Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 (Culture and Values)"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4 (Culture and Values) The Roman LegacyThe Art of Ancient RomeChapter 4(Culture and Values)
2Timeline – Ancient Rome c 753 B.C – Founding of city (town) of Romec 700 B.C. - Development of Etruscan culture616 – 510 B.C – Etruscan Occupation of Rome509 – 31 B.C. – Republican Rome146 B.C Romans capture city of Corinth, Greece becomes Roman province58-56 B.C. - Caesar conquers Gaulc. 27 B.C.- A.D Horace, Odes and Ars Poetica;Vergil, Aeneid; Ovid, Metamorphoses31 B.C. – 476 A.D – Imperial Rome44 B.C Julius Caesar assassinated79 - Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneumc Pantheon, RomeDiocletian's Palace, SplitBasilica of Constantine, Rome476 – Deposition of final Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus– End of Empire
3The Roman WorldThough this map states that the Roman Empire was at its greatest extent in the third century A.D., Mesopotamia, shown here as part of the empire, was only briefly part of the Roman world during the last years of the reign of Trajan (emperor A.D ) and was abandoned immediately after his death by Hadrian. The boundary was frequently, almost constantly, in dispute, but the northwestern portion of Mesopotamia on this map was usually in Roman hands.
4Primary sources of Roman culture were the Greeks and the Etruscans.The Etruscans built large burial yards called necropolises.They used the arch in their building projects.The Etruscan Apollo combines these two sensibilities:a. Archaic smileb. Greek dressc. more dynamic than Kouroi (pl of Kouros)
5The Etruscan ApolloApollo of Veii c BC, painted terracotta, 5'11 hTerracotta was used extensively for sculpture. This Apollo originally decorated the roof of a templeIt was part of a sculptural group depictingone of the labors of Hercules,he was struggling with Hercules for possession of theCerynian Stag. The sculpture showsstrong Archaic Greek influence –(compare with kouros figures) Apollo very actively steps forward,but he has a great Archaic smile and facial featuressimilar to the kouroi. However Apollo is clothed and made of terracotta,not marble. Also he is very energetic as he strides forwardcompared to the more static kouroiApollo of Veii c BCE, painted terracotta, 5'11 h Terracotta was used extensively for sculpture. This Apollo originally decorated the roof of a temple a type of architectural sculpture called an acroterion It was part of a sculptural group depicting one of the labors of Hercules, he was struggling with Hercules for possession of the Cerynian Stag. The sculpture shows strong Archaic Greek influence, compare with kouros figures. Apollo very actively steps forward, but he has a great Archaic smile and facial features similar to the kouroi. However Apollo is clothed and made of terracotta, not marble. Also he is very energetic as he strides forward compared to the more static kouroi
6Etruscan Necropolis (City of the Dead) The geometric layout ofThese "Cities for the Dead"Provides an excellentopportunity for the studyof ancient urban planningMethods.Crosifisso del Tufu, Necropolis at Orvieto6th – 3rd centuries B.C.
7This Etruscan tomb dates from the mid 6th century BC to the 3rd century. It consists of several burial chambers situated among sepulchral roadswhere the name of the dead is etched in stone (unquestionably final)at the entrance of the tomb. (Family Name Written From Right to Left)
9Roman Philosophy Epicureanism Epicurus (Late Hellenistic Greek Philosopher 341 – 271 B.C.) developed an unsparingly materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology,and hedonistic ethics. Epicurus taught that the basic constituents of the worldare atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he triedto explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the existenceof Platonic forms and an immaterial soul, and he said that the gods have noinfluence on our lives. Epicurus also thought skepticism was untenable, and thatwe could gain knowledge of the world relying upon the senses. He taught thatthe point of all one's actions was to attain pleasure (conceived of as tranquility)for oneself, and that this could be done by limiting one's desires and bybanishing the fear of the gods and of death.Epicurus' gospel of freedom from fear proved to be quite popular,and communities of Epicureans flourished for centuries after his death.Lucretius (99 – 55 B.C), main proponent of Epicureanism among the Romans.Emphasized the supremacy of rationalism and that the gods polayed no part in human affairs. Proponent of complete freedom.
