Presentation on theme: "Tourist Attractions Task Seven Ancient Tombs. A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs Task Lead-in Ancient Tombs in profile The most famous Ancient."— Presentation transcript:
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs Task Lead-in Ancient Tombs in profile The most famous Ancient Tombs in China The Mausoleum of South Yue Kingdom Simulated Practice for tour guides Related Materials Sum-up
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Task Lead-in Task 2: What information and expression do you think are needed when you introduce ancient tombs? You can present your questions in Chinese and give a question list1. Task 3: Please discuss what questions the tourists may ask to a tour guide and give a question list2. Task 1: Please introduce what you have seen from pictures in English as a tour guide.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs in profile Introduction of ancient tombs in Profile Difficult Words and Expressions Related information
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs inprofile(1) The construction of tombs occupies an important place in traditional Chinese architecture. Chinese archaeologists are uncovered and invested various tombs and have come to conclusions that offer new insights and unforeseen details of millennia-old tomb architecture. Imperial funerary buildings played an important role in court ceremony. As early as the 16th century B.C. in the Shang Dynasty there was a cult of ancestor worship within the Chinese upper class. According to the concept of that time, the ancestors lived together with descendants, they protected the living; if they were dissatisfied, and there would be disasters in the family or clan. Therefore the sprit of the departed had to be provided with all he possessed or would have lived to possess in his earthly life. So emperors frequently returned to the last resting places of their ancestors, not only to make sacrifices to them and to commemorate them, but to ask for protection and the continuation of them, but to ask for protection and the continuation of their power, since they were the guardians of the dynasty.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs inprofile(2) The millennia-old cross-shaped underground pit tombs from the Shang Dynasty in Anyang, Henan province are among the oldest graves to have been found, The Shang tombs had no mounds on top.A single or double coffin containing the body was placed in a wooden burial chamber decorated with carvings. With time the caskets were also richly decorated. Underneath the coffin there was usually a small pit containing the body of a sacrificed person or dog that was supposed to protect the deceased. At that time a funeral was an occasion that evoked fear and dread.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The Shag tombs throw a lurid light upon early Chinese civilization. Some of them were of enormous size and furnished with bronze vessels, jade objects and pottery. In a number of tombs, archaeologists have found the remains of many dozens of people. In some cases, the bodies show no signs of violence—the result, perhaps of voluntary self- immolation by relations or retainers of the dead man-- -while in others, decapitation suggests the victims may have been slaves, Ancient Tombs inprofile(3)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides criminals or prisoners of war. It was not until the second half of the Zhou dynasty that offerings made of wood, metal, clay, jade and later, ceramics, replaced human sacrifices. Valuable bronze instruments were found in tombs from the Zhou period. Clay and wood reproductions of people and animals have been found chiefly in tombs from Han period (206 B.C.-220 A.D.). As early as the Warring States Periods (476B.C.- 221B.C.), there were mounds on top of all rulers burial places, and the size of the mound became the symbol of a ruler’s status. Ancient Tombs inprofile(4)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides From the third to the second century B.C., a change was made in the techniques of tombs construction. What had been the most important building material-wood –was widely replaced by brick. At the beginning, hollow bricks were used, which were decorated with bas-relief or geometric patterns.Later the bricks were more wieldy and produced as a kind of fired brick. This new construction material allowed architects to create underground tombs in which the magnificence of the earthly structure of the deceased could be reproduced. In the first half of the Western Han Dynasty(206 B.C.