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1 UNIT FIVE THE ROMAN LEGACY. 2 Ancient Italy and its Peoples.

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Presentation on theme: "1 UNIT FIVE THE ROMAN LEGACY. 2 Ancient Italy and its Peoples."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 Ancient Italy and its Peoples

3 3

4 4 The Etruscan League of 12

5 5 Timeline For Veii 8th Century BCE 650 BCE : 560 BCE (approx): 483 - 474 BCE: 474 BCE: 438 - 425 BCE: 428 BCE: 406 BCE: 396 BCE : First Settlement by Etruscans First Necropolis built Revolt of the Vibenna brothers Early wars of Rome with Veii Defeat of Etruscan fleet at Cumae Veii's second war with Rome Death of Lars Tolumnius, Lauchum of Veii Start of Siege of Veii Fall of Veii

6 6 Statue of Aplu (Apollo), rooftop of the temple at Veii. The statue was probably made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist we know by name. Approx. 520 - 550 BCE.

7 7 Apollo of Veii, Detail.

8 8 Apollo of Veii, Detail.

9 9 Woman And Child, Terracotta, 510 B.C. (from Portonaccio Temple)

10 10 Woman And Child, Detail.

11 11 Rough Translation: This temple and (this) statue have been dedicated to Uni / Astarte. Thefariei Velianas, head of the community, donated it for the worship of our peoples. This gift of this temple and sanctuary and the consecration of its boundaries during his three year term in the month of Xurvar(June?) in this way, and in Alsase (July?) this record together with the divinity/statue shall thus be buried by order of the Zilach that the years may outlast the stars. Transliteration:............. ita.tmia.icac.he ramasva.vatieKe unial.astres.ðemia sa.meK.ðuta.ðefa riei.velianas.sal cluvenias.turu ce.munistas.ðuvas tameresca.ilacve. l.Kurvar.tesiameit ale.ilacve.alsase nac.atranes.zilac al.seleitala.acnasv ers.itanim.heram ve.avil.eniaca.pul umKva. Etruscan Script

12 12 Fresco from the city of Tarchna (Roman Tarquinii or modern Tarquinia)

13 13 Etruscan Tombs

14 14 The Tomb of the Bas Reliefs Tomba dei relievi bassi Period: 7th century BCE

15 15 The Tomb of The Augurs Tomba Dei Augure Period: 530 - 480 BCE.

16 16 On the sides we notice two characters with their hands extended upwards. They are generally interpreted as augurs, but others interpret them as relatives of the deceased, reading the name written on the wall (Apastanasar) which contains the root apa (father).

17 17 Right Wall: we notice two figures of shorter stature, probably slaves; a door and a stool ; next is a character wearing a tebenna with a salutory pose. The next character is Tevarath with a lituus in his right hand. To the center of the wall two wrestlers are depicted, possibly part of the funerary games. The next scene is also probably part of the funerary games, and depicts a masked figure holding a rope in his hand. The rope is attached to the collar of a dog.

18 18 When the Phersu (masked person) pulls on the rope, a nail on the dog's collar bites into its neck, enraging the animal and causing it to attack a tethered man, possibly a condemned criminal. Up until recently the names of the characters could be read. The name Phersu or Persu is probably the origin of the latin word "Persona" associated with the theatrical tradition.

19 19 The Tomb of Hunting and Fishing Tomba caccia e Pesca Period: end of the VI century BCE. Artists: Ionian school.

20 20 Second room (burial chamber): Main wall: there are two scenes, one on the fronton and another on the lower part of the wall. At this point a hollow has been dug, almost certainly after the painter had finished his work; in fact the hunting and fishing scene has been cut into. In the pediment this hollow was perhaps designed for a cinerary urn. Fronton: a banquet scene is represented. To the right a servant with a vase approaches a stamnos (crater). The servant is going to draw wine to bring to the banquet. By the crater other pottery can be seen. In the center of the banquet a Heptachord can be seen and on the cline a man and a woman; the man holds a kylix; the woman has white skin and the man has red skin. There is pronounced disproportion between the size of natural elements (birds) and the people, a typical feature of the Ionian school.

21 21 On a boat we notice four fishermen: one intent on rowing- the others fishing, perhaps with a net. From the water muticoloured dolphins and an seagull appears on the surface.