10Roman Philosophy Stoicism Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Greek Hellenistic period.The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated withmural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectureswere held. Unlike ‘epicurean,’ the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterlymisleading with regard to its philosophical origins. The Stoics did, in fact, hold thatemotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate loveof anything whatsoever) either were, or arose from, false judgements and that thesage--a person who had attained moral and intellectual perfection--would notundergo them.The later Stoics of Roman Imperial times, Seneca and Epictetus, emphasize thedoctrines (already central to the early Stoics' teachings) that the sage is utterlyimmune to misfortune and that virtue is sufficient for happiness. Our phrase‘stoic calm’ perhaps encapsulates the general drift of these claims.It does not, however, hint at the even more radical ethical views which theStoics defended, e.g. that only the sage is free while all others are slaves,or that all those who are morally vicious are equally so.
11Roman Portraiture - Republican Bust of Marcus Tullius CiceroFirst Century B.C. marbleThe portraiture of the late Roman Republic demonstrates the mastery of craft to a very high degree.The Roman art of portraiture that combines strong realism with the addition of subtle yet powerful attributes of personality andcharacter is unparalleled.Many of the best Roman portraits serve as revealing psychologicaldocuments, expressing fully human qualities. Realistic details, suchas the corners of the eyes and mouth, the hollows of the cheeks,or the set of the lips are used to express both outer appearanceand inner character.(Later used for political propaganda and PR)
12An early type of architecture borrowed From Greece is the Temple of Portunus; 100 B.CUnlike Greek temples it is not open on all sidesWas entered from the front onlyThe style represents a merging ofboth Etruscan and Greek temple styles. Like Greek temples, it has a porch with free-standing columns but has only slender engaged Ionic columns on the sides and backsince the cella wallis moved toward the outside.In plan, it is like Etruscan temples, with a clear frontand rear facade. On a high podium, it has stairs onlyon the front facade.
13Imperial Rome: 31 B.C – 476 A.D.The Republic of Rome ended with the assassination ofJulius Caesar and a new era called the “Empire” began.The Ara Pacis commemorates the peace of the reign ofAugustus.a. design is Greek but use is Romanb. allowed the Empire to borrow the ideals of Greecefor their own purposesImperial Values and their effect on Roman and Western CultureDominant authoritarian worldly power respected above all.Materialistic world view – roads, architecture, urban planning, plumbingStrong central control yet allowances for local differencesPolitical and economic realities rule decisionmakingPragmatic, practical philosophyRoman Law as Basis for Civil Society
14Art and Empire Romans developed art that glorified war Built monuments for propagandistic reasonsArt and Architecture - tools to ensure anddramatize powerArt and Empire
15Augustan Age ; 27 B.C. – 14 A.D.The imperator and creator of Pax Romana stands in a contrapposto that echoes theone of classical Greek athletes, such as the Doryphoros of Polykleitos. The cupid onthe dolphin at his feet hints at the origin of the gens Julia, namely Venus or Afrodite,the goddess of love. The dolphin itself refers to the naval victory at Actium.Villa of Livia at Primaporta, c. 20 BCApart from the statue of Augustus, the most well-known find from the Villa of Livia are the spectacular garden frescoes, often referred to in works on Roman painting. Once attached to the walls of a large underground room measuring 5 x 11 metres, these frescoes were moved to the National museum in Currently under restoration,they are hopefully soon to be displayed in the new museum in Palazzo Massimo. The frescoes exhibit not so much a cultivated garden as a subtle flourishing landscape, rich in trees, flowers and birds of all kinds. In this image, some scholars want to see direct links to the Ara Pacis Augustae and the general pictorial programme of nature and fertility in Augustan art. In the foreground we find a low wickerwork fence running around the whole room; behind this comes a grassy walk, bordered on its far side by a stone parapet. This stone