Some were for 'ideas'. As a result, archaeologists were able to read the walls and rediscover the mysteries of Egypt.
26Writing Writing began in Egypt around 3000 B.C. There were different types of writing for different occasions.Hieroglyphics were ideograms used for formal writingHieratic Script (Demotic) was a simplified version of Egyptian writing.The Egyptians carved their writing on stone, or wrote on papyrus, a form of paper made from a reed that grew along the Nile River.
27Egyptian Advance in Math and Science The Egyptians used math to calculate area and volume in building the pyramids and in surveying flooded land for farmingThe Egyptians developed an accurate solar (365 day) calendar.The practice of mummification and embalming led to advances in medical knowledge including how to set broken bones, wounds, and disease.
28Egyptian ReligionFor the Egyptians, religion was closely tied to daily life.The Egyptians were polytheistic, worshiping many different gods.The most important god was the god of the sun, Re, also sometimes referred to as Ra or Amon-Ra.It was believed that the Pharaoh was connected to Amon-Ra.