22 22 The Tomb of The Lionesses Tomba delle Leonesse Period: around 520 BCE.

23 23 Right Wall: banquet scenes: two men with crowns on head, reclining on pillows; the one on the left is dressed in a green cape and has in his hand an egg and kylix (an egg for the Etruscans was the symbol of rebirth). Over it hangs a wide scarf with flowers and a crown. The figure on the right has a blue cape and red and green crowns are hanging over him.

24 24 The Tomb of The Leopards Tomba dei Leopardi Period: beginning of the fifth century BCE.

25 25 Right Wall: Dancing scenes. Dancers and musicians participate in the choreography. The dancers wear light tebennas which do not impede their movements, and one is carrying a cantharos. Next comes a double flute player (aulos) of which the tubes can be seen clearly. A lyre (testudo) player follows.

26 26 Left Wall: one of the servants assigned to the banquet carries a kylix in his left hand, and in his right hand, an oinochoe.Next to him is a dancer with a cantharos and an olive tree full of fruit. The leaves of the olive tree are light green and dark green. The artist is perhaps trying to create an impression of the leaves blowing in the wind. The next servant is carrying a kylix and the third servant has a long ladle (for stirring the water and wine). The fifth servant has a fan (perhaps for the blowing the fire, or for ventilation). There is a great deal of symbolism in the frescos in the tomb, which is associated with the elaborate banquets which accompanied an Etruscan funeral.

27 27 The above sculpture is taken from the Tomb of the Triclinium. The terra cotta sarcophagus lid with figures of a man and woman, presumably his wife reclining on a triclinium or dining couch presumably eating a meal or having a quiet moment after supper. Both figures are propped up on their left elbow with the man close behind the woman. Both faces share a secret, tender smile.

28 28 Tomb of the Triclinium (detail)

29 29 This Etruscan bronze she-wolf from Capitoline Hill in Rome dates from the sixth - fifth century BCE; the statues of the infants are not Roman but were added in Renaissance

30 30 House of the Faun

31 31 Villa of the Mysteries

32 32 Villa of the Mysteries

33 33 Villa of the Mysteries

34 34 House of the Vettii

35 35 MAISON CARRÉE Nîmes c. 19 B.C



38 38 Nimes Arena

39 39 Nîmes. Temple of Diana. Interior 1 st Century ce

40 40 Nîmes. Temple of Diana. Exterior

41 41 Pont du Gard.

42 42 Pont du Gard. Roadway


44 44 Relief- left panel- shows Tellus, a female figure who personifies the fertility of the earth, with two nymphs symbolising air and water. The scene represents the three elements of the world under Roman power- an allegory of the peace and prosperity under Augustus.

45 45 The Primaporta Augustus, Vatican Museums, Rome. 14 AD

46 46 Colosseum, Rome 70-82 A.D. Stone and concrete An exterior view of the Colosseum, which was built to house entertainments for the people of Rome: gladiator and wild animal fights and even mock sea battles.

47 47 Colosseum, Rome 70-82 A.D. Stone and concrete An interior view of Colosseum in Rome.

48 48

49 49

50 50

51 51 Trajan's Column Today 106-113 A.D. Marble Trajan's Forum, Rome Built of marble and standing 125 feet high, it tells the story of Trajan's two military campaigns against the Dacians (AD 101-102 and 105-106). Attributed to Apollodorus. Today, Trajan's Column looks much as it did in antiquity. The statue of Trajan that stood at the top has been replaced with one of Saint Peter, but otherwise it has endured the passage of time.

52 52 Trajan, AD 98-117

53 53 Statue of Trajan First half of the second century A.D. Marble Trajan was a military man who ruled the Roman empire from 98 to 117 A.D. He was known as one of the "good emperors" of Rome for his public works and modest lifestyle.

54 54 Pantheon, by unknown, at Rome, Italy, 118 to 126

55 55 Pantheon, Interior

56 56 Hadrian (AD 117-138)

57 57 Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Roman Forum, view from the Palatine 306-312 AD

58 58 The Arch of Constantine Erected in honor of Emperor Constantine, after battle to defeat Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 315 AD. Constructed of spolia stripped from earlier imperial monuments dedicated to Trajan (112) and Hadrian (128) Inscription: "Constantine overcame his enemies by divine inspiration"

59 59 Detail of west end relief of departure of Constantine from Milan

60 60

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