Presentation on theme: " The Sage Kings Gave the Chinese “civilization” King Yao A virtuous ruler bringing harmony to society King Shun Regulating the four seasons,"— Presentation transcript:
The Sage Kings Gave the Chinese “civilization” King Yao A virtuous ruler bringing harmony to society King Shun Regulating the four seasons, Invented weights, measures, and units of time King Yu Rescued China from raging floods of the Yellow River Legendary? Legends reflect values of society Many may prove true! The Xia Dynasty Considered historical by Chinese Possibility that the Sage Kings were from the Xia Dynasty
Beginnings Over two hundred thousand years ago Domesticated rice Around 7000 B.C.E. In the valley of the Yangzi River Millet cultivation In the valley of the Yellow River Also around 8000 BCE Wheat and barley Became staple foods of north China by 2000 B.C.E. Two Hearths? Genetic and archaeological evidence says yes Northern hearth (Yellow R) ethnically Chinese Southern hearth (Yangzi R) ethnically Polynesian
Agricultural villages Appeared in the valleys of the two rivers Society was patriarchal Fathers dominated families Elder males ruled village Males performed religious sacrifices Political Institutions Towns and small states Appeared in north China during 2 nd millennium B.C.E. Three dynastic states in the valley of Yellow River: Xia Shang Zhou
The Yellow River Water source at high plateau of Tibet Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow" River was "China's Sorrow" as it flooded uncontrollably Loess: rich soil, soft, easy to work Neolithic societies after 5000 B.C.E. Yangshao society, 5000-3000 B.C.E. Excavations at Banpo village: fine pottery, bone tools Longshan culture: 3000 – 2000 BCE
Archaeological Evidence Archaeological Evidence Discovery of Xia is still in preliminary stage Discovery of Xia is still in preliminary stage Archaeologists have found some tombs Archaeologists have found some tombs Chinese scholars believe it existed Chinese scholars believe it existed Supposed History Supposed History Established about 2200 B.C.E. Established about 2200 B.C.E. Legendary King Yu Legendary King Yu The dynasty founder The dynasty founder A hero of flood control A hero of flood control Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia
Arose in the North China Along Yellow River Between Ordos Bulge and Mouth of Yellow River Evidence Many records, material remains discovered Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by elite Vast network of walled towns Agricultural surpluses supported large troops Shang Society Shang-kings were warriors Constant struggle with nobles for power The Shang capital moved six times Small Shang elite ruled large common population Lavish tombs of Shang kings Contained chariots, weapons, bronze goods Sacrificial human victims, dogs, horses
The right to rule granted by heaven Zhou justified their overthrow of Shang Ruler called "the son of heaven" Only given to virtuous, strong rulers To lose mandate = someone else should rule Replacement of dynasties = Dynastic Cycle Signs one had lost mandate Corruption, heavy taxes Lazy officials and rulers Revolts, invasions, civil wars, crime Natural disasters Society develops bad morals, habits
The rise of the Zhou The last Shang king was a bad ruler The Zhou forces toppled the Shang Political organization Adopted decentralized administration Used princes and relatives to rule regions Consequences Weak central government with ceremonial functions Rise of regional powers; often called feudalism Constant rivalry between warring families, nobles
The Chinese movement which grew out of Confucianism, and which sought to establish order with harsh penalties for crimes and violations was: Daoism Legalism Buddhism Shintoism Ancestor veneration Please take out your 2 pages of notes over Han China
For Tomorrow p. 160 – The Long Reign of the Han (164) 2 pages of notes For Friday p. 164 – Imperial Parallels (168) 2 pages of notes
In class next week, you will be writing a paper comparing and contrasting the Han Empire in China to the Roman Empire in Europe. You will not be able to use the book, but you will be able to use any notes you have written beforehand. Just sayin’…..
"We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
For the first time, more blacks are coming to the United States from Africa than during the slave trade. Since 1990, according to immigration figures, more have arrived voluntarily than the total who disembarked in chains before the United States outlawed international slave trafficking in 1807. More have been coming here annually - about 50,000 legal immigrants - than in any of the peak years of the middle passage across the Atlantic, and more have migrated here from Africa since 1990 than in nearly the entire preceding two centuries.
Master You said: “Those who are filial to their parents and obedient to the elder brothers but are apt to defy their superiors are rare indeed; those who are not apt to defy their superiors, but are apt to stir up a rebellion simply do not exist. The gentleman applies himself to the roots. Only when the roots are planted will the Way grow. Filial piety and brotherly love are perhaps the roots of humanity, are they not?”
