Presentation on theme: "Etruscan Art. Culture: Italy, from the south of Florence (Arno River) to Rome (Tiber River) Contemporary to Ancient Greece time frame Never united as."— Presentation transcript:
Culture: Italy, from the south of Florence (Arno River) to Rome (Tiber River) Contemporary to Ancient Greece time frame Never united as an empire, survived as independent city-states Did not conquer other nations to expand their territory Known for trading, this is how they came to own so many Greek vases Etruria; Greeks called them Tyrrhenians (because of the sea) and Romans called them Etrusi or Trusci (modern day Tuscany) Responsible for expanding the Greek influence to Northern Italy and Spain Had a language like no other, very few words have been deciphered from epitaphs Most art that has survived is funerary because the Romans did not disturb their necropolies Buildings did not survive because of the materials made; mudbrick, tufa A new style of painting emerges - Tempera
Reconstruction of the temple at Veii, 515 – 490 B.C.; inspired by the Greeks, open air pronaos, large over hang to protect the unbaked walls, the only stone is now in the base called a podium (no more steps), gabled porches, terra cotta statues decorating the roof
Capitoline Wolf (she-wolf), c. 500 B.C. nursing the twins, Remus and Romulus, there are two different styles because the twins were added at a much later date (Renaissance) Why?
Close up of the she-wolf head, shows the exposed teeth as though she is trying to protect her young from an intruder
What is the relevance of Capitoline? How is the hill significant in Etruscan and Roman history?
Wounded Chimera, from Arezzo, 2 nd quarter of the 4 th century B.C., bronze, 1 a capitalized : a fire-breathing she- monster in Greek mythology having a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail b : an imaginary monster compounded of incongruous parts,body Stylization is reminiscent of Achaemenid motif (when was this?)
Apollo of Veii, from Veii, c. 515 B.C., painted terra cotta, stylized like Archaic Greek sculpture, from the bold braided hair to the folds in the fabric to the curvilinear line in the calves.
Mars of Todi, early 4 th century B.C., bronze, reminiscent of classical Spear Bearer, named Mars because he is a warrior and Mars is the Roman god of war. He is wearing a cuirass and tunic.
Engraved bronze mirror, B.C., from Vulci, The reverse, or non-reflecting side, is elaborately engraved with a scene that depicts the death of the hero Memnon. According to Greek legends, Memnon was the son of Eos, goddess of the dawn, and Tithonos, brother of King Priam of Troy. The king of Ethiopia and an ally of theTrojans in their war against the Greeks, Memnon was killed by Achilles, another product of a divine mother (Thetis) and a mortal father (Peleus). The mirror shows Eos (whom the Etruscans called Thesan) holding the body of her dead son. She stands on an elegant ground line below which is engraved a pair of volutes. Ivy frames the entire scene. Eos wears voluminous drapery and has intricately engraved wings. Her nude son drops his helmet and sword.
Engraved Bronze mirror, 4 th century B.C., Greek hero preparing for battle
Uni suckles Hercules in the presence of other gods, c. 300 BCE, reverse of mirror, how hercules became immortal
Cinerary Urn, 7 th century B.C., hammered bronze and terra cotta, like Egyptians because the image retains the life of the dead in the afterlife.
Mater Matuta, from Chianciano, B.C., cinerary urn, thought to be a goddess because of the sphinxes on either side of her chair, perhaps a protector of mothers who died during childbirth.
Urn in the shape of a hut, from Tarquinia, 9 th - 8 th century, mudbrick construction with a thatched roof with central supports
Urn in the form of a house, B.C., an upper class house showing a second-story gallery, pilasters (square corner posts), [arch was invented in Mesopotamia, used in Greece, assimilated by the Etruscans, elaborated by the Romans], has a curved pediment with a palmette relief, express the metaphor a house for the dead.
Tomb of the Shields and the Chairs, at Cerveteri, a necropolis, tumulus, complex arrangement, meant to resemble their houses, a dwelling place for the deceased, rounded back chairs with foot stools, beds, doorways to move from room to room.
Sarcophagus, from Cerveteri, c. 520 B.C., painted terra cotta, a dining couch (reclining position), husband and wife are important Etruscan imagery, shown as equals, hold cremated remains, finely pleated drapery and almonds show Greek Ionian influence, skeleton seems to stop at the waist
Painted terra cotta
Sarcophagus from Vulci, c B.C. Expresses the ancient identification of sleep with death, couple embracing while the folds of their covering repeats the line of their arms, nude shows the continued sexual union in the afterlife, unheard of in Greek art and society because men consorted openly with hetairai rather than their spouses.
Patricia Cronin, Memorial to a Marriage, Woodlawn Cemetery, 2002 See article on pg. 32 of September 2014 ArtNews
Mourners at the Door of the Other World, Tomb of the Augurs, Tarquinia, c. 510 B.C., wearing pointy boots – typical of mountain people another influence from Greek Ionia, little sense of depth, stylized gesture of mourning with theatrical quality
Tomb of the Augurs, Tarquinia, c. 510 B.C., from the fresco Mourners at the Door of the Other World, show figures on a ground line, wrestlers competing for the gold and bronze bowls shown between them
Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia, B.C., shows men and women banqueting in the reclining position while servants wait on them
They share the same bend in the waist as the sarcophagus from Cerveteri, utilize a similar convention from Egypt and Aegean art (men are darker skinned than women, frontal eye), leopards protect the tomb from evil, forego anatomical correctness for spontaneity, bring the outside in