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Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 13 Early Classic Tikal
Tikal- Ti-k’al “Place of Spirits” in Yucatec Ti ak’al “At the Waterhole” Refers to reservoir in city Ti’k’al – Place of the Count of the Katun (Coggins and Jones) Ancient Name: Yax Mutal “First Flower” “Topknot” (Mod. Motul) David Stuart
History of Tikal Investigations Site was occupied in the 19 th century Visited in 1848 by Modesto Mendez and Ambrosio Tut 1877 Dr. Gustav Bernoulli – Swiss, removed three lintels Alfred Percival Maudslay – Mapped and photographed temples. 1895, 1904 Teobert Maler – Mapped site for Peabody Museum Alfred Tozzer – Mapped the temples Sylvanus P.Morley – collected inscriptions.
Photographs by A.P. Maudslay 1880’s
The Tikal Project Undertaken by the University Museum of Pennsylvania Directed by: 1) Ed Shook Mapped the site and trenched the acropolis. Aubry Trik – architect. 2) Robert S. Dyson 1962 Excavation crew numbers 100 3) William R. Coe II professional archaeologists served on the project. 30+ volumes of reports planned
Proyecto Nacional Tikal Excavated 5C-XVI Group south of the Lost World pyramid.
Formative Tikal – The Middle Preclassic BC Concentrations of Eb ceramics found under the North Acropolis and Lost World (Mundo Perdido) pyramid
Lost World Pyramid (5C-54)
Tikal was located at the edge of a lake (bajo) at a good chert source. No architecture discovered, apart from chultuns. Late Preclassic 350 BC – 250 AD City expands along an E-W axis E-group constructed at Lost World complex Lost World pyramid originally had masks of night and day jaguar – sun god K’inich Ahau. North Acropolis used for royal burials. First building dates to BC. Tomb decorations in Izapa style.
First version of Lost World pyramid built 500 BC
History Begins at Tikal – Burial 85, North Acropolis Male buried in front of 5D-sub-1 1 st Martin and Grube hypothesize that it might be Yax Ehb’ Xook founder of Classic dynasty AD
Extent of Settlement: AD 150 Chak Tok Ich’aak – dies Jan. 31, 378 AD,
AD 378 Teotihuacan Attacks? General: Siyaj K’ak installs Yax Nuun Ayiin as king in AD 379 Siyaj K’ak: “Fire is Born.”
The marcador celebrates a victory over Uaxactun, erected AD 414 Talud-Tablero style
Burial 10, found Beneath temple 5D-34 North Acropolis, of Yax Nuun Ayiin “First Crocodile” Dies AD 426
Stela 31 Accession of Siyaj Chan K’awiil II Called Stormy Sky in your Textbook AD 436 Ancestor
Siyaj Chan K’awiil Buried minus his head and hands a year after his death in March 457 AD. Glyphs state tomb lies in the “Flowery Ether of Divine Space”
Some Political Terminology from Tikal Kuhul Ahau also spelled ajaw: King – literally means “holy lord.” Concept changed during the Early Classic. Chacte or Ochkin Kalomte “Lord of the West”: Emperor – ruler of realm larger than a single city. Applied to Spearthrower Owl. Yajaw: Vassal, relational term. Other contemporary (non-Tikal) terms: Sahal: High-ranking noble Batab: Chieftain.