Zi-Wa said: “He who loves worthy men instead of beautiful women; who, in service to his parents, can exert all his energy; who in serving the sovereign, can exhaust his talents; and who, in associating with friends, is truthful to his word – although others may say he has not learned, I will surely say he has learned.”
The Master said: “In governing a thousand- chariot state, be reverent to your duties and truthful; economize expenditure and love men; employ the people at proper times.”
The Master said: “A gentleman who is extensively learned in culture and restrains himself with the rituals is not likely to betray.”
Iron metallurgy Iron technology spread; 1st millennium B.C.E. Iron weapons were cheaper to produce than bronze Helped regional aristocrats to resist the central power Feudal state of Qin mastered iron technology, weapons Nomadic invasion sacked capital Prior period called Western Zhou Capital moved to Loyang beginning Eastern Zhou Warring States Period (403-221 B.C.E.) Territorial princes became more independent States warred one with another Rise of Sun Tzu as military strategist Rise of Qin state Qin began conquering rivals Created vast army, no one able to stop Qin kings Last Zhou king abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E.
Central to Chinese culture: kinship Veneration of ancestors Belief in ancestors' presence, continuing influence Burial of material goods with the dead Offering sacrifices at the graves Eldest males presided over rites honoring ancestors Only males could perform religious duties Filial Piety Young must respect elders without question Elders always right, make decisions Patriarchal society During Neolithic times, Chinese society = matrilineal Rise of states, war due to men's contributions After Shang, not even queens merited temples
The ruling elites Royal family and allied noble families at the top Their lavish consumption of bronze products, silk Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding Most of the land owned by the king, nobles Peasants, the majority of population Called the “mean” people Landless peasants provided labor Lived in small subterranean houses Wood, bone, stone tools common Iron spread in 6th century B.C.E. Women’s World Wine making, weaving, silkworm raising Managing household, raising children Elite women vs. poor women Peasants Nobles Imperial Family
Specialized labor Free artisans Artists, musicians Craftsmen in great demand Served the needs of ruling elites Merchants, trade were important Jade from Central Asia, tin from SE Asia A few pieces of pottery from India Merchants ranked socially lower Slaves Mostly war prisoners Performed hard work Became sacrificial victims Suspicious towards Foreigners Slaves Artisans Merchants
Customary beliefs and practice As old as civilization in China Never encouraged/discouraged by state Syncretic in nature Will absorb many different traditions Blends all major ideas, philosophies Exists in harmony with official philosophies, faiths Believes gods, spirits (shen) influence family, world Power over world affairs Deceased members of community, family Deified figures of history, literature Spiritual embodiment of nature, geography Maintenance of family shrines, community temples Prayers, supplications Food offerings Shamanism and divination are practiced
The Yangzi valley The longest river of China Two crops of rice per year Dependable and beneficial to farmers Indigenous peoples of South China Ancestors of the Malayo-Polynesians Many assimilated into Chinese society Some pushed into hills, mountains Many migrated to Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand State of Chu (Conquered by Qin) Emerged in the central Yangzi region Challenged the Zhou for supremacy Adopted Chinese ways
Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) A strong-willed man, from an aristocratic family Traveled ten years searching for an official post Educator with numerous disciples Sayings compiled in the Analects by disciples Confucian ideas Fundamentally moral and ethical in character Restore political and social order; stress ritual Formation of junzi - "superior individuals" Edited Zhou classics for his disciples to study The key Confucian concepts Ren - a sense of humanity Li - a sense of propriety Xiao - filial piety Cultivating of junzi for bringing order to China 5 Relationships and filial piety as basis of society
The Qin State and Dynasty Partially sinified pastoralists, perhaps even Turkish Located in west China and adopted Legalist policies Encouraged agriculture, resulted in strong economy Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. Qin Shi Huang di King of Qin proclaimed himself First Emperor, 221 B.C.E. Established centralized imperial rule Held sons of nobles as hostages Demolished nobles castles Project of connecting and extending the Great Wall 700,000 people worked on project; 100,000 killed
Legalism The doctrine of statecraft Promoted a practical and ruthlessly efficient approach No concern with ethics and morality No concern with the principles governing nature Doctrine used by Qin dynasty Shang Yang (ca. 390-338 B.C.E.) A chief minister of the Qin state His policies summarized in The Book of Lord Shang Was executed by his political enemies Han Feizi (ca. 280-233 B.C.E.) Student of Xunzi, became the most articulate Legalist A synthesizer of Legalist ideas Forced to suicide by his political enemies
