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Flashcard image Funerary mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty Flashcard image.

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Presentation on theme: "Flashcard image Funerary mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty Flashcard image."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flashcard image Funerary mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty Flashcard image

2 Ancient Egypt Timeless Traditions in Art & Architecture Excerpt from the Book of the Dead, New Kingdom flashcard Shows weighing feather of Maat vs. heart of dead Annubis balances scale, Horus takes Ka to Isis Afterlife guide to help transition Painted papyrus Found in tombs

3 Geography & Ancient Egypt Nile River - floods, fertile Delta Farming, irrigation systems Complex political systems developed Seas & deserts protected the civilization from invaders… stable civilization for thousands of years Very advanced civilization


5 How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? egion=afe egion=afe =02®ion=wam

6 How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BCE Ancient Near East Sumer Detail of Head of Khafre, 2490 BCE (from Temple/Pyramid)

7 How does Ancient Egypt compare with other civilizations? Votive Statue, 2700 BC Ancient Near East Sumer Great Pyramids of Giza, 2500 BCE Ziggurat of Ur, 3100 BCE

8 Why do we know so much about Ancient Egypt? Dry climate, tombs = survival of art & artifacts Rosetta stone - decoded language Herodotus- Greek historian, 500 BC (religious) Menathos’ list, 3rd century BCE- grouped kings into dynasties between 3000 & 300 BCE Strabo visited Alexandria, 100 BC Emperor Hadrian of Rome-took antiquities in 130 AD Middle ages - Bible studies 1798-99: Napoleon - military & scholarly visits Archaelogical excavations & POPULAR interest ever since!!

9 Rosetta Stone 196 BC Religious decree of Pharoah Talmee (Cleopatra) Greek, demotic, hieroglyphic writing 20 yrs to decipher Flashcard image

10 Rosetta Stone Jean Francois Champillon, French linguist & Dr. Thomas Young, English scientist… found Cleopatra’s name on the stone Discovered in early 1800s, took years to decode Champillon spoke Coptic, figured out sounds, which led to birth of Egyptology

11 Stone Writing…. Rosetta Stone 196 BC Stele of Hamurrabi from 1750 BC


13 Scepter, 1960s, Ghana Egyptian Iconography

14 Egypt United: Old Kingdom Begins in 3000 BCE Dynasty I : Palette of King Narmer In pre-dynastic Egypt, each village had own gods King Narmer united upper & lower Egypt (see crown symbols united)

15 Flashcard image Palette of King Narmer, 3000- 2920 BCE Commemorates unification of Egypt Conquered march dwellers Hierarchy of scale Hierakonpolis / Egyptian Museum, Cairo

16 Palette of Nar-mer Side 2 Goddess Hathor on both sides- Horus helping King Marching to view headless bodies Long necked lions symbolize unification Eye makeup well on palette

17 Palette of Narner Firsts 1.Depicted figure in twisted perspective… lasted 3000 yrs 2.Low relief sculpture in registers with groundlines (1st in Egyptian art) 3.Unifed Egypt; depicted beginning of the Old Kingdom; transition away from Paleolithic farming villages 4.Religious iconography.

18 Palette of Narmer 3000 BCE Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2621 BCE

19 Palette of Naner 3000 BCE Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, 2621 BCE

20 Egyptian figurative conventions Used for approximately 3000 yrs Twisted Perspective REMEMBER THE ART MADE THE WORLD VIDEO??? How does this perspective reflect their culture and civilization????

21 Pyramids & Tombs 80 pyramids were built Began with the Mastaba (means Bench).. Mud brick tombs used in the Old Kingdom Egyptians believed that Isis ruled the underworld and judged dead souls; Ka lived forever Death & resurrection Important to preserve/mummify bodies and to provide for life in the next world


23 Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, III Dynasty., 2630 BCE 1st large scale stone building in world, build over mastaba. 14 gateways, facades of buildings. Columns mimicked bunches of reed with papyrus tops. Significant: 1st large scale building EVER in world



26 Flashcard image - Great Pyramids of Giza IV Dynasty (Old Kingdom) Khafre, Khufu, Menkaure. Granite and limestone Size: height of pyramid of Khufu, 450' (137 m)

27 How Pyramids Were Built 2 million blocks, 1-2 tons each! How did they get them up there?

28 Great Sphinx, believed to be a portrait of Khafre. Originally painted & had a beard.

29 Valley temple of Khafre

30 Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty Medium: Graywacke with traces red & black paint 54½ inches high Date: Fourth Dynasty (ruled 2490–2472 BCE) OLD KINGDOM Source/Museum: from Giza / Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Harvard University–MFA Expedition Flashcard image Equal scale Embrace Sheer dress on Queen


32 Pepy II and His Mother, Queen Ankhnes-Meryre Egyptian alabaster 15¼ X 9 13/16" Date: Sixth Dynasty, c. 2323–2152 BCE Source/Museum: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York She ruled until he was old enough, carved more naturalistically Arms posed away from side.. Less permanence

33 Seated Scribe (FLASHCARD) Painted limestone; eyes of rock crystal mounted in copper Size: height 21" Date: Fifth Dynasty, c. 2450– 2325 BCE OLD KINGDOM Musée du Louvre, Paris Shows how different classes were portrayed. Much smaller than statues of Pharoahs, etc. (21” vs life size or over sized” Limestone, not more elegant materials

34 The Middle Kingdom 1975-1640 BCE (intermediate thru 1520) Mentuhop (11th Dynasty) kings reunited Egypt. Powerful, unified govt w/ strong military Arts & literature flourished Portraiture became more sensitive & realistic