—25A.D.), underground pit tombs still dominated; During the East Han Dynasty(25-220), funerary complexes made of bricks or cut stone superseded them in importance. Bricks, became handier in shape, well suited for use in the construction of domes and vaults. Underground burial complexes consisted of several main and secondary rooms. Not only were the underground burial chambers magnificently equipped, but the outside of the tomb complex was also festively designed. A path, known as the sacred way. Usually led from the south to the grave mound and was bordered by que, stone figures of animals and humans. At the end of this path stood stone tablets and a Sacrificial Shrine or a Memorial Hall. The steep shaft that led to the underground palace was filled in after the burial.This type of tomb complex did not change significantly in structure until the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Ancient Tombs inprofile(5)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides During the time of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, North China was in great chaos. The economy of the country was on the verge of collapse. As a result, extravagant burial was forbidden by he rulers. Imperial mausoleum were usually built halfway up into the mountains and there marks at all left on the burial ground including tombstones, funeral buildings, or sacred ways. During the Tang Dynasty, it was a regular practice to erect memorial tablets and stone statues before tombs. Ancient Tombs inprofile(6)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tombs inprofile(7) On both sides of the sacred way in front of Qianling, the joint tomb of GaoZong and his empress consort, Wu Zetian, the only female supreme ruler in the Chinese history, 124 exquisite and lively stone statues are lined up from the north to south. Outside the south gate there are two memorial tablets. With reference to the number, variety and arrangement of stone carvings, Qianling mausoleum set a good example for other imperial tombs till the early Qing Dynasty. The arrangement of stone carvings was largely identical in successive dynasties. Ancient Tomb---Qianling:
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The Song imperial tombs are relatively small. One reason for this might be that they were not built until the emperor had passed away and had to be completed within seven months, the latest time allowed for the burial. The tombs are similar in design and furnishings. There were a fixed number of stone figures that lined the holy path. Funerary architecture reached its peak during the Ming and Qing period. Thirteen Ming emperors were buried 45 kms north of Beijing on the Tianshou Mountain. The tombs are known by the name of shisan ling, Thirteen Ming tombs. Each tomb was enclosed by a wall. One innovation is a complex in front of each tomb; consist of several courtyards and buildings. A single holy path led to the thirteen tombs, lined with stone sculptures larger than life-size. The main path leads directly to the tomb of emperor YongLe with other paths branching off and leading to the other 12 graves. Each burial site is divided into three parts: the building where sacrifices were prepared and offered, the stele tower where prayers were said, and the tumulus that covers the underground vault. Architects of the Qing era used the Ming complex as models. One significant changes from the Ming era was the fact that the empress and the secondary wives were no longer buried together with the emperor in one grave, but had their own tombs somewhere else. Ancient Tombs inprofile(8)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Difficult Words and Expressions (1) Text in here archaeologist n. 考古学家 burial chamber 墓穴 casket n. 棺材；小匣子 ceramics n. 陶瓷制品 collapse n. 倒塌；崩溃 decapitation n. 斩首；砍头 descendant n. 后代；后裔 dimension n. 尺度；尺寸 evoke v. 引起；唤起 extravagant adj. 浪费的；奢侈的 festive adj. 欢乐的；快乐的 funerary adj. 葬礼的 lurid adj. 绚丽的；耀眼的 on the verge of 在 …. 的边缘 retainer n. 仆人，老家奴 supersede v. 取代；接替 to make sacrifice to 献祭；作出牺牲 tumulus n. 坟头；古冢 wieldy adj. 可操作的；易使用的
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Difficult Words and Expressions(2) . ancestor worship— 祖先崇拜 . At the end of this path stood stone tablets and a Sacrificial Shrine or a Memorial Hall.— 神道的北端立有墓碑，修有寝殿 . With reference to the number, variety and arrangement of stone carvings, Qianling mausoleum set a good example for other imperial tombs till the early Qing Dynasty.— 这句话的意思是：在中国历史上，陵前石刻的 数目、种类和安放位置从乾陵开始方有定制，一直延续到清代，历代大同小 异。
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Related information (1) ① The Shang tombs had no mounds on top — 商代帝王陵墓没有封土堆。上 古时代，帝王的墓为 “ 不封不树 ” ，既无封土又无树木等标志。大约从春秋开始 ，出现 “ 封土为坟 ” 的做法。 ② A path, known as the sacred way. Usually led from the south to the grave mound and was bordered by que, stone figures of animals and humans. — 神 道（又称 “ 甬路 ” 、 “ 御路 ” 、 “ 司马道 ” 等 ）自南向北一直通向陵墓，两旁修有阙 楼，立有动物、人等石像。 “que” 指阙楼，从汉景帝阳陵开始 ，陵园每面恒墙 的正中各辟一门，称司马们，门上两侧各修一座阙楼。 ③ The Wordless Memorial Tablet to Empress Wuzetian — 唐高宗的《述圣记 碑》。全碑共七节，又称 “ 七节碑 ” 。据说，它由七节组成，与古人认为世界由 日、月、金、木、水、火、土七种基本物质组成。碑文由武则天亲自撰写，唐 中宗书写，颂扬了高宗文治武功。武则天为高宗立的《述圣记碑》开帝王陵前 树功德碑的先例。