The state's strength Agriculture Military force Discouraged commerce, education, and the arts How to treat people Harnessing self-interest of people for needs of state Called “carrot and stick” approach in west Called for harsh penalties even for minor infractions Advocated collective responsibility before law Not popular among the Chinese, Chinese used legalism if state threatened Legalism still doctrine common to China
Suppressing the resistance Bitterly opposed, was opposed by Confucian scholars Buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin Burned all books except some with utilitarian value Policies of centralization Standardization of laws, currencies, weights, measures Standardized scripts: tried to create uniform language Creates a uniform writing system but not language Tomb of the First Emperor The tomb was an underground palace Excavation of the tomb since 1974 Terracotta soldiers and army to protect tomb The collapse of the Qin dynasty Massive public works generated ill will among people Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E. A short-lived dynasty, left deep marks in Chinese history
Liu Bang A general, persistent man, a methodical planner Restored order, established dynasty, 206 B.C.E. Han was long-lived dynasty Early Han policies Sought middle way between Zhou and Qin Royal relatives were not reliable Returned to centralized rule Martial Emperor (141-87 B.C.E.) Han Wudi ruled for 54 years Pursued centralization and expansion
Han centralization Adopted Legalist policies Built an enormous bureaucracy to rule the empire Continued to build roads and canals Levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries Imperial monopolies on production of iron and salt Established Confucian educational system for training bureaucrats Confucianism as the basis of the curriculum in imperial university Thirty thousand students enrolled in the university in Later Han Han imperial expansion Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea Extended China into central Asia Han organized vast armies to invade Xiongnu territory Han enjoyed uncontested hegemony in east and central Asia
Patriarchal, patrilocal households averaged five inhabitants Patriarchal, patrilocal households averaged five inhabitants Large, multigenerational compound families also developed Large, multigenerational compound families also developed Women's subordination (Ban Zhao Admonitions for Women) Women's subordination (Ban Zhao Admonitions for Women) Cultivators were the majority of the population Cultivators were the majority of the population Differences apparent between noble, lower class women Differences apparent between noble, lower class women Scholar bureaucrats: Confucian trained bureaucrats Scholar bureaucrats: Confucian trained bureaucrats Officials selected through competitive testing Officials selected through competitive testing Used to run the government in Early Han Used to run the government in Early Han Scholar Gentry Scholar Gentry Confucian bureaucrats intermarried with landed elite Confucian bureaucrats intermarried with landed elite New class comes to dominate local, national offices New class comes to dominate local, national offices Strongest in late Han Strongest in late Han Merchants held in low social esteem Merchants held in low social esteem
Iron metallurgy Farming tools, utensils Weapons Silk textiles Sericulture spread all over China during the Han High quality Chinese silk became a prized commodity Traded as far as India, Persia, Mesopotamia, and Rome State monopolies on liquor, salt and iron Paper production Invented probably before 100 C.E. Began to replace silk and bamboo as writing materials Population growth Increased from 20 to 60 million (220 BCE to 9 CE) Despite light taxation, state revenue was large Silk Road established: horses for silk
Expeditions consumed the empire's surplus Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals Taxes, land confiscations discouraged investment Much of defense consumed on defending against nomads Social tensions, stratification between the poor and rich Problems of land distribution Early Han supported land redistribution Economic difficulties forced some small landowners to sell property Some sold themselves or their families into slavery Lands accumulated in the hands of a few No land reform, because Han needed cooperation of large landowners The reign of Wang Mang A powerful Han minister dethroned the baby emperor Claimed imperial title himself, 9 C.E. Land reforms - the "socialist emperor“ Overthrown by revolts 23 C.E
The Later Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.) Overthrown of Wang Mang restores Han New Han much weakened Rule often through large families, gentry Rise of Eunuchs in government as new source of power The Yellow Turban Uprising (Daoist Revolt) Rulers restored order but did not address problem of landholding Yellow Turban uprising inflicted serious damage on the Han Collapse of the Han Court factions paralyzed central government Han empire dissolved China was divided into regional kingdoms Period of 3 Kingdoms Local aristocrats divided empire Later fragmented further During period nomads invaded, Buddhism entered
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