35 Head of Senusret III Yellow quartzite 17¾ X 13½ X 17" Middle Kingdom Twelfth Dynasty, c. c. 1836–1818 BCE More realistic Looks tired, older Dynamic King who led 4 expeditions into Nubia; overhauled administration

36 Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan. Middle Kingdom Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c. 1938– 1755 BCE

37 Pectoral of Senusret II, Gold and semiprecious stones Date: Twelfth Dynasty, c 1938–1755 (ruled c 1842–1837 BCE) Tomb of Princess Sithathoryunet, el-Lahun. / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. “May the sun god give eternal life to Senusret II” … ankh, falcons, cobras, Ra…

38 Hippopotamus, Middle Kingdom, 12th dynasty. Made of faience. Goddess Taweret?

39 Stele of Amemhat I, 12th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom)… Portrays daily family life. Found in his tomb. 11” x 15”

40 The New Kingdom 1539-1075 BCE Hykkos invaded; 18th Dynasty reunited kingdom Thutmose III (1st Pharoah) expanded Egypt into present day Syria Trade with near East Built New Kingdom Temples & tombs to glorify kings / Pharoahs

41 Ruins of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt (New Kingdom, 1579 BCE)

42 Symmetrical & Axial Design (processional path) Covered area size of 60 football fields; hypostyle hall w/ lots of columns Statues of gods clothed and “fed” daily by priests Added to by various Pharoahs; sacred lake, coronation rooms


44 Flower & Bud columns Hypostyle Hall Great Temple of Amun at Karnak cts/Karnak/experience/Intro ductionToTheTempleOfKarn ak/1

45 Queen Hatshepsut Enthroned New Kingdom, 1473-1458 BCE FLASHCARD IMAGE 20 year reign, 1st female Pharoah portrayed in art Sometimes shown as male w/false beard Led diplomacy with Punt Built incredible funerary temple positioned against high cliffs, oriented towards Karnak

46 Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir El-Bahri 1473 BCE (New Kingdom)

47 Fowling Scene, Tomb of Nebamum, 1400 BCE (New King.), fragment of wall painting, British Museum 18th dynasty Suggests distance & movement Animals, butterflies naturalistic Wife/daughter smaller than Nebamum (hierarchy of scale) Hieroglyphic: enjoying himself and seeing beauty, (Forever young?) Marsh symbolizes rebirth Cat can symbolize deity hunting enemies of light and order Flashcard image, not in book

48 Amarna Period: Revolution in Art and Religion 1353-1336 BCE Changed name to Akhenaten (one who is effective for Aten, a god) 1st Monotheist in Egypt: Worshipped Aten (sun god) New capital in Tell el-Amarna Changed typical Egyptian figurative style in artworks Promoted glass making

49 Akhenaten, Colossal Figure, located at Temple of Karnak (16 ‘ tall) Long face, thin neck, swollen belly, somewhat androgynous looking. Built temples to Aten.. Sun disk, open courtyards Wife Queen Nefertiti was priestess Truth (Maat) emphasized… more realistic artwork and informal situations.

50 Akhenaten & his Family, 1353 BCE (New Kingdom), painted limestone sunken relief How is this Relief so Different?

51 Queen Tiye, New Kingdom Funerary piece of yew wood, ebony, glass, silver, gold, lapis, cloth, clay & wax Entire sculpture was 1/3 life size Older woman, mom of Akhenanten Married for love. Played key role in affairs of state husband Amenhotep III. Realistic style; African features

52 Queen Nefertiti (flashcard) 1302-1234 BCE 18th Dynasty/ New Kingdom Painted limestone 21” (life size) Tomb found in 1904. Most impressive Queen’s tomb found Fave wife of Ramses III Diplomacy w/Hittites “mother of kings” Book of Dead Shown w/God Horus frequently

53 Egyptians mastered glass blowing & faience

54 Tutankhamun & Ramses II: Return to Tradition Priesthood of Amun regained former power a few years after Akhenaten’s death Tutankhaten = Tutankhamun (changed name) Court moved back to Thebes Tutankhamun’s tomb discovered in 1922-incredible riches captured public imagination (died young) Ramses II built mighty empire.. Peace with Hittites Amazing Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel (see Object Speaks in book)

55 Flashcard image Funerary mask of Tutankhamun 1327 BC Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Cairo Museum New Kingdom 18th Dynasty Flashcard image

56 Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s Sarcophagus Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones Eighteenth Dynasty, 1332–1322 BCE, New Kingdom Source/Museum: Tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings, near Deir el-Bahri / Egyptian Museum, Cairo

57 Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel 4 65 foot statues of Ramses Association w/Gods, Religious & political power

58 Queen Nefertrari, wife of Ramses II, shown behind his leg Hieratic scale?

59 Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris, Scene from Book of the Dead Painted papyrus, height 15⅝" (39.8 cm), Nineteenth Dynasty, c. 1285 BCE NEW KINGDOM Illustration From a Book of The Dead. The British Museum, London KNOW RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE, HOW THIS WAS USED! Eater waits for judgment Feather of Maat vs. Heart Osiris, king of underworld

60 Mummy wrapping of a young boy Medium: Linen wrappings with gilded stucco buttons and inserted portrait in encaustic on wood Size: height of mummy 53⅜" (133 cm) portrait 9½ X 6½" Date: Roman period, c. 100–120 CE AFTER NEW KINGDOM ENDED, ROMAN RULE Source/Museum: Hawara / The British Museum, London Conventions of Roman painting not Egyptian

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