enclosure have recesses at some points for single trees — one pine, one oak and four spruces. The background consists of a great variety of vegetation, where the laurel is omnipresent in different shapes, ranging from shrubs to tall trees. In the midst of the leaves, nightingales, oriols, magpies, swallows, blackbirds and many more spieces of birds can be identified. According to ancient sources, Augustus owned a talking magpie, as well as a raven and a parrot. More important is the fact that all the flowers in the fresco bloom simultaneously and can directly be associated with love and fecundity. In the age of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, the motif of the fresco can be seen as a celebration of Augustan perpetual peaceThe peaceful scene, with its abundanceof fruit and flowers, reflects the interestsof Augustus as ennunciated by Vergil.Augustus of Primaporta, c. 20 BC
16Triumphal Arches:The Arch of Titus is a solid architecturalreminder of floral and sword arches heldover the heads of returning conquerorson the roads entering Romea. arches were built over roadwayb. generally had relief sculpture recountingbattles and victoriesc. at the height of the Empire there weresaid to be over 50 in RomeCeremonial and Ritualistic reminders of authorityThe Arch as a visible symbol of the Empire
17Arch of Titus Located at the highest point of the after 81 AD; marble, reliefs; about 7' 10“hLocated at the highest point of theVia Sacra which leads to the RomanForum, this triumphal arch, with onlyone passageway, commemoratesTitus' conquest of Judeawhich ended the Jewish Wars (66-70).Engaged fluted columns frame thepassageway, the spandrels depictVictories in relief, the attic containsan inscription and the internal facesof the passageway depict in relieftriumphal processions.The arch was erected posthumously,after Titus had already become a "god."
18Roman Colosseum: 70 – 82 AD Built on top of Nero’s gardens Also known as Flavian AmpitheaterBuilt of concrete with stone facingUsed arches and three different orders of columns– doric, ionic,corinthianHeld up to 50,000 spectatorsHad tunnel vaults underneathCould be flooded for mock naval battles
19Roman Colosseum The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater was begun by Vespasian, inaugurated by Titus in 80 A.D. and completedby Domitian. Located on marshy land between theEsquiline and Caelian Hills, it was the first permanentamphitheater to be built in Rome. Its monumental sizeand grandeur as well as its practical and efficientorganization for producing spectacles and controllingthe large crowds make it one of the greatarchitectural monuments achieved by the ancient Romans.
20The Roman Pantheon: c. 126 AD A temple devoted to all the gods.142 feet high and same in widthOculus in roof center open to sky, called the Eye of JupiterIEssentially an arch rotated 360 degreesOne of the few buildings from antiquityto survive intact
21"Interior of the Pantheon," painted by Paninni, c.1750.
23Roman wall painting Surviving examples come mostly from Pompeii and Herculaneum which wereburied in ash and lava in 79 ADMural artists used linear perspective andModeling of forms with a high degree ofnaturalismVilla of Mysteries, Pompeii, 60 B.C
25Slow Decline of Rome:Unwieldy bureaucratic machineToo many mercenary troops that were disloyalPower shift from Rome to Constantinoplein 33 AD with invasion of barbarians from north330 A.D. Emperor Constantine moved capital to ConstantinopleFinal barbarian assault – end of empire, 476 A.D.…………………………………………………………………………………………….Age of Constantine and Late Roman Period; 330 – 476 A.D.Decline of RealismClassical Style AbandonedEastern iconoclastic influenceReligious cults of Eastern OriginHead of ConstantineC. E. marble, head: 8 ½' h
26Toward ByzantiumOn both sides of the Emperor, his officials distribute money to the crowd below.The simplified style, in which most of the puppetlike figures are shown frontally,foreshadows Byzantine and medieval art and is certainly very differentfrom the style of earlier reliefsThis movement from realism to simplified stylization reflects the changes in worldviewfrom the Western influences on the Roman culture and the introduction andAssimilation of Christianity and Eastern influence. The Roman Empire becomesthe Holy Roman Empire and slowly moves toward Byzantine and medieval culture.Constantine Receiving Homage from the Senate, frieze on the Arch ofConstantine, Rome, AD 315, Marble relief