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Famous Ancient Tombs— Qianshihuangling Introduction of the Famous Ancient Tombs in China A simulated practice for tour guide
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The most Famous Ancient Tombs-- Qinshihuangling Qin Shi Huang (259 BC - 210 BC), the first emperor of China, ascended the throne at the age of 13, when construction of his tomb began. On completion of his many conquests, he ordered 720,000 conscript laborers to hurry up on building his royal tomb. It was finished just-in-time in 210 BC for his use. His son, the second Qin Emperor, saw to his entombment. Location The tomb of Qin Shi Huang is located in the eastern suburbs of Lintong County, 35 kilometers (22 miles) east of Xian: on the Lishan Mountain in the south and overlooking the Wei River towards north. The lay of the land from Lishan to Mount Hua is shaped dragon-like according to traditional Chinese geomancy.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The most Famous Ancient Tombs-- Qinshihuangling The imperial tomb is at the eye of the dragon. The emperor had chosen well. Dimensions In size, the mausoleum is larger than the Great pyramid in Egypt. Seen from afar, it is a hill overgrown with vegetation. It is believed that the tomb consists of an interior city and an exterior city. The exterior of the mausoleum is a low earth pyramid with a wide base. In 2000 years, the original 100- meter-high (328 feet) hillock has been weathered down to about 47 meters (154 feet) high, 515 meters (1,690 feet) long from south to north and 485 meters (1,591 feet) wide Danxia Mountain
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The most Famous Ancient Tombs-- Qinshihuangling east to west. In an area of 2,180,000 square meters (less than one square miles), many large-scale Alhambresque buildings housing precious treasures are said to be buried inside the tomb. According to historical records, the mausoleum was a notorious crime scene. Many laborers died of hardship during its construction, and all the workmen were entombed along with the emperor in order to keep their mouths shut. Also all the barren royal concubines accompanied the emperor on his last journey
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The most Famous Ancient Tombs-- Qinshihuangling Remains of the Mausoleum As a part of the mausoleum, the terracotta warriors have dazzled the world. But the materials unexcavated are also worth studying. Qin bricks and tiles, engraved with decorative patterns, are strew everywhere around the tomb. There are many satellite tombs built for accompanying Qin Shihuang. Ministers, princesses and princes, the famous and the not so famous were inhumed there. The burial pits for horses, rare birds and pottery figures were ever regarded as the sacrificial objects to the Emperor. Hence the remains from these tombs and pits are beneficial for archaeologists to make further research.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides A simulated practice for tour guide Please try to introduce Ancient Tombs as a tour guide, simultaneously show the pictures to the students.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Ancient Tomb---Mingxiaoling
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Mausoleum of South Yue King Introduction of Mausoleum of South Yue King Notes A simulated practice for tour guide
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The Mausoleum of South Yue King(1) Located on Jiefang Bei Road, Guangzhou, the Mausoleum in Western of Nanyue king is the oldest and largest. Han tomb with the most funerary objects in Lingnan Area. As one of the 80 famous museums in the world, the museum covers 14.000square meters with 10 exhibition halls. The owner of the tomb is the second king.Zhao Mei of Nanyue state of the western Han Dynasty (206B.C- 24A.D)Hidden 20 meters (65.5 feet ) underground, the tomb is made up of 750 huge stones with colorful murals. The owner 1.000pieces of culture relics, bronze ware and terra cotta ware in particular, feature the Yue Culture of South Yue.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The Mausoleum of South Yue King(2) Highlight in the mausoleum is a silk-jade garment made up of 2.291pieces of jade.Though jade garments with pieces connected by gold, silver, or copper are not common, This garment with jade pieces connected by silk is the only one of it’s kind in the world.Not are historical records available to verify other jade garments connected by silk thread. In addition, the style of buttons down the front is unique among unearthed jade garments.This silk-jade garment shows the early development of jade garments as well as development of Nanyue Culture.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides The Mausoleum of South Yue King(3) In addition, there sets of bronze serial bells, thirty-six bronze vessels, thirty-six bronze mirrors and three gold seals, give visitors a glimpse of the ancient Nan Yue Culture. The oldest and largest folding screen used in china is also here. Foreign articles excavated in the mausoleum indicate that Guangzhou was an ancient Marine Silk Road starting point. For example, there are fire African elephant’s trunks, a silver box featuring western Asian silver wares.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Description of the contents Please interpret the following into Chinese orally. 1.The tomb of Qin Shi Huang is located in the eastern suburbs of Lintong County, 35 kilometers (22 miles) east of Xian: on the Lishan Mountain in the south and overlooking the Wei River towards north 2.In 2000 years, the original 100-meter-high (328 feet) hillock has been weathered down to about 47 meters (154 feet) high, 515 meters (1,690 feet) long from south to north and 485 meters (1,591 feet) wide east to west. In an area of 2,180,000 square meters 3.On both sides of the sacred way in front of Qianling, the joint tomb of Gaozong and his empress consort, Wuzetian, the only female supreme ruler in the Chinese history, 124 exquisite and lively stone statues are lined up from the north to south. Practice(1) A simulated practice for tour guide
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides A simulated practice for tour guide Question List 1 （ present by students) Practice(2): Please simulate the guide of South Yue King’s Mausoleum to each other and answer the questions you present in the part of Task Lead-in Question List 2 （ present by students)
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Simulated Practice for tour guides Oral Practice No. 1 Presentation No. 3 Interpretation No. 2
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Oral Practice 1.For what reason did the emperors frequently go to the tombs of their ancestors? 2.what do you know about Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wuzetian? 3.Compare the Ming tombs with the Tang tombs, and try to find out their differences and similarities. 4.Name those emperors who ruled China the longest and whose tombs took the longest time to be built. 5.Why do we say that the construction of tombs occupies an important place in traditional Chinese architecture? Answers:
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Answers: 1.Starting from the Zhou Dynasy more than three thousand years ago, every emperor would choose an auspicious place based on geomancy as his tomb location. The place had to have one side facing the water, and three sides bounded by hills. A real mausoleum had to have a grave mound and a cemetery within walls, temples and other buildings to be complete. 2. The Yellow Emperor’s mausoleum lies on Qiaoshan Hill, Huangling County, Shanxi Province. Legend has it that this is the Chinese ancestor’s mausoleum of Xuanyuan Huangdi(the Yellow Emperor). The grave mound is 36 meters high, and the whole area is four square kilometers. In it, there is the Xuanyuan Temple built in Tang Dynasty. Erected on top of the hill is a monument, on which a sentence is inscribed, that indicates that each offical must dismount on arrival, and then walked to the mausoleum to show his respect. 3.The Sun Yatsen Mausoleum was built between 1926 and 1929. It is situated on the southern side of Zijin Hill in the esat of suburb of Nanjing. The mausoleum occupies more than 80,000 square meters. Walking past a flight of 392 marble steps, one reaches the Sacrificial Hall. In the center is the sitting statue of Sun Yatsen carved out of white marble. In the middle of the coffia chamber is the pit,in which his reclining statue is placed.
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Presentation Choose the mausoleum of Qingshihuang as a topic to make a presentation. The teacher and other students will make comments and suggestions on your presentation. Answers: Referred to part III
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Related Materials (1) ThemeGallery is a Design Digital Content & Contents mall developed by Guild Design Inc. http://china.vsmm.org/pages/welcome.htm related websites about China’s Mountains or Guangdong Mountains http://www.iatrip.com/english/ http://www.uukm.com/
A Simulated Course for Tour Guides Sum-up Hometown’s Ancient tombs in profile Mausoleum of South Yue King Buddhist Temple Complexe s One Typical famous Ancient tomb Useful Words and Expressions Simulated practice Notes and